Automatic number-plate recognition is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data. It can use existing closed-circuit television, road-rule enforcement cameras, or cameras designed for the task. ANPR is used by police forces around the world for law enforcement purposes, including to check if a vehicle is registered or licensed, it is used for electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and as a method of cataloguing the movements of traffic, for example by highways agencies. Automatic number-plate recognition can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate, with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. Systems use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of day or night. ANPR technology must take into account plate variations from place to place. Privacy issues have caused concerns about ANPR, such as government tracking citizens' movements, misidentification, high error rates, increased government spending.
Critics have described it as a form of mass surveillance. ANPR is sometimes known by various other terms: Automatic license-plate recognition Automatic license-plate reader Automatic vehicle identification Automatisk nummerpladegenkendelse Car plate recognition License plate recognition Lecture automatique de plaques d'immatriculation Mobile license-plate reader Vehicle license-plate recognition Vehicle recognition identification ANPR was invented in 1976 at the Police Scientific Development Branch in Britain. Prototype systems were working by 1979, contracts were awarded to produce industrial systems, first at EMI Electronics, at Computer Recognition Systems in Wokingham, UK. Early trial systems were deployed at the Dartford Tunnel; the first arrest through detection of a stolen car was made in 1981. However, ANPR did not become used until new developments in cheaper and easier to use software were pioneered during the 1990s; the collection of ANPR data for future use was documented in the early 2000s.
The first documented case of ANPR being used to help solve a murder occurred in November 2005, in Bradford, UK, where ANPR played a vital role in locating and subsequently convicting killers of Sharon Beshenivsky. The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware and can be linked to other applications or databases, it first uses a series of image manipulation techniques to detect and enhance the image of the number plate, optical character recognition to extract the alphanumerics of the license plate. ANPR systems are deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows for the entire process to be performed at the lane location in real-time, the other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location and performs the OCR process there at some point in time; when done at the lane site, the information captured of the plate alphanumeric, date-time, lane identification, any other information required is completed in 250 milliseconds. This information can be transmitted to a remote computer for further processing if necessary, or stored at the lane for retrieval.
In the other arrangement, there are large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads, such as those found in the London congestion charge project. In such systems, there is a requirement to forward images to the remote server, this can require larger bandwidth transmission media. ANPR uses optical character recognition on images taken by cameras; when Dutch vehicle registration plates switched to a different style in 2002, one of the changes made was to the font, introducing small gaps in some letters to make them more distinct and therefore more legible to such systems. Some license plate arrangements use variations in font sizes and positioning—ANPR systems must be able to cope with such differences in order to be effective. More complicated systems can cope with international variants, though many programs are individually tailored to each country; the cameras used can be existing road-rule enforcement or closed-circuit television cameras, as well as mobile units, which are attached to vehicles.
Some systems use infrared cameras to take a clearer image of the plates. During the 1990s, significant advances in technology took automatic number-plate recognition systems from limited expensive, hard to set up, fixed based applications to simple "point and shoot" mobile ones; this was made possible by the creation of software that ran on cheaper PC based, non-specialist hardware that no longer needed to be given the pre-defined angles, direction and speed in which the plates would be passing the camera's field of view. Further scaled-down components at more cost-effective price points led to a record number of deployments by law enforcement agencies around the world. Smaller cameras with the ability to read license plates at higher speeds, along with smaller, more durable processors that fit in the trunks of police vehicles, allowed law enforcement officers to patrol daily with the benefit of license plate reading in real time, when they can interdict immediately. Despite their effectiveness, there are noteworthy challenges related with mobile ANPRs.
One of the biggest is that the processor and the cameras must work fast enough to accommodate relative speeds of more than 100 mph, a scenario in the case of oncoming traffic. This equipment must be efficient sin
The Maubara Important Bird Area is a 5292 ha tract of land in East Timor, a country occupying the eastern end of the island of Timor in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Wallacea. The IBA lies on the northern coast of the island, 37 km west of the national capital, near the village of Maubara in the Liquiçá District. In elevation it ranges from sea level in the north to about 500 m in the hills to the south, it encompasses the small, coastal Lake Maubara, as well as dense stands of Corypha palm woodland on alluvial soils behind the beach, intact tropical dry forest extending several kilometres inland from the coast. The site has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports populations of bar-necked cuckoo-doves, pink-headed imperial pigeons, jonquil parrots, streak-breasted honeyeaters, Timor friarbirds, plain gerygones, fawn-breasted whistlers, green figbirds, olive-brown orioles, white-bellied bush chats, blue-cheeked flowerpeckers, flame-breasted sunbirds and Timor sparrows
David Edmund Kuhl was an American scientist specializing in nuclear medicine. He was well known for his pioneering work in positron emission tomography. Dr. Kuhl served as the Chief of the Division of Nuclear Medicine at the University of Michigan for 20 years and retired in June 2011, he obtained M. D.from University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1955 and completed his residency at Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 1962. During his time at Penn he developed a new method of tomographic imaging and constructed several tomographic instruments; these tomographic imaging techniques he invented were further developed in the 1970s and now called positron emission tomography or PET. He joined the University of Michigan Medical School faculty in 1986 and worked to develop the use of FDG metabolism scanning in human brains. During his time as Chief of the Division of Nuclear Medicine and Director of the Center for Positron Emission Tomography, the University of Michigan became one of the first US institutions to offer clinical diagnostic PET services.
His discoveries and clinical translations helped lead to the routine clinical use of PET in neurology and oncology in the US and worldwide. 1976 Nuclear Pioneer 1981 Ernst Jung Prize 2001 Kettering Prize 2009 Japan Prize Profile at University of Michigan Health System 2009 Commemorative Lecture: Dr. David E. Kuhl on YouTube Professorship at the University of Michigan Medical School Department of Radiology
The Children's Rights Movement is a historical and modern movement committed to the acknowledgment, and/or regression of the rights of children around the world. It began in the early part of the last century and has been an effort by government organizations, advocacy groups, lawyers and judges to construct a system of laws and policies that enhance and protect the lives of children. While the historical definition of child has varied, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child asserts that "A child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier." There are no definitions of other terms used to describe young people such as "adolescents", "teenagers" or "youth" in international law. Now that child labor had been eradicated in parts of the world, the movement turned to other things, but it again stalled when World War II broke out and children and women began to enter the work force once more. With millions of adults at war, the children were needed to help keep the country running.
In Europe, children served as couriers, intelligence collectors, other underground resistance workers in opposition to Hitler's regime. The concept of children having particular rights is a new one. Traditional attitudes towards children tended to consider them as mere extensions of the household and'owned' by their parents and/or legal guardian, who exerted absolute parental control. Views began to change during the Enlightenment, when tradition was challenged and the value of individual autonomy and natural rights began to be asserted; the Foundling Hospital in London was founded in 1741 as a children's home for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children". Thomas Spence, an English political radical wrote the first modern defence of the natural rights of children in The Rights of Infants, published in 1796. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, children as young as six began to be employed in the factories and coal mines in inhumane conditions with long hours and little pay.
During the early 19th century this exploitation began to attract growing opposition. The terrible conditions of the poor urban children was exposed to liberal middle-class opinion, notably by the author Charles Dickens in his novel Oliver Twist. Social reformers, such as the Lord Shaftesbury, began to mount a vigorous campaign against this practice. Ameliorating legislation was achieved with a series of Factory Acts passed during the 19th century, where working hours for children were limited and they were no longer permitted to work during the night. Children younger than nine were not allowed to work and those between 9-16 were limited to 16 hours per day. Factories were required to provide education to the apprentices in reading and arithmetic for the first four years. An influential social reformer was Mary Carpenter, who campaigned on behalf of neglected children who had turned to juvenile delinquency. In 1851 she proposed the establishment of three types of schools, she was consulted by the drafters of educational bills, she was invited to give evidence before House of Commons committees.
In 1852 she established a reformatory school at Bristol. In the United States, the Children's Rights Movement began with the orphan train. In the big cities, when a child's parents died or were poor, the child had to go to work to support himself and/or his family. Boys became factory or coal workers, girls became prostitutes or saloon girls, or else went to work in a sweat shop. All of these jobs paid only starvation wages. In 1852, Massachusetts required children to attend school. In 1853, Charles Brace founded the Children's Aid Society, which worked hard to take street children in; the following year, the children were placed on a train headed for the West, where they were adopted, given work. By 1929, the orphan train stopped running altogether; the National Child Labor Committee, an organization dedicated to the abolition of all child labor, was formed in the 1890s. It managed to pass one law, struck down by the Supreme Court two years for violating a child's right to contract his work. In 1924, Congress attempted to pass a constitutional amendment that would authorize a national child labor law.
This measure was blocked, the bill was dropped. It took the Great Depression to end child labor nationwide. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act which, amongst other things, placed limits on many forms of child labor; the Polish educationalist Janusz Korczak wrote of the rights of children in his book How to Love a Child. In 1917, following the Russian Revolution, the Moscow branch of the organization Proletkult produced a Declaration of Children's Rights; the first formal charter to set out the rights of children was drafted by British social reformer Eglantyne Jebb in 1923. Jebb founded Save the Children in 1919, one of the first charities aimed at the young, to help alleviate the starvation of children in Germany and Austria-Hungary during the Allied blockade of Germany in World War I which continued after the Armistice, her experiences there and in Russia, led her to believe that the rights of a child needed be protected and enforced, her stipulations consisted of the following criteria: The child must be given the means requisite for its normal development, both
Black Eagle is a 1988 American action film directed by Eric Karson and starring Shō Kosugi, Jean-Claude van Damme, Kane Kosugi. It was shot on the Mediterranean island of Malta; the film was released in the United States on May 19, 1988. Ken Tani, a martial artist and special operative for the American government codenamed "Black Eagle", is summoned by his superiors after an F-111 carrying an experimental black ops laser tracking device was shot down over Malta by Russian forces. A group of elite KGB agents led by Colonel Vladimir Klimenko and his brutal and enigmatic right-hand man Andrei have been dispatched to Malta to retrieve the device for their own ends. Tani, alongside CIA agent Patricia Parker and his sons Brian and Denny travel to Malta to find the device before Andrei does, leading to an eventual face-to-face encounter. Shō Kosugi as Ken Tani Jean-Claude van Damme as Andrei Doran Clark as Patricia Parker Bruce French as Father Joseph Bedelia Vladimir Skomarovsky as Col. Vladimir Klimenko William Bassett as Dean Rickert Kane Kosugi as Brian Tani Shane Kosugi as Denny Tani Critics gave the film a mixed reception overall.
Black Eagle on IMDb Black Eagle at Rotten Tomatoes
Siobhán Parkinson is an Irish writer. She writes for both children and adults and was made Laureate na nÓg in 2010. Parkinson grew up in Galway and Donegal, studied English Literature and German at Trinity College and completed her PhD on the poetry of Dylan Thomas, she has published more than twenty books since 1992, winning numerous awards, her books have been translated into multiple languages. She has written in both Irish and English, translated from German into English; as of 2011, she was commissioning editor and publisher with Little Island, an imprint of New Island Books. She is a former co-editor of Bookbird, the magazine of international children's literature organisation IBBY, former editor of Inis, published by Children's Books Ireland, she teaches creative writing at Marino Institute of Education, has held numerous Writers-in-Schools short-term residencies, with a particular emphasis on working with children with special needs. She has been writer in residence to Dublin City and the Irish Writers' Centre, to Waterford City, the Church of Ireland College of Education.
On 10 May 2010, Parkinson was conferred by President of Ireland Mary McAleese as the first Laureate na nÓg, a position she would hold until 2012. In her capacity as laureate she expressed the wish that "every child in the country would have access to a library where they could go and find the books that are going to open their minds". Four Kids, Three Cats, Two Cows, One Witch – Bisto Merit Award, 1998 The Moon King – Bisto Merit Award, 1999. No Way! – Bisto Book of the Year, 1997 Breaking the Wishbone The Love Bean Kathleen: The Celtic Knot Second Fiddle: How to Tell a Blackbird From a Sausage Something Invisible – Bisto Merit Award, 2007 Amelia No Peace for Amelia Animals Don't Have Ghosts Cows Are Vegetarians Blue Like Friday The Henny Penny Tree Spellbound Kate The Leprechaun Who Wished He Wasn't Dialann Sár-Rúnda Amy Ní Chonchúir Call of the Whales Long Story Short "Bruised" Maitríóisce – Bisto Merit Award, 2012 Heart-Shaped Alexandra Fionnuala All Shining in the Spring: The Story of a Baby Who Died – non-fiction, intended for children and families dealing with the death of a young child The Thirteenth Room – novel for adults Painted Ladies – novel for adults The Great Rabbit Revenge Plan by Burkhard Spinnen Over the Wall by Renate Ahrens Parkinson has been shortlisted eleven times for the Irish Bisto Book of the Year award, which she won on one occasion, for Sisters...
No Way!, in 1997. She has received Bisto Merit and Honour Book awards four times and has had two IBBY Honours and several White Ravens. Most she won an Oireachtas award for Dialann Sár-Rúnda Amy Ní Chonchúir. Siobhán Parkinson is the founder of Little Island, an independent publishing house for works for children and young adults. Little Island Books started as a children's imprint of the independent publisher, New Island Books, but became a separate company. Little Island won the Reading Association of Ireland award in 2011 and the British Book Awards Irish Small Press of the Year in 2019. Parkinson is visually impaired, uses audiobooks and computers to do her work, she lives in Dublin with woodturner Roger Bennett. She has Matthew. Official website Laureate na nOg Little Island Siobhán Parkinson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 16 catalogue records