Chasséen culture is the name given to the archaeological culture of prehistoric France of the late Neolithic, which dates to between 4500 BC and 3500 BC. The name "Chasséen" derives from the type site near Chassey-le-Camp. Chasséen culture spread throughout the plains and plateaux of France, including the Seine basin and the upper Loire valleys, extended to the present-day départments of Haute-Saône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Pas-de-Calais and Eure-et-Loir. Excavations at Bercy have revealed a Chasséen village on the right bank of the Seine. Chasséens were sedentary herders, they lived in huts organized into small villages. Their pottery was little decorated, they mastered the use of flint. By 3500 BC, the Chasséen culture in France gave way to the late Neolithic transitional Seine-Oise-Marne culture in Northern France and to a series of archaeological cultures in Southern France. 4000: Chasséen village of Bercy near Paris 4400: Chasséen village of Saint-Michel du Touch near Toulouse. 4400: Appearance of Rössen culture at Baume de Gonvillars in Haute-Saône.
3190: Chasséen culture in Calvados. 3530: Chasséen culture in Pas-de-Calais. 3450: End of Chasséen culture in Eure-et-Loir. 3400: End of Chasséen culture in Saint-Mitre. Prehistoric France Rössen culture Funnelbeaker culture Véraza culture Seine-Oise-Marne culture Beaker culture
Langres is a commune in northeastern France. It is a subprefecture of the department of Haute-Marne, in the region of Grand Est; as the capital of the Romanized Gallic tribe the Lingones, it was called Andematunnum Lingones, now Langres. The town is built on a limestone promontory of the same name; this stronghold was occupied by the Gauls, and, at a date the Romans fortified the town belonging to the Celtic tribe the Lingones. The 1st century Triumphal Gate and the many artefacts exhibited in the museums are witnesses to the Gallo-Roman town. After the period of invasions, the town prospered in the Middle Ages due, in part, to the growing political influence of its bishops; the diocese covered Champagne, the Duchy of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, the bishops gained the right to coin money in the 9th century and to name the military governor of the city in 927. The Bishop of Langres was a peer of France; the troubled 14th and 15th centuries were reason enough for the town to strengthen its fortifications, which still give the old part of the city its fortified character, Langres entered a period of royal tutelage.
The Renaissance, which returned prosperity to the town, saw the construction of numerous fine civil and military buildings that still stand today. In the 19th century, a "Vauban" citadel was added. Today Langres is a historical town with numerous art treasures within the ancient defensive walls surrounding the old city, including a dozen towers and seven gates; the cathedral of Saint-Mammès is a late 12th-century structure dedicated to Mammes of Caesarea, a 3rd-century martyr. Langres is home to producers of an AOC-protected cheese of the same name, it is a soft, pungent cow's milk cheese, known for its rind, washed. The museum Denis Diderot´s House of Enlightenment. With it Langres pays homage to Denis Diderot; this museum, set up in a private mansion from the 16th and 18th centuries, is dedicated to the philosopher and to his most famous work, the Encyclopédie, as well as to the “Age of French Enlightenment”. Langres was the birthplace of: Nicolas Ribonnier, Renaissance architect Jeanne Mance, the co-founder of Montreal Claude Gillot, painter Denis Diderot, the philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment, the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopédie.
Étienne Jean Bouchu and Encyclopédiste Nicolas Fallet and journalist Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey and draughtsman Jules Violle and inventor Jean Tabourot, who went by the pen name Thoinot Arbeau and wrote Orchésographie, a book on dance and music. Langres is twinned with: Beaconsfield, United Kingdom - since 1995 Ellwangen, Germany - since 1964 Abbiategrasso, Italy Bishopric of Langres The Langres war memorial has a sculpture by Georges Saupique Catholic Encyclopedia: Diocese of Langres Langres official website
Seine-et-Marne is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, located in the Île-de-France region. Seine-et-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution in application of the law of 22 December 1789, it had belonged to the former province of Île-de-France. With 60% of the region used as farmland, Seine-et-Marne is where most agricultural activity occurs within the Île-de-France. Cereals and sugar beet are the principal exports from Seine-et-Marne; the other key industrial structures are the refinery at the Snecma research plant. The two new towns are the centre of tourism for the department due to theme parks such as Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park at Disneyland Paris. Seine-et-Marne has a temperate Atlantic climate; the average rainfall is based upon that of Fontainebleau, giving an average rainfall of 650 mm, higher than the average of Île-de-France. Average temperature in Melun during the 1953–2002 period was 3.2 °C for January and 18.6 °C for July.
The storm of 26 December 1999 caused several trees to fall. Seine-et-Marne forms a part of the Île-de-France region, it is bordered by Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Essonne to the West. The department has many natural reserves, notably Gâtinais; the highest point of the département is Saint-George's Hill. People from Seine-et-Marne are known as the Seine-et-Marnais. Seine-et-Marne was rural and populated. Over the past 50 years, its population has tripled, due to the development of the Paris conurbation and the building of new towns in the northwest of the region; the population was estimated to be 1,267,496 inhabitants in 2006. The region has changed from consisting only of small villages to forming a large part of the Paris conurbation. Seine-et-Marne as a whole shares a sister city relationship with Orlando, United States, as both host Disney theme parks. Collège de Juilly Forest of Fontainebleau Cantons of the Seine-et-Marne department Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department Arrondissements of the Seine-et-Marne department Lion, Christian, La Mutuelle de Seine-et-Marne contre l'incendie de 1819 à 1969.
Mutualité, assurance et cycles de l'incendie. Prefecture website General Council website
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
Auxerre is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy. Auxerre's population today is about 39,000. Residents of Auxerre are referred to as Auxerrois. Auxerre is a commercial and industrial centre, with industries including food production and batteries, it is noted for its production of Burgundy wine, including world-famous Chablis. In 1995 Auxerre was named "Town of Art and History". Auxerre was a flourishing Gallo-Roman centre called Autissiodorum, through which passed one of the main roads of the area, the Via Agrippa which crossed the Yonne here. In the third century it became a provincial capital of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century it received a Cathedral. In the late 11th-early 12th century the existing communities were included inside a new line of walls built by the feudal counts of Auxerre. Bourgeois activities accompanied the traditional land and wine cultivations starting from the twelfth century, Auxerre developed into a commune with a Town Hall of its own.
The Burgundian city, which became part of France under King Louis XI, suffered during the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of Religion. In 1567 it was captured by the Huguenots, many of the Catholic edifices were damaged; the medieval ramparts were demolished in the 18th century. In the 19th century numerous heavy infrastructures were built, including a railway station, a psychiatric hospital and the courts, new quarters were developed on the right bank of the Yonne. Up until the early 20th century, Auxerre was one of the most prosperous cities in the departement, but the local authorities of that period refused the railway, subsequently set in the village of Migennes, signed the economic decline of the town. Cathedral of St. Étienne. In Gothic style, it is renowned for its three doorways with remarkable bas-reliefs; the stained glass windows in the choir and the apsidal chapel are among the finest in France. The 11th century crypt houses the remains of the former Romanesque cathedral. Abbey of Saint-Germain, existing from the ninth century.
The crypt has some of the most ancient mural paintings in France, houses the tomb of the bishops of Auxerre. Interesting are the chapter room, the cellar and the cloister; the Clock tower, located in the Old Town The church of St. Pierre en Vallée, established over a 6th-century abbey. In the style of late Gothic architecture, it has a tower similar to that of the cathedral. Portions of the decorations and inner chapels were financed by local winegrowers. Church of St. Eusèbe, founded in the 7th century; the nave was rebuilt in the 13th century. William of Auxerre, early High Scholastic theologian from Auxerre Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, born in Auxerre, experimental physicist, politician Paul Bert, born in Auxerre and politician Théodore Frédéric Gaillardet, born in Auxerre, publisher of French-language newspaper Courrier des Etats-Unis in New York City, mayor of Plessis-Bouchard, France Eugène Hatin and bibliographer Saint Helladius, bishop of Auxerre Paul Monceaux, born in Auxerre, historian Benoît Mourlon, footballer Jean Paul Rappeneau, born in Auxerre, film director.
Guy Roux, coach of AJ Auxerre for more than 40 years, holding the French record of 894 games in Ligue 1 Gougère: Baked choux pastry made of dough mixed with cheese. Kir: A traditional aperitive mixed drink from Burgundy – Bourgogne Aligoté and blackcurrant liquor. Boeuf bourguignon: a typical main dish made of beef and vegetables. Truffe bourguignonne: Truffles from Burgundy. Chablis wine: One of the best white wines in the country, made of Chardonnay in the Chablis AOC Saint-Bris AOC: The one and only white wine in Burgundy made of Sauvignon grapes Sauvignon blanc and Sauvignon gris Irancy: Perhaps the best red wine from the surrounding area - light and flavourful, made of Pinot noir Bourgogne côte d'Auxerre: Belongs to the Burgundy AOC, it is a light and fruity wine made of Chardonnay for the white wine and Pinot noir for the red. Crémant de Bourgogne: Sparkling wine following the tradition of Champagne, Crémant de Bourgogne has a strong production in and around Auxerre. Bourgogne Aligoté: Dry wine.
Aligoté is the second most popular grape variety grown in Burgundy after Chardonnay. The whole region of Burgundy produces over 200 million bottles per year. Auxerre is twinned with: County of Auxerre Bishopric of Auxerre Cathédrale Saint-Étienne d'Auxerre Lady of Auxerre Saint Germanus of Auxerre Remigius of Auxerre William of Auxerre Communes of the Yonne department AJ Auxerre, the local football club INSEE Goyau, Georges. "Sens". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Auxerre Town Hall Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Auxerre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre. Nièvre is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the former province of Nivernais. Nièvre is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, although it was not part of the province of Burgundy, it is surrounded by the departments of Yonne, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Allier and Loiret. The department is crossed by the longest river in France. Nièvre is a rural department with about 33 inhabitants per km²; the main cities are Nevers, Cosne-sur-Loire, Varennes-Vauzelles, Decize, Clamecy and La Charité. Only two cities reach 10 000 inhabitants, it indicates the characteristic of the department, predominantly rural. Nièvre is well known for its white wine, Pouilly Fumé; the vineyards are scattered around villages including Pouilly-Sur-Loire, which lends its name to the appellation, Tracy sur Loire, Saint Andelain.
The word fumé is French for "smoky", it is said the name comes from the smoky or flinty quality of these wines. The only grape allowed in the Pouilly-Fumé AC is Sauvignon blanc, which produces wines that are crisp and somewhat grassy. In common with most French wine-producing departments, Nièvre is traditionally a left-wing department; the results of the second round of voting in presidential elections reflect this consistently: In the 2007 presidential election, Ségolène Royal received 52.91% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of just 46.94%. In the 1995 presidential election, Lionel Jospin received 57.07% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of just 47.36%. In the 1981 presidential election, François Mitterrand received 62.91% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of 51.76%. Nièvre's best-known political representative was François Mitterrand who served as a senator and a deputy for the department, as mayor of Château-Chinon for 22 years before his election to the presidency in 1981.
The Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours hosted the Formula One French Grand Prix from 1991 to 2008, the Bol d'Or from 2000 to 2014, the French round of the Superbike World Championship since 2003. USO Nevers is a professional rugby team that plays in Rugby Pro D2. Cantons of the Nièvre department Communes of the Nièvre department Arrondissements of the Nièvre department Parc naturel régional du Morvan Prefecture website General council website Nievre at Curlie Official website of the Departmental Touristic Agency of Nièvre in Burgundy
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792; the first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, increase tolerance toward non-Catholics; the French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices.
In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity. From 1776, Louis XVI supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris; the ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. Louis XVI was initiated into masonic lodge Trois-Frères à l'Orient de la Cour. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, his popularity deteriorated progressively.
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was undermined, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. Despite his lack of popular approbation, Louis XVI did abolish the death penalty for deserters, as well as the labor tax, which had compelled the French lower classes to spend two weeks out of the year working on buildings and roads. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of high treason, executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis's family name.
Louis XVI was the only King of France to be executed, his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died before the Bourbon Restoration. Louis-Auguste de France, given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, thus the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska, his mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, duc de Bourgogne, regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English, he enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois.
From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, seen as a useful pursuit for a child. Upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin, his mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 March 1767 from tuberculosis. The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France", from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion and humanities, his instructors may have had a good hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. On 16 May 1770, at the ag