A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images composed of many pages bound together and protected by a cover. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained. So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book.
In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts. The intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book, the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for ongoing entries, e.g. an account book, an appointment book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary, or a sketchbook. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the increased usage of e-books; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing. A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing.
Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus. They were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a coating of wax thick enough to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Neferirkare Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian cultures; the more modern codex book format form took over the Roman world by late antiquity, but the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia. Isidore of Seville explained the then-current relation between codex and scroll in his
Jincang Lake is an artificial wetland park completed in 2008, located in Taicang, China. It was a public project, the government's total investment was up to 353 million. Suzhou is connected with water and peace. Within the Suzhou region, many districts have their own leisure entertainments. For example, Wuzhong District and Suzhou New District are sitting beside magnificent Taihu; as for the industrial district of Suzhou, it possesses an old pheasant lake. For Changshu, the Shang Lake is splendid. Taicang has been a typical water city since ancient times, with regard to economic development or modernization it is no less good than any other region in Suzhou. However, Taicang had no special public recreation. In 2003, the government invested in constructing a new highway connecting Suzhou and Taicang; the soil was taken from Donglin village in Taicang, so after the engineering work, a large space was left, which became the main lake in Jincang Lake. With a long-standing wish to own a unique public recreation and an appropriate opportunity, the government approved the proposal of project.
In November 2007, the huge project was started. After about ten months of hard work, in early October 2008, the first phase was finished and a picturesque ecological park was displayed to the residents. Since Taicang people have had their own recreational area to play, walk and relax. Wetlands are known as'lungs of the urban city'. Jincang Lake is a typical wetland park. Wetlands have a unique function like a sponge. Due to wetlands' great contributions, the quality of water, environmental protection and the variety of ecological diversity can be improved; the construction of Jincang Lake insisted that principle centered in nature. Jincanghu covers an area of 6 square kilometers. In the middle of the park, a central lake covers 600,000 square meters. Surrounding the center, many different sizes of man-made streams cross. Jincang Lake has been approved to enter the provincial list; until Suzhou's provincial wetland parks had increased to six and the total extent exceeded 56,000 acres. Because the area of Jincang Lake is large enough and the inner environment is considered beautiful, many big events have chosen it as their location.
The table below shows some significant events in recent years. Inside Jincang Lake, some tourist spots are set up for visitors to play; each spot has both delicate features. One feature is the Barefoot Forest Park; the concept originates in Germany. The original meaning was to "get closer to nature and walk barefoot to feel nature's existence". In Taicang, there are many German-invested companies and a lot of Germans live in the city. In order to provide a leisure place for foreign and local people, the government decided to build this barefoot forest park. Now, with the popularity of the park, government takes full advantage and tourism in the city is enhanced
San Salvo is a comune and town in the Province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region of Italy. It is the last Abruzzo town on the Adriatic coast before entering the Molise Region. San Salvo is divided into two major urban areas: San Salvo Marina. On the top of its seaside touristic and agricultural resources, San Salvo has a large industrial park which hosts glass-related business organizations; the seaside of San Salvo, called San Salvo Marina, is characterized by long sandy beaches and shallow waters. Every year from 26 till 28 April, San Salvo hosts the "San Vitale Festival", it is a traditional city festival dedicated to the celebration of Saint Vitale. During these days several agricultors are bringing and donating durum wheat flour to the San Vitale church, all taking place during a folkloristic procession of decorated tractors; this flour is being used for the production of traditional "taralli" and "sagne pasta", distributed among the festival participants. San Salvo is a medieval name of the 9th or 10th century.
It is assumed that in Roman times in the area of San Salvo was located " The city of Buca." The extension of the Roman city was equivalent to at least four times that of the' medieval town. In the middle of the town, the archaeological area known as "il quadrilatero" is the place used by the Cistercian abbey of Santi Vito e Salvo. San Salvo Marina e Lungomare di San Salvo Marina Giardino Botanico Mediterraneo Il Portale di San Salvo CH: eventi, foto, forum SanSalvoInPiazza_UnaCittàGiovane