Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in SantAgata Bolognese, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi, Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S. p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firms ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978, American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division, New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini.
In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for powerboat racing. Lamborghini currently produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán, the companys first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer, the company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the companys expansion, under the Mimrans management, Lamborghinis model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle.
The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987, in 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the portfolio and brought to the market. In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. As of the 2015 model year, Lamborghinis automobile product range consists of two lines, both of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 700–4 coupé and roadster, the V10-powered Huracán line currently includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and roadster, as well as the less powerful rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé. Lamborghini intends to double its car production by producing as many SUVs by 2018 as sports cars, motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats.
A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8,171 cc, in the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle
Philip Toll Hill, Jr. was an American automobile racer and the only American-born driver to win the Formula One World Drivers Championship. He scored three wins at each of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring sports car races, Hill was described as a thoughtful, gentle man and once said, Im in the wrong business. I dont want to beat anybody, I dont want to be the big hero, born in Miami, Hill was raised in Santa Monica, where he lived until his death. He studied business administration at the University of Southern California from 1945 to 1947, Hill left early to pursue auto racing, working as a mechanic on other drivers cars. Hill began racing cars at an age, going to England as a Jaguar trainee in 1949. He made his debut in the French Grand Prix at Reims France in 1958 driving a Maserati. That same year, paired with Belgian teammate Olivier Gendebien, Hill became the first American-born winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Hill driving most of the night in rainy conditions. He and Gendebien would go on to win the endurance race again in 1961 and 1962.
Hill began driving full-time for the Ferrari Formula One team in 1959, in 1960 he won the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the first Grand Prix win for an American driver in nearly forty years, since Jimmy Murphy won the 1921 French Grand Prix. This turned out to be the last win for a car in Formula 1. The following season, Hill won the Belgian Grand Prix and with two races left trailed only his Ferrari teammate Wolfgang von Trips in the season standings, a crash during the Italian Grand Prix killed von Trips and fifteen spectators. Hill won the race and clinched the championship but the triumph was bittersweet, Ferraris decision not to travel to America for the seasons final round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race at Watkins Glen as the newly crowned World Champion. When he returned for the season, his last with Ferrari, Hill said, I no longer have as much need to race. I dont have as much hunger anymore, I am no longer willing to risk killing myself. After leaving Ferrari at the end of 1962, he and fellow driver Giancarlo Baghetti started for the new team ATS created by engineers in the great walkout of 1961.
Phil Hill has the distinction of having won the first and last races of his driving career, Hill drove an experimental MG, EX-181, at Bonneville Salt Flats. The Roaring Raindrop, had an 91 cu. in, supercharged MGA Twin Cam engine, using 86% methanol with nitrobenzene and sulphuric ether, for an output of 290 HP. In 1959 Phil Hill attained 257 MPH in this car, breaking the record of Stirling Moss in same car
Giotto Bizzarrini is an Italian automobile engineer active from the 1950s through the 1970s. Bizzarrini was chief engineer at Ferrari in the 1950s, working on such projects as the Ferrari 250 GTO. He split from the company in an upheaval in 1961, worked first with ATS. In addition to producing the exotic Bizzarrini 5300 GT, Bizzarini worked for other makers including Iso, several concept cars in the 2000s bear his name. Bizzarrini was the son of a landowner from Livorno. Bizzarrini received a degree from the University of Pisa in 1953. His design thesis in his year was a complete redesign of a used Fiat Topolino, in which he modified the engine for increased power. After graduation, he briefly before joining Alfa Romeos Servizio Esperimenze Principali unit under Ing. He was assigned to the development of the Alfa Romeo Giulietta chassis, I always needed to know why something fails, so I can invent a solution. Bizzarrini left Alfa Romeo in 1957 and went to Ferrari when that company needed a test driver and he was quickly promoted to controller of experimental, Sports and GT car development.
Some legends refers Mr. Ferrari when he saw Bizzarrinis first car and he worked five years at Ferrari as chief engineer. He worked as developer and skilled test driver, the Ferrari 250 GT 2+2/GTE, the 3 litre Testa Rossa V12 engine, the Ferrari 250 TR or Testa Rossa and the Ferrari 250 GT SWB were influenced by his ideas and technical solutions. For one of the most successful Ferrari racing series, the Ferrari 250, Bizzarrini worked hard to develop the chassis and his masterpiece at Ferrari was the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO. He was first involved with the 250 GTO project in 1960, Ferrari wanted a GT racer with better aerodynamics than the previous 250 GT SWB. The SWB was a racer but had considerable aerodynamic drag. Tests started secretly with a Ferrari 250 GT unit, bodied by Mario Boano, with chassis number #2643GT and this car was developed and was used as a test mule for technical solutions seen in the GTO. Bizzarrini moved the engine back into the chassis and lowered it to improve weight distribution.
The result was the Ferrari 250 GTO, one of the greatest sport cars ever, in 1962, when the GTO was launched, it was the ultimate in aerodynamics
1963 United States Grand Prix
The 1963 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on October 6,1963, at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Race Course in Watkins Glen, New York. It was the round of the 1963 Formula One season. The 110-lap race was won by BRM driver Graham Hill after he started from pole position and his teammate Richie Ginther finished second and Lotus driver Jim Clark came in third. By the time the teams – including Ferrari for the first time at Watkins Glen – came to America, Jim Clark had wrapped up the Drivers Championship with five wins in seven races. At The Glen, the day belonged to Graham Hill and BRM, as Hill started from the pole and won by more than half a minute over American teammate Richie Ginther. Hill owed much of his success to Clarks dead battery on the grid. In the first hour of qualifying on Friday, Clarks Lotus equalled his lap record of 1,15.0 from the previous year and Surtees were right on the Scots pace, as well, and all three were soon under 1,14. At one point, Hills BRM jumped out of gear on the straight and left the track, skipping through the woods without hitting any trees.
On Saturday, Canadian Peter Broekers Stebro dumped oil all around the circuit, Race day was bright and clear with a record crowd of nearly 60,000. A dummy grid was used for the first time in a Championship Grand Prix, at the flag, Hill led Ginther, Gurney, Tony Maggs and Brabham up the hill and through the Esses. The Lotus crew discovered that Clarks battery was dead, and by the time they replaced it, Broekers Stebro, Surtees made the first move, getting by Ginther to split the BRMs, and then, on lap seven, taking the lead from Hill. Gurney followed him and took second briefly, before surrendering the spot back to Hill, by lap 15, Clark was up into 14th place with his engine still not sounding entirely right. Hill began pushing Surtees on lap 30 and he got by to take the lead after shadowing for two laps, gave it back, took it again two laps later, and finally surrendered it again, settling into the Ferraris slipstream. On lap 43, Gurney suddenly slowed and retired from third place with fuel starvation, after trailing Surtees closely for some time, Hill lost his tow when his anti-roll bar came loose and the BRMs handling changed abruptly.
Fighting severe understeer, he began throwing the car turns to slide the rear end around, flinging stones off the curbs. On lap 82, with no threat to his lead, Surteess engine lost power, I was just hanging on to him, Hill said afterward. He was gaining a half-second each lap on me until he went out, I think it was a good measure of the difference in our two cars. Suddenly in the again, with only Ginther on the same lap, Hill backed off
ATS 2500 GT
The ATS2500 GT is a sports car made by Italian company Automobili Turismo e Sport in Bologna. It was the first Italian and one of the first GT or sports car in the world to have a mid-engine layout, the group behind the ATS project consisted mainly of Ferrari defectors, where family troubles had created an uncomfortable working atmosphere for the personnel. Even noted driver Phil Hill was unable to provide ATS with any results on track, the space frame 2500 GT was introduced in 1963 Paris Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione and engineered by Carlo Chiti and Giotto Bizzarrini the car was only in limited numbers before investors withdrew financial support. The cars drawings were used for Count Volpis failed Serenissima sportcars project. A Moreno Baldi attempted another revival of the ATS concept in 1970, with its 220 bhp and 255 N·m of torque it was claimed to be capable of top speed 240 kilometres per hour. A competition version produced 245 bhp but never amounted to much, the coachbuilt was by Allemano, and the 5-speed transmission by Colotti
Alf Francis was a motor racing mechanic and racing car constructor. Francis was born in Danzig but left during World War II, first for Portugal, by sea to Liverpool in the UK, after World War II, he changed his nationality to British, and his name to Alf Francis. He became a mechanic for Stirling Moss and the Chief Mechanic at Rob Walker Racing Team. At Rob Walker Racing Team, he maintained many Grand Prix cars including Cooper-Climax and Lotus 18, working with transmission engineer and designer Valerio Colotti, he became a partner of Colotti-Francis, and moved to Italy. In 1963 he returned to England where he was involved in the unsuccessful Derrington-Francis Formula One project and he subsequently emigrated to the USA, where he built cars for lower racing formulae. In 1966 he authored his biography Alf Francis, Racing Mechanic with journalist Peter Lewis
1963 Italian Grand Prix
The 1963 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on September 8,1963. At this race, Scottish driver Jim Clark clinched the World Championship crown with three races to go, the first time anyone had done so, Jim Clark became the first driver to win the Drivers World Championship with 3 races left to go. Lotus-Climax won the Constructors Championship and this was the last ever Formula One race with a distance of more than 300 miles. Notes, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings, Only the best 6 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Scuderia Serenissima and Scuderia SSS Republica di Venezia were names used by Giovanni Volpi to enter his own cars in Formula One and sports car racing in the early 1960s. Scuderia Serenissima was an auto racing team in the early 1960s. Funded by Giovanni Volpi, Serenissima used Ferraris to much success until the founder financed the exiled Ferrari company, Enzo Ferrari would no longer sell his cars to Serenissima, so the company turned to De Tomaso, ATS, and Maserati. Volpi, and thus Serenissima, halted operations in 1970. In 1961, Scuderia Serenissima entered the Formula One World Championship and they first entered a Cooper T51 for Maurice Trintignant at the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix, where he finished seventh. In Belgium, Trintignant retired on lap 23 with a gearbox after having qualified his car in 19th place. At the 1961 French Grand Prix, Scuderia Serenissima entered two cars, again the Cooper for Trintignant and a De Tomaso for Giorgio Scarlatti. Trintignant finished in 13th place while Scarlatti retired on lap 15 when his engine broke down, at the German Grand Prix Trintignant retired on lap 12 when his engine broke down.
In the 1961 Italian Grand Prix, Scuderia Serenissima again entered two cars, the Cooper for Trintignant and a De Tomaso for Nino Vaccarella, Trintignant finished the race in ninth place and Vaccarella retired on lap 13 when his engine broke down. In 1962, now called Scuderia SSS Republica di Venezia, they entered cars for Nino Vaccarella, in Monaco, Vaccarella failed to qualify for the race. Three races in Germany, Vaccarella finished in 15th place, at the last race for the Scuderia in Italy Vaccarella finished in 9th place. In 1966 Serenissima supplied engines to McLaren, and at the 1966 British Grand Prix Bruce McLaren finished in sixth place, scoring one World Championship point. In 1963, Volpi began developing his own prototype GT car and it used a new V8 engine, designed by Alberto Massimino, with closed bodywork by Francesco Salomone. A open version was built by Fantuzzi, history of the Serenissima Ghia Coupé
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari