Auxerre Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in Auxerre, France. The cathedral is dedicated to Saint Stephen, is known for its large stained glass windows. Most of the Burgundian Gothic cathedral was built between 1215 and 1233, above an 11th-century crypt. Construction continued until the 1540s when the cupola, in Renaissance style that takes the place of one pinnacle on the completed tower, was completed; the first building campaign erected the chevet at the liturgical east end, followed in the century by a new façade and the bases of new towers at the west end. Construction on the nave and transepts proceeded throughout the 14th and 15th centuries; the narrative sculptural program of the portals on the west end are noted for their extent and variety. Guillaume de Seignelay, bishop of Auxerre decided to undertake the reconstruction of the older edifice about 1215, to which he set an example by contributing and from his own resources, bequeathed funds after his transfer to the see of Paris in 1220.
The chevet was completed by Henri de Villeneuve. Stimulus was provided about 1270 by Jean de Châlons-Rochefort, who had become Count of Auxerre, having supported the Duke of Burgundy against his own brother, by marrying Alix, the heiress of Auxerre, he was the largest fief-holder in the Duchy and commemorated the new status of his fief of Auxerre by enriching the front of its chief ornament, the cathedral, whose Carolingian nave had been erected by his ancestor Hugh de Châlons, 10th-century bishop of Auxerre. Its program of sculpture was carried through long after his death and completed in the early 15th century. Auxerre was an important diocese in Gaul, with a bishop as early as the 3rd century. A council held at Auxerre in 585 under bishop Annacharius formulated forty-five canons related in context to canons of the contemporary first and second Councils of Lyon and the Council of Mâcon. "They are important as illustrating life and manners among the newly-converted Teutonic tribes and the Gallo-Romans of the time", the Catholic Encyclopedia asserts.
Many of the decrees were directed against remnants of non-Christian customs. The canons of the council of 695 or 697 were concerned chiefly with the Divine Office and ecclesiastical ceremonies. See also: Saint Germanus of Auxerre, bishop of Auxerre Desiderius of Auxerre, died 621) Remigius of Auxerre and teacher William of Auxerre, theologian "Welcome to Auxerre Cathedral" Auxerre Cathedral bibliography Photos Catholic Encyclopedia 1908: "Councils of Auxerre" ":Diocese of Auxerre" High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Auxerre Cathedral | Art Atlas
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Via Agrippa, is any stretch of the network of Roman roads in Gaul, built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, to whom Octavian entrusted the reorganization of the Gauls. In all, the Romans built 21,000 kilometres of roads in Gaul. Agrippa's network radiated from a hub at the new strategic site of Lugdunum. Strabo indicated the directions, which were identified by Pierre Gros: a route towards the Atlantic, From Lugdunum/Lyon towards Saintes a route towards the North Sea, via Reims and Amiens a route towards the Rhine, via Langres and Cologne and a route towards the south, to Marseille. Though the detailed routes taken by the various stretches of the Via Agrippa are well settled on the ground, the dates of construction are still debated: in 39-38 BCE, according to the authors of the Guide romain antique. An ancient salt road passed to the mouths of the Rhône, keeping to the lower slopes of the hills to avoid the river's sometimes swampy flood plain. Under the impetus of Augustus, Agrippa paved a route that lay closer to the river, passing through the important Roman cities of Arles, Orange, Montélimar, Vienne, interspersed with relay stations where a change of horses was maintained for official couriers.
This route was augmented by the Via Antonina along the right bank of the Rhône. Near Valence, the modern Route nationale 7 follows the track of the via Agrippa. To the north of the Isère the via Agrippa, having passed the crossroads still called Sept Chemins followed the line now marked by Route départementale 101 towards Beaumont-Monteux. Nearby, the toponym Vie Magne records the passage of the via magna, the "great road". Inscribed standing mile stones placed along the route indicated the miles from the starting point with Vienne, Valence or Avignon, as well as the magistrate or emperor who had them erected or maintained. In addition to twenty-two surviving milestones recovered along the route is one of the 3rd or 4th century reused in the ambulatory of the choir of the Cathedral of Valence, where its inscription may still be read: IMP CAESAR L DOMIT AURELIANU P INVCT G P MA GER THIC MA? THIC MA? P P PROCO OR ORB ESTITUIT MILIA I II? Translation "The Emperor Caesar Lucius Domitian Aurelianus, fortunate, august, high priest, greatest conqueror of the Germans, Carpi, reinvested with the power of a Tribune for the time, consul times, father of his country, restorer of universal peace, restored it: 3 miles" Omnes Viae: Via Agrippa on the Peutinger Map
Abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre
The Abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre was a Benedictine monastery in central France, dedicated to its founder Saint Germain of Auxerre, the bishop of Auxerre, who died in 448. The abbey reached the apex of its cultural importance during the Carolingian era. 880. The earliest surviving architectural remains are of the ninth century. In 1927, beneath the 17th-century frescoed plaster walls of the crypt, were discovered ninth-century wall frescoes, the only surviving large-scale paintings of their date in France to compare to the illuminated manuscripts. During the Revolution, several bays of the nave were demolished and the secularized abbey was used as a hospital; the former nave extended beneath the present forecourt. In the late twentieth century the abbey's residential and service buildings were remodeled as a museum, presenting prehistoric, Gallo-Roman and medieval finds from Auxerre. An exhibition in 1990 brought the abbey's cultural impact into focus; the former abbey church remains in use for worship at stated times.?
- 622: Palladius Auxerre? - 886?: Abbot Hugh 10 894-921: Richard Duke of Bourgogne11.? -?: Heldric7,12, contemporary of St. Sévin Bishop of Sens. 1032-1052: Odo of Auxerre 1104: Hugues de Montaigu, son of Dalmace Semur said Jeune14 approve this year a charter for the benefit of the Priory of Saint-Marcel Fleurey-sur-Ouche, signed by Duke Hugh II Bourgogne15. It will be bishop of Auxerre. 1st half of the thirteenth century: Renaud Jocenal 1285 - 1309: Guy Munois 1309 - 1334: Left Dignon Chéu 1334 - 1353: Étienne 1 Chitry 1353 - 1362: William Grimoard, future Pope Urban V 1362 - 1381: Stephen II Chitry 1381 - 1408: Hugues V of Ballore 1409 - 1422: John II of Nanton 1422/1423 - 1453: Hervé de Lugny 1453 - 1495: Hugues VI Tyard or Thiard 1542: Louis Lorraine17 1731: Dom Leonardo Le Texier, Grand Prior. Christian Sapin, La Bourgogne préromane, pp. 41–63 Abbaye Saint-Germain d'Auxerre: intellectuels et artistes dans l'Europe carolingienne, IXe - XIe siecles Exhibition catalogue. Auxerre et les prémices de l'art roman Exhibition catalogue.
Noëlle Deflou-Leca, Saint-Germain d'Auxerre et ses dépendances, PSE, 2010, p773. Culture.gouv.fr: Saint-Germain d'Auxerre Saint Germain d'Auxerre: recent archaeology Saint Germain d'Auxerre on the site Bourgogne Romane
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de-France, it was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89, it is the fourth most populous department in the region with a population of about 342,000, an average annual increase over the last few years of 0.41% per year. The biggest city is Auxerre, the capital, with a population of 35,000 in the city and 43,000 in the urban area centred on it; the first evidence of occupation in this area is found in the Grottes d'Arcy-sur-Cure where paintings have been found dating back 28,000 years. The Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of that time left behind numerous flint artefacts, but the area is believed to have been occupied for about 200,000 years. By 4000 BC, a wave of Neolithics arrived from the Danube region of eastern Europe building substantial wooden houses and introducing pottery decorated with the characteristics of the Linear Pottery culture.
Further waves of immigrants followed, the Chasséen culture, the Michelsberg culture. The Celtic tribe in the area were named "Icauna", after the River Yonne which they thought sacred, the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the area came under the control of the Romans, whose chief town was Sens, which they called Agendicum. It was the capital of their province of Gallia Lugdunensis, one of four provinces into which France was subdivided; the present main roads from Lyon to Boulogne, from Sens to Alise-Sainte-Reine date from this period. About this time, Auxerre and Avallon were growing in size and in the fourth century, Sens became a walled city, the first bishops were appointed in Sens and Langres whose power was to influence the region profoundly. In 1771, the northwesterly part of the present department belonged to Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony, the uncle of Louis XVI of France; the current Yonne department saw its birth during the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, as a result of the passing of an Act on December 22, 1789.
It was carved out of parts of the provinces of Burgundy and Orléans, to a lesser extent from parts of the Nivernais and Île-de-France. Yonne is a department in central France, one of the eight constituent departments of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. To the northeast lies the department of Aube, to the east lies Côte-d'Or, to the south lies Nièvre, to the west lies Loiret and to the northwest, the department of Seine-et-Marne; the River Yonne flows northwards through the department. Auxerre, the capital of the department is situated on the River Yonne, the River Serein joins this a few kilometres north of the city; the Canal de Bourgogne, which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, joins the River Yonne through locks at Migennes a little further north. The second biggest town is Sens, situated at the confluence of the River Yonne; the geology of the department is complex with concentric rings of granite, Jurassic and Tertiary rocks and layers of sedimentary rocks. The terrain is a low-lying plateau used for agriculture.
The southwestern part is more wooded. To the centre and east, the land inclines to the northwest where the higher land of the Tonnerrois region lies. To the east the rock is limestone and the Auxerrois region is renowned for the grapes grown here which are used in the production of Chablis. To the south lies the mountainous massif of Morvan, the highest parts of which are in the neighbouring department of Nièvre; the department has some forested areas but is down to pasture or cultivated for wheat. Over fifty percent of the inhabitants of the department are engaged in agricultural activities, it is one of the poorest and most rural departments in France. During the hundred years leading up to 1962, its population declined by around 100,000 while all of the surrounding departments had population growth. Yonne had been bypassed by the development of the railways, as French industry flourished elsewhere in the late nineteenth century, the young people left Yonne seeking better opportunities, the department stagnated.
The viticulture industry was affected by the advent of powdery mildew and the arrival of Phylloxera in the nineteenth century. By 1945, only 4000 hectares of grapevines remained and only 471 hectares of grapes were grown for Chablis. More the population trend has been reversed, during the period 1999 to 2007, rose by 8000 to a total of 341,418. However, with a population of 46 inhabitants per square kilometre, the density in Yonne is less than half that for the whole of France, 100.5 for the same year. It elects three members of parliament to the National Assembly – in the 2012–17 parliamentary term, two of them were drawn from the right-wing Union for a Popular Movement and one from Socialist Party. In 2015, the General Council of the department was allotted a budget of 410 million euros. Cantons of the Yonne department Communes of the Yonne department Arrondissements of the Yonne department Prefecture website General Council website Yonne at Curlie Wild Flowers from Yonne Chamber of commerce