Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
St John Bosco Arts College is a Roman Catholic comprehensive secondary school for girls in Croxteth, Liverpool. The school caters for girls between the ages of 11 and 19 and the number of girls on roll is 900. 35% of the girls receive free school meals. The school was the Mary Help of Christians Convent, from the mid-1960s; the neighbouring boys' grammar school was the De la Salle Grammar School, now the De La Salle Humanities College and again the school's male equivalent. Other girls' catholic grammar schools in Liverpool were Convent of Mercy Girls High School, Notre Dame High School for Girls and La Sagesse Girls High School. Of the nine grammar schools that survived until the mid-1980s in Liverpool, most were catholic due to their voluntary-aided status; the school became a catholic comprehensive in 1983. The Salesian Sisters of St John Bosco are known as the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, it was known as the St John Bosco High School until September 2004. In March 2013 the college became a National Teaching School.
In September 2014 a new state of the art school was opened with a new grey and pink school uniform for all students. The school gets excellent results at GCSE which were above the national average in 2014 with 100% 5 A-C grades at GCSE and 61% including English and Mathematics. Shelagh Fogarty, 5 Live lunchtime presenter Fiona Jones, Labour MP from 1997–2001 for Newark Jane McGoldrick, TV producer Coleen Rooney, English television presenter and celebrity product endorser School website Salesian Sisters of St John Bosco EduBase
Annie Hooper was a sculptor of visionary religious art from Buxton, North Carolina. Her work is an example of folk art, outsider art, visionary art. Annie Miller was born in Buxton, on Cape Hatteras, was raised in a Methodist family of 13 children and 14 foster children. Annie attended college in Blackstone, before marrying John Hooper and moving to Stumpy Point. John worked as a fisherman, while Annie taught Sunday school, played organ, wrote poetry; the couple had Edgar. John and Edgar served in World War II, during their absence Annie suffered the first in a series of depressions. After the war, the Hoopers opened a motel. Annie Hooper began sculpting upon returning from a prolonged mental health treatment in Raleigh, her first sculpture, Moses on Mount Nebo looking over the River Jordan into the Promised Land of Canaan, was created from driftwood and house paint. Figures incorporated cement and shells, were accompanied by descriptive placards. During the forty years she was active as an artist, Hooper created nearly 5,000 sculptures, which she arranged throughout her home in tableaus representing an estimated 300 Biblical scenes.
Hooper did not sell any of her work, preferring to lead visitors on tours in which she used the figures to act out religious stories. Following Hooper’s death, preservation of her work was overseen by folklorist Roger Manley, with financial assistance from The Jargon Society, it is now housed in the permanent collection of North Carolina State University’s Gregg Museum of Art and Design. A solo exhibition of Hooper’s work, titled A Blessing from the Source, was held in 1988. Howard Finster Minnie Evans Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village Annie Hooper in the SPACES Archive - photographs and historical documents, including Hooper's correspondence with art historian Seymour Rosen Blessing From the Source - 1988 exhibition catalog