Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one make ra
Together Again!!!! is an album by trumpeter Howard McGhee and saxophonist Teddy Edwards, recorded in 1961 and released on the Contemporary label. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars stating "The trumpeter was having a short-lived comeback at the time and he had regained his earlier form. Edwards sounds as strong as and Newborn was an up-and-coming talent, their collaboration for this boppish date is quite memorable". "Together Again" - 9:45 "You Stepped Out of a Dream" - 7:17 "Up There" - 3:27 "Perhaps" - 5:12 "Misty" - 4:15 "Sandy" - 9:50 Howard McGhee - trumpet Teddy Edwards - tenor saxophone Phineas Newborn, Jr. - piano Ray Brown - bass Ed Thigpen - drums
Black Widow is a vector arcade game developed by Atari, Inc. released in 1982. The player takes the role of a black widow spider defending a web from invading bugs; the player must move the spider around the web while shooting/avoiding various bugs and collecting the bonuses that appear after the enemies are eliminated. The game is a twin-stick shooter in the vein of Robotron: 2084 by Williams, but with fewer enemies on-screen. Black Widow was offered as a conversion kit for Gravitar, not a successful title; the kit used a new set of ROM chips. Many factory-built Black Widows were produced using unsold Gravitar cabinets with Black Widow sideart applied over the Gravitar sideart. To destroy certain enemies, the player must lure other enemies into destroying them. There is the Bug Slayer, a bug that helps the player eliminate enemies, with only loss of potential points being the only consequence; the Bug Slayer can help the player in tough situations, but can prevent the player from achieving the number of extra lives necessary to endure more difficult, rounds.
Other enemies appear on the playing field as eggs, laid by other enemies. The player can move these eggs off the playing field to both eliminate the enemy and receive points, before it reaches maturity. Mosquito - If shot, becomes'$'. Beetle - Eats'$', but if shot, becomes'$'. Hornet - Lays an egg on'$', but if shot, becomes'$'. Egg - Grows to become spoiler. Must be pushed off the web to score 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 2500 points. Grub Steak - Tag for 500, 250, 100, or 50 points—the sooner the better. Spoiler - Invulnerable. Can only be destroyed by a grenade bug, bug slayer or rocket bug. Grenade Bug - Explodes if shot. Bugs and eggs within the kill zone score 500 points each. Rocket Bug - Invulnerable. Launches "rockettes" at black widow from the other bugs it tags. Shoot rockettes to score 1000 points each. Thunderbug - If shot, it breaks formation and attacks. If shot again, it explodes all other T-bugs for 5000 points. Keep away from all T-bugs to earn 10000 points; the resulting chain reaction from multiple thunderbugs is dangerous and can encompass over 80% of the level at some times, depending on how many T-bugs are involved.
Bug Slayer - Harmless to the player and invulnerable. The Bug Slayer competes with the Black Widow for food. Beat it to its flashing prey for points Black Widow was included in Atari Anniversary Edition Redux for the Sony PlayStation, released in 2001. In 2003, Microsoft Windows could play Black Widow as part of Atari - 80 Classic Games in One!. Released in 2004, Atari Anthology ported the game to the PlayStation 2 and Xbox gaming consoles, in 2005, the Nokia N-Gage cellular phone received a copy of Black Widow in Atari Masterpieces Volume 1. James Vollandt holds the official record for this game with a maximum 930,100 points. Black Widow at the Killer List of Videogames Black Widow at the Arcade History database Caught in the Web: An Appreciation of Ataris Black Widow at the Retroist