The Ford GT40 is a high-performance American-British endurance racing car and built in England and in the United States, and powered by a series of American-built engines. The GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four consecutive times, from 1966 to 1969, the Mk IV GT40 that won Le Mans in 1967 is the only car designed and built entirely in the United States to achieve the overall win at Le Mans. The GT40 was originally produced to win long-distance sports car races against Ferrari, fORD/Shelby Chassis # P-1075, which won in 1968 and 1969, is the first car in Le Mans history to win the race more than once, with the same chassis. Using an American Ford V-8 engine originally of 4. 7-litre displacement capacity and it was enlarged to the 4. 9-litre engine, with custom designed alloy Gurney-Weslake cylinder heads. The car was named the GT with the 40 representing its overall height of 40 inches as required by the rules, large-displacement Ford V8 engines were used, compared with the Ferrari V12, which displaced 3.0 litres or 4.0 litres.
Early cars were simply named Ford GT, the name GT40 was the name of Fords project to prepare the cars for the international endurance racing circuit, and the quest to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The first 12 prototype vehicles carried serial numbers GT-101 through GT-112, the production began and the subsequent cars—the MkI, MkII, MkIII, and MkV —were numbered GT40P/1000 through GT40P/1145, and thus officially GT40s. The name of Fords project, and the serial numbers dispel the story that GT40 was only a nickname, the contemporary Ford GT is a modern homage to the GT40. Henry Ford II had wanted a Ford at Le Mans since the early 1960s, in early 1963, Ford reportedly received word through a European intermediary that Enzo Ferrari was interested in selling to Ford Motor Company. Enzo cut the deal off out of spite and Henry Ford II, to this end Ford began negotiation with Lotus and Cooper. Cooper had no experience in GT or prototype and its performances in Formula One were declining, Lotus was already a Ford partner for their Indy 500 project, but Ford executives doubted the ability of Lotus to handle this new project.
Colin Chapman probably had similar views as he asked a price for his contribution. The Lola proposal was chosen, since Lola had used a Ford V8 engine in their mid-engined Lola Mk6, Eric Broadley, Lola Cars owner and chief designer, agreed on a short-term personal contribution to the project without involving Lola Cars. The agreement with Broadley included a collaboration between Ford and Broadley, and the sale of the two Lola Mk 6 chassis builds to Ford. To form the development team, Ford hired the ex-Aston Martin team manager John Wyer, Ford Motor Co. engineer Roy Lunn was sent to England, he had designed the mid-engined Mustang I concept car powered by a 1. 7-litre V4. Despite the small engine of the Mustang I, Lunn was the only Dearborn engineer to have experience with a mid-engined car. Overseen by Harley Copp, the team of Broadley, Lunn, at the end of 1963 the team moved to Slough, near Heathrow airport. Ford established Ford Advanced Vehicles Ltd, a new subsidiary under the direction of Wyer, the first chassis built by Abbey Panels of Coventry was delivered on March 16,1963, with fibre-glass mouldings produced by Fibre Glass Engineering Ltd of Farnham
Alfa Romeo 8C
The Alfa Romeo 8C was originally a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car made it into production for 2007. The 8C designates 8 cylinders, and originally a straight 8-cylinder engine, the Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeos primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the sports cars it was used in the worlds first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 19356. 3-litre Bimotore, the 19353. 8-litre Monoposto 8C35 Type C, and it powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used, the 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads. The bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C1750, there was no separate head, and no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries, as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C2300 and the even more rare and expensive 8C2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm.
At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season. Initially, Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, and Tazio Nuvolari. The first model was the 1931 8C2300, a reference to the cars 2.3 L engine, initially designed as a racing car, the Alfa Romeo factory often added the name of events won to the name of a car. 8C2300 tipo Le Mans was the version of the 8C2300.
It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931,1932,1933 and 1934, a 1933 8C2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US. The car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring. In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the semi-official racing department of Alfa Romeo, with the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could eventually reach 135 mph
Alfa Romeo Tipo 33
The Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 was a sports racing prototype raced by the Alfa Romeo factory-backed team between 1967 and 1977. These cars took part for Sport Cars World Championship, Nordic Challenge Cup, Interserie, a small number of road going cars were derived from it in 1967, called Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale. With the 33TT12 Alfa Romeo won the 1975 World Championship for Makes, Alfa Romeo started development of the Tipo 33 in the early 1960s, with the first car being built in 1965. It was sent to Autodelta to be completed and for changes to be made. It used an Alfa Romeo TZ2 straight-4 engine, but Autodelta produced its 2.0 litre V8 soon after, the 2000 cc Tipo 33 mid-engined prototype debuted on 12 March 1967 at the Belgian hillclimbing event at Fléron, with Teodoro Zeccoli winning. The first version was named as “periscope” because it had very characteristic air inlet and it was powered by a 1995 cc 90° V8 of 270 hp, with a large-diameter tube frame. The original T33 proved unreliable and uncompetitive in the 1967 World Sportscar Championship season, its best result a 5th at the Nürburgring 1000, co-driven by Zeccoli, in 1968, Alfas subsidiary, created an evolution model called 33/2.
A road version, dubbed Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, was introduced, win was repeated at the Targa Florio, where Nanni Galli and Ignazio Giunti took second place overall, followed by teammates Lucien Bianchi and Mario Casoni. Galli and Giunti won the class at the Nürburgring 1000 km, however, in most races, the Alfa drivers were outclassed by their Porsche rivals which used bigger engines. In 1968, the car was used mainly by privateers, winning its class in the 1000km Monza, Targa Florio, at the end of season Alfa Romeo had finished third in the 1968 International Championship for Makes. A total of 28 cars were built during 1968, allowing the 33/2 to be homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for 1969, the Alfa Romeo 33/3 made its debut in 1969 at the 12 Hours of Sebring. The engine was enlarged to 2998 cc with 400 hp, which put the 33/3 in the class as the Porsche 908. The chassis was now a monocoque, the new car did poorly at Sebring and Alfa did not take part in Le Mans after Lucien Bianchis death in a practice session.
The car took a couple of wins in smaller competitions but overall the 1969 season was not a successful one, in 1970, an Alfa T 33/3 was one of the actors of Steve McQueens movie Le Mans, released in 1971. In 1971 the Alfa Romeo racing effort was finally successful, rolf Stommelen and Nanni Galli won their class at the 1000km Buenos Aires, before taking another class win at Sebring. De Adamich and Pescarolo won outright at the 1000km Brands Hatch and they took a class win at Monza and another one at Spa. At the Targa Florio and Hezemans won outright, followed by teammates De Adamich and Vaccarella won their class at Zeltweg, and De Adamich and Ronnie Peterson won overall at Watkins Glen. Alfa Romeo finished the second place in the championship
Giotto Bizzarrini is an Italian automobile engineer active from the 1950s through the 1970s. Bizzarrini was chief engineer at Ferrari in the 1950s, working on such projects as the Ferrari 250 GTO. He split from the company in an upheaval in 1961, worked first with ATS. In addition to producing the exotic Bizzarrini 5300 GT, Bizzarini worked for other makers including Iso, several concept cars in the 2000s bear his name. Bizzarrini was the son of a landowner from Livorno. Bizzarrini received a degree from the University of Pisa in 1953. His design thesis in his year was a complete redesign of a used Fiat Topolino, in which he modified the engine for increased power. After graduation, he briefly before joining Alfa Romeos Servizio Esperimenze Principali unit under Ing. He was assigned to the development of the Alfa Romeo Giulietta chassis, I always needed to know why something fails, so I can invent a solution. Bizzarrini left Alfa Romeo in 1957 and went to Ferrari when that company needed a test driver and he was quickly promoted to controller of experimental, Sports and GT car development.
Some legends refers Mr. Ferrari when he saw Bizzarrinis first car and he worked five years at Ferrari as chief engineer. He worked as developer and skilled test driver, the Ferrari 250 GT 2+2/GTE, the 3 litre Testa Rossa V12 engine, the Ferrari 250 TR or Testa Rossa and the Ferrari 250 GT SWB were influenced by his ideas and technical solutions. For one of the most successful Ferrari racing series, the Ferrari 250, Bizzarrini worked hard to develop the chassis and his masterpiece at Ferrari was the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO. He was first involved with the 250 GTO project in 1960, Ferrari wanted a GT racer with better aerodynamics than the previous 250 GT SWB. The SWB was a racer but had considerable aerodynamic drag. Tests started secretly with a Ferrari 250 GT unit, bodied by Mario Boano, with chassis number #2643GT and this car was developed and was used as a test mule for technical solutions seen in the GTO. Bizzarrini moved the engine back into the chassis and lowered it to improve weight distribution.
The result was the Ferrari 250 GTO, one of the greatest sport cars ever, in 1962, when the GTO was launched, it was the ultimate in aerodynamics
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Alfa Romeo P3
The Alfa Romeo P3, P3 monoposto or Tipo B was a classic Grand Prix car designed by Vittorio Jano, one of the Alfa Romeo 8C models. The P3 was first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car and Alfa Romeos second monoposto after Tipo A monoposto and it was based on the earlier successful Alfa Romeo P2. Taking lessons learned from that car, Jano went back to the board to design a car that could last longer race distances. The P3 was the first genuine single seater racing car, and was powered by a supercharged eight-cylinder engine, the car was very light for the period, weighing just over 1,500 lb despite using a cast iron engine block. The 1933 Grand Prix season brought financial difficulties to Alfa Corse so the cars were locked away. Enzo Ferrari had to run his breakaway works Alfa team as Scuderia Ferrari, using the older, Alfa procrastinated until August and missed the first 25 events, and only after much wrangling was the P3 finally handed over to Scuderia Ferrari. P3s won six of the final 11 events of the season including the final 2 major Grands Prix in Italy, the regulations for the 1934 Grand Prix season brought larger bodywork requirements, so to counteract this the engine was bored out to 2.9 litres.
Louis Chiron won the French Grand Prix at Montlhery, whilst the German Silver Arrows dominated the four rounds of the European Championship. However the P3s won 18 of all the 35 Grands Prix held throughout Europe, by the 1935 Grand Prix season the P3 was hopelessly uncompetitive against the superior German cars in 6 rounds of the European Championship, but that didnt stop one final, legendary works victory. The P3 was bored out to 3.2 litres for Nuvolari for the 1935 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, in the heartland of the Mercedes, the P3s agility and versatility enabled it to win 16 of the 39 Grands Prix in 1935. The P3 had earned its place as a great racing car. Profile of P3 at Grand Prix History The Golden Age by Leif Snellman Results Tables by Quintin Cloud
Like many British manufacturers, AC Cars had been using the Bristol straight-6 engine in its small-volume production, including its AC Ace two-seater roadster. This had a body with a steel tube frame. The engine was a pre-World War II design by BMW which by the 1960s was considered dated, Bristol decided in 1961 to cease production of its engine and instead to use Chrysler 313 cu in V8 engines. AC started using the 2.6 litre Ford Zephyr engine in its cars, in September 1961, American automotive designer Carroll Shelby wrote to AC asking if they would build him a car modified to accept a V8 engine. AC agreed, provided an engine could be found. Shelby went to Chevrolet to see if they would provide him with engines, Ford provided Shelby with two engines. In January 1962 mechanics at AC Cars in Thames Ditton, Surrey fitted the prototype chassis CSX2000 with a 260 ci Ford V8 borrowed from Ford in the UK, early engineering drawings were titled AC Ace 3.6. After testing and modification, the engine and transmission were removed and his team fitted it with an engine and transmission in less than eight hours at Dean Moons shop in Santa Fe Springs and began road-testing.
The most important modification was the fitting of a rear differential to handle the increased engine power. A Salisbury 4HU unit with inboard brakes to reduce unsprung weight was chosen instead of the old E. N. V. unit. It was the unit used on the Jaguar E-Type. On the production version, the brakes were moved outboard to reduce cost. The only modification of the front end of the first Cobra from that of the AC Ace 2.6 was the steering box, which had to be moved outward to clear the wider V8 engine. A small number of cars were completed on the East Coast of the USA by Ed Hugus in Pennsylvania, including the first production car. The first 75 Cobra Mk1 models were fitted with the 260 cu in, the remaining 51 Mk1 models were fitted with a larger version of the Windsor Ford engine, the 289 cu in V8. In late 1962 Alan Turner, ACs chief engineer completed a design change of the cars front end to accommodate rack. The new car entered production in early 1963 and was designated Mark II, the steering rack was borrowed from the MGB while the new steering column came from the VW Beetle.
About 528 Mark II Cobras were produced in the summer of 1965 and this would allow GM to compete directly in the FIA GT class of racing
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
The Ferrari P series were sports prototype racing cars produced in the 1960s and early 1970s. Sports car racers followed in 1963, although these cars shared their numerical designations with road models, they were almost entirely dissimilar. The first Ferrari mid-engine in a car did not arrive until the 1967 Dino. The 250 P was a Prototype racer produced in 1963, winning the 12 Hours of Sebring,1000 km Nürburgring and it was an open cockpit mid-engined design with a single-cam 3. 0-litre 250 Testa Rossa V12 engine and was almost entirely unrelated to the other 250 cars. The 275 P and 330 P were evolutions of the 250 P with longer wheelbase and 3. 3-litre or 4. 0-litre engines and these cars raced during 1963 and 1964. The 250 P evolved into a saleable mid-engined racer for the public, introduced at Paris in November,1963, the LM was successful for privately entered racers around the world. This car is on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum. About 32 models were built in 1964 and 1965, with all but the first few powered by 3. 3-litre 320 hp engines, a fully independent double wishbone suspension was specified with rack and pinion steering and four wheel disc brakes.
The 250 LM thus had to run as a Prototype until it was homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for the 1966 season, a 1964 Ferrari 250 LM was auctioned off by Sothebys in 2013 for a price of $14.3 million to an undisclosed telephone bidder. This bidding smashed the previous record for this model. Two entirely new cars, the 275 P2 and 330 P2, the 330 P2 was first used by Luigi Chinettis North American Racing Team in the Daytona race that year. In 1965275 P20836 won the 1000 km of Monza,275 P20828 won the Targa Florio,330 P20828 won the Nurburgring 1000 km, the P2 cars were replaced by the P3 for 1966. For 1965 Ferrari built a version of P2 cars, they were equipped with a SOHC4.4 L engine. In 1966 Ferrari upgraded their 365 P2 cars with new bodywork by Piero Drogo, the 1966330 P3 introduced fuel injection to the Ferrari stable. It used a P3 transmission whose gears were prone to failure and were replaced by ZF transmission gears and other internals. When P30844 and 0848 were first converted to 412 Ps this 593 with ZF internals was fitted for one season after which the 593s with ZF internals were replaced by 603 transmissions in all the 412 Ps.
Several Ferrari gearboxes are fitted with other manufacturers gears and internals such as the 333, at a point 412P0844 was converted by Ferrari to a 330 Can-Am. The Ferrari 412 P was a version of the famous 330 P3 race car, built for independent teams like NART, Scuderia Filipinetti, Francorchamps
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the worlds oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is one of the most prestigious races in the world and is often called the Grand Prix of Endurance. The event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, other events being the Indianapolis 500, since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship. In 2017, it will be the round of the season. The race has over the years inspired imitating races all over the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at places like Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, and Bathurst. The American Le Mans Series and Europes Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test. Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines and this encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible.
At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics, while this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability. The oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduced time spent during pit stops. Such technological innovations have had an effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop road cars in order to develop them into even faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have changed to their benefit.
The race is held in June, leading at times to very hot conditions for drivers, particularly in closed vehicles with poor ventilation, the race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors often cover distances well over 5,000 km, the record is 2010s 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or approximately 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding damage, as well as managing the cars consumables, primarily fuel, tires
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, which was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance and competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world, on its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it the most beautiful car ever made. In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, in March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the worlds 100 most beautiful cars of all time. In popular culture the car features in the Austin Powers film series which parodies the Swinging London fashion scene of the 1960s, the E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible. A 2+2 four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released years later. Later model updates of the E-Type were officially designated Series 2 and Series 3, as with other largely hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over exactly what is a Series 1 car.
This is of more academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and particularly Series 1 OTS examples—have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a Series 1½ or Series 1.5, over time, the pure 4. 2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965-1967. The 4. 2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, the Series 1.5 left hand drive OTS has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968, the Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable, essentially fall into two categories, Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3. The 4. 2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3. 8-litre with a reliable unit. The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power, as of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still, being a British made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types, particularly at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. Worldwide, including left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,8283. 8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built. Of the Series 1 cars, Jaguar manufactured some limited-edition variants, inspired by motor racing, Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, two have been converted to low drag form and two others are known to have been wrecked and deemed to be beyond repair, although one has now been rebuilt and these are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors. *The Low Drag Coupé was a technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver