2015 French regional elections
Regional elections were held in France on 6 and 13 December 2015. At stake were the regional councils in metropolitan and overseas France as well as the Corsican Assembly and inaugural seats in the Assembly of French Guiana and Assembly of Martinique, all for a six-year term; the Departmental Council of Mayotte, which exercises the powers of a region, is the only region not participating in this election, having been renewed on 2 April 2015. There are 18 Regional Presidencies at stake, with 13 in continental France and Corsica, 5 overseas. Though they do not have legislative autonomy, these territorial collectivities manage sizable budgets. Moreover, regional elections are taken as a mid-term opinion poll; these elections were the first to be held for the redrawn regions- the 27 regions of France were amalgamated into 18, this went into effect on 1 January 2016. The regional elections are held in direct universal suffrage using proportional representation lists; the election is held with majority bonus.
The lists must be gender balanced by alternatively have a male candidate and a female candidate from the top to the bottom of the list. Only lists with as many candidates as available seats in every departement of the region may compete. Before 2004, lists could be presented only at the departement level, allowing smaller parties to be represented as such in the regional councils and thus forcing major parties to enter into negotiations to rule some regions. Following the 1999 and 2003 electoral reforms, with a first implementation in 2004, a two-round runoff voting system is used to elect the regional presidents. If no party gets at least 50% of the vote in the first round, a second round is held, which any party who got at least 10% in the first round may enter. Lists that obtain at least 5% of the vote in the first round may merge in the second round with a'qualified list', which includes candidates from each merged list. At the decisive round, the leading list receives a premium of 25% of the seats while the remaining seats are distributed among all lists who received at least 5% of votes.
Thus, the majority bonus allows a leading list to have an absolute majority of seats in the Regional Council from one-third of votes in the second round. The seats are distributed among the lists at the regional level but within each list, seats are allocated by departement branch in proportion to the number of votes in each department. France uses a two-round runoff system to elect the regional presidencies, as such not all seats contested will see a candidate elected in the first round; the first round election was held on 6 December 2015. Runoff elections were held on 13 December 2015 in regions where no candidate was able to win outright in the first round. After the first round, the Socialist Party withdrew its lists in the regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and Hauts-de-France, where they finished in third place, in an attempt to block the Front National from winning seats in the second round due to split opposition from the centre-left and centre-right blocs. However, despite instructions from the party, the Socialist candidate chose to maintain his list in the region of Le Grand-Est, which had them in third and the FN with a sizable lead after the first round.
The result was a disappointment for the Front National, unable to win any of the regional presidencies in the face of concerted tactical voting. However, in both the north and the south, they managed to increase their share of the vote from the first round. Of the 12 regions in mainland France, 7 were won by the Republicans and 5 were retained by the Socialists; the following table shows regional presidents before and after the elections, with merged regions shown alongside the region taking effect in 2016. The candidates on the left were the incumbents, whereas the candidates on the right were those elected to the new regions. In the case of Corsica and Martinique, multiple presidencies were at stake; the following table shows each major party's performance by region. The bolded candidates received the most votes, were thus elected president of their respective regions. Full results
Haute-Saône is a French department of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region named after the Saône River. Haute-Saône is divided into 17 cantons; the department was created in the early years of the French Revolution through the application of a law dated 22 December 1789, from part of the former province of Franche-Comté. The frontiers of the new department corresponded to those of the old Bailiwick of Amont. Haute-Saône is part of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region. Neighbouring departments are Côte-d'Or to the west, Haute-Marne to the north-west, Vosges to the north, Territoire de Belfort to the east, Doubs to the south and east and Jura to south; the department can be presented as a transitional territory positioned between several of the more depressed departments of eastern France and the so-called Blue Banana zone characterised, in recent decades by powerful economic growth. The department is overwhelmingly rural, despite the area having been at the forefront of industrialisation in the eighteenth century.
The industrial tradition endures. In 2006 employment by economic sector was reported as follows: * Agriculture 4,919 employees * Construction 4,504 employees * Industrial sector 18,747 employees * Service sector 44,865 employees In common with many rural departments in France, Haute-Saône has experienced a savage reduction in population, from nearly 350,000 in the middle of the nineteenth century to 200,000 on the eve of the Second World War, as people migrated to newly industrialising population centres outside Metropolitan France. During the second half of the twentieth century the mass mobility conferred by the surge in automobile ownership permitted some recovery of the population figure to 234,000 in 2004; the rural nature of the department is highlighted by the absence of large cities. The department's capital, still had a population below 20,000 in 2010. County of Burgundy - History Franche-Comté Cantons of the Haute-Saône department Communes of the Haute-Saône department Arrondissements of the Haute-Saône department Arpitan language Prefecture website General Council website Tourism website
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1
Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397. From 1956 to 2015, the Franche-Comté was a French administrative region. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté; the region is named after the Franche Comté de Bourgogne, definitively separated from the region of Burgundy proper in the fifteenth century. In 2016, these two halves of the historic Kingdom of Burgundy were reunited, as the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, it is the 6th biggest region in France. The name "Franche-Comté" is feminine because the word "comté" in the past was feminine, although today it is masculine; the principal cities are the capital Belfort and Montbéliard. Other important cities are Dole, Vesoul and Lons-le-Saunier; the region was occupied by the Gauls. Little touched by the Germanic migrations, it was part of the territory of the Alemanni in the fifth century the Kingdom of Burgundy from 457 to 534.
It was Christianized through the influence of St. Columbanus. In 534, it became part of the Frankish kingdom. In 561 it was included in the Merovingian Kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, the third son of Clotaire I. In 613, Clotaire II reunited the Frankish Kingdom under his rule, the region remained a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy under the Merovingians and Carolingians; the name Franche Comté de Bourgogne did not appear until 1366. It had been a territory of the County of Burgundy from 888, the province becoming subject to the Holy Roman Empire in 1034, it was definitively separated from the neighboring Duchy of Burgundy upon the latter's incorporation into the Kingdom of France in 1477. That year at the Battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke, Charles the Bold, was killed in battle. Although the County, along with the Duchy, was seized by King Louis XI of France, in 1492 his son Charles VIII ceded it to Philip of Austria, the grandson and heir of Charles the Bold; when Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, inherited the Spanish throne in 1516, the Franche-Comté, along with the rest of the Burgundian lands, passed to the Spanish.
The Franche-Comté was captured by France in 1668, but returned to Spain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It was conquered a second time in 1674, was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Enclaves such as Montbéliard remained outside French control; the Franche-Comté was one of the last parts of France to have serfdom. In 1784, half of the population consisted of serfs, accounting for 400,000 out of the 1 million French serfs. Landowners took one-twelfth of the sales price. Serfs were not forced to stay on the land, but the lord could claim droit de suite, whereby a peasant who died away from his holding left it to the lord if he had heirs. A runaway serf's land was forfeit after ten years. Louis XVI issued a decree banning these practices on 8 August 1779, but the Parlement of Besançon blocked this until 1787; the population of the region fell by a fifth from 1851 to 1946, reflecting low French natural growth and migration to more urbanized parts of the country. Most of the decline occurred in Haute-Saône and Jura, which remain among the country's more agriculture-dependent areas.
This region borders Switzerland and shares much of its architecture and culture with its neighbour. Between the Vosges range of mountains to the north and the Jura range to the south, the landscape consists of rolling cultivated fields, dense pine forest, rampart-like mountains. Not so majestic as the Alps, the Jura mountains are more accessible and are France's first cross-country skiing area, it is a superb place to hike, there are some fine nature trails on the more gentle slopes. The Doubs and Loue valleys, with their timbered houses perched on stilts in the river, the high valley of Ain, are popular visitor areas; the Région des Lacs is a land of gorges and waterfalls dotted with tiny villages, each with a domed belfry decorated with mosaic of tiles or slates or beaten from metal. The lakes are perfect for swimming in the warmer months; the summits of Haut Jura have wonderful views toward the Alps. Forty percent of the region's GDP is dependent on manufacturing activities, most of its production is exported.
Construction of automobiles and their parts is one of the most buoyant industries there. Forestry exploitation is growing, 38% of the agriculture is dairy and 17% cattle farming; the region has a large and lucrative cheese-making industry, with 40 million tonnes of cheese produced here each year, much of, made by fruitières. Vosges and Jura coal mining basins Among the regional languages of France, the term Franc-comtois refers to two dialects of two different languages. Franc-comtois is the name of the dialect of Langue d'Oïl spoken by people in the northern part of the region; the dialect of Arpitan has been spoken in its southern part since as early as the thirteenth century (the southern two-thirds of Jura and the southern third o
Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de-France, it was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89, it is the fourth most populous department in the region with a population of about 342,000, an average annual increase over the last few years of 0.41% per year. The biggest city is Auxerre, the capital, with a population of 35,000 in the city and 43,000 in the urban area centred on it; the first evidence of occupation in this area is found in the Grottes d'Arcy-sur-Cure where paintings have been found dating back 28,000 years. The Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of that time left behind numerous flint artefacts, but the area is believed to have been occupied for about 200,000 years. By 4000 BC, a wave of Neolithics arrived from the Danube region of eastern Europe building substantial wooden houses and introducing pottery decorated with the characteristics of the Linear Pottery culture.
Further waves of immigrants followed, the Chasséen culture, the Michelsberg culture. The Celtic tribe in the area were named "Icauna", after the River Yonne which they thought sacred, the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the area came under the control of the Romans, whose chief town was Sens, which they called Agendicum. It was the capital of their province of Gallia Lugdunensis, one of four provinces into which France was subdivided; the present main roads from Lyon to Boulogne, from Sens to Alise-Sainte-Reine date from this period. About this time, Auxerre and Avallon were growing in size and in the fourth century, Sens became a walled city, the first bishops were appointed in Sens and Langres whose power was to influence the region profoundly. In 1771, the northwesterly part of the present department belonged to Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony, the uncle of Louis XVI of France; the current Yonne department saw its birth during the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, as a result of the passing of an Act on December 22, 1789.
It was carved out of parts of the provinces of Burgundy and Orléans, to a lesser extent from parts of the Nivernais and Île-de-France. Yonne is a department in central France, one of the eight constituent departments of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. To the northeast lies the department of Aube, to the east lies Côte-d'Or, to the south lies Nièvre, to the west lies Loiret and to the northwest, the department of Seine-et-Marne; the River Yonne flows northwards through the department. Auxerre, the capital of the department is situated on the River Yonne, the River Serein joins this a few kilometres north of the city; the Canal de Bourgogne, which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, joins the River Yonne through locks at Migennes a little further north. The second biggest town is Sens, situated at the confluence of the River Yonne; the geology of the department is complex with concentric rings of granite, Jurassic and Tertiary rocks and layers of sedimentary rocks. The terrain is a low-lying plateau used for agriculture.
The southwestern part is more wooded. To the centre and east, the land inclines to the northwest where the higher land of the Tonnerrois region lies. To the east the rock is limestone and the Auxerrois region is renowned for the grapes grown here which are used in the production of Chablis. To the south lies the mountainous massif of Morvan, the highest parts of which are in the neighbouring department of Nièvre; the department has some forested areas but is down to pasture or cultivated for wheat. Over fifty percent of the inhabitants of the department are engaged in agricultural activities, it is one of the poorest and most rural departments in France. During the hundred years leading up to 1962, its population declined by around 100,000 while all of the surrounding departments had population growth. Yonne had been bypassed by the development of the railways, as French industry flourished elsewhere in the late nineteenth century, the young people left Yonne seeking better opportunities, the department stagnated.
The viticulture industry was affected by the advent of powdery mildew and the arrival of Phylloxera in the nineteenth century. By 1945, only 4000 hectares of grapevines remained and only 471 hectares of grapes were grown for Chablis. More the population trend has been reversed, during the period 1999 to 2007, rose by 8000 to a total of 341,418. However, with a population of 46 inhabitants per square kilometre, the density in Yonne is less than half that for the whole of France, 100.5 for the same year. It elects three members of parliament to the National Assembly – in the 2012–17 parliamentary term, two of them were drawn from the right-wing Union for a Popular Movement and one from Socialist Party. In 2015, the General Council of the department was allotted a budget of 410 million euros. Cantons of the Yonne department Communes of the Yonne department Arrondissements of the Yonne department Prefecture website General Council website Yonne at Curlie Wild Flowers from Yonne Chamber of commerce
Regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
The regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is the deliberative assembly of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Marie-Guite Dufay of the Socialist Party is the current president of the regional council, elected on 4 January 2016, following the regional elections on 6 and 13 December 2015; the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté was created by the act on the delimitation of regions and departmental elections and amending the electoral calendar of 16 January 2015, which went into effect on 1 January 2016 and merged the regional councils of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, consisting of 57 and 43 regional councillors into a single body with 100 regional councillors, following regional elections on 6 and 13 December 2015. On 24 June 2016, the members of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté regional council voted in favor of a proposal by Marie-Guite Dufay, president of the regional council, to designate Dijon as the prefecture of the newly unified region and agreed to select the Hôtel de Région at 4 square Castan in Besançon as the seat of the regional council.
The previous seat of the regional council of Burgundy, located at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille in Dijon, became the meeting place of assemblies of the regional council. The plan was approved with 79 votes in favor, 18 votes against, 3 abstentions; the current regional council was elected in regional elections on 6 and 13 December 2015, with the list of Marie-Guite Dufay consisting of the Socialist Party, the Radical Party of the Left, Cap21 securing an absolute majority of 51 seats. The regional council consists of three political groups. In March 2017, Jacqueline Ferrari left the socialist group, reducing it to 50 members, before rejoining it a year later; the ranks of the National Front group in the regional council were considerably reduced from its original total of 24. Its losses followed internal disputes and the formation of The Patriots by Florian Philippot, close to Sophie Montel, former president of the FN group, subsequently replaced by Julien Odoul as group president on 7 September 2017.
On 4 January 2016, Marie-Guite Dufay of the Socialist Party, who presided over the regional council of Franche-Comté before its merger, was elected president of the regional council. Despite the fact the left held a majority, Dufay was not elected in the first round of the ballot, securing only 49 votes against Sophie Montel with 24 votes and 27 blank votes, because two members of the Radical Party of the Left withheld their support for Dufay in the first round in order to secure vice presidencies, she was subsequently elected with 51 votes in a second ballot. In addition to the president, the executive of the regional council includes 15 vice presidents, as well as regional councillors serving as advisers on certain policy areas; the regional council includes 5 thematic committees responsible for examining files on policy areas and submitting their deliberations to the vote of the 33-member standing committee or a plenary session. Official website of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region
County of Montbéliard
The County of Montbéliard, was a feudal county of the Holy Roman Empire seated in the city of Montbéliard in the present-day Franche-Comté region of France. From 1444 onwards it was held by the House of Württemberg; the county was established in 1042 by Emperor Henry III on the territory of the County of Burgundy, part of the Kingdom of Arles, a constituent of the Empire since 1033. It was led by a line of Counts of Montbéliard descending from Conrad's vassal Louis of Mousson in Upper Lorraine, husband of Countess Sophie of Bar, their successors from the Scarpone family. In 1163 Lord Amadeus II of Montfaucon became Count of Montbéliard by marriage to Sophie, daughter of Count Theodoric II, who left no male heirs. In 1407, the marriage of Countess Henriette, heiress of Count Stephen of Montfaucon with Eberhard IV of Württemberg tipped the county into the fold of the Swabian nobility in Germany. In addition to the County of Montbéliard, Countess Henrietta brought wedding dowries: fiefdoms, such as lordships in Granges-le-Bourg, Passavant, Porrentruy, with the fiefdoms of Saint-Hippolyte, lands of Franquemont.
Some of them were in the County of Burgundy, but the countess administered the County of Burgundy by the sovereign right by virtue of the legacy, of her grandfather Stephen of Montfaucon, the tribute that she received from the Burgundian Duke John the Fearless. By the advent of this marriage, inheritance of the County of Montbéliard and its dependencies added to Württemberg who brought the lordship of Riquewihr and the County of Horbourg in Alsace. Eberhard IV died in 1419 and upon Henriette's death in 1444, Montbéliard was adjudicated to their son Count Ludwig I of Württemberg-Urach, his son Eberhard V annexed Montbéliard as part of the united County of Württemberg, though it still retained its status as an immediate territory and separate county within the County. It was not a vassalagee of Württemberg. De facto, the Romance territory would retain "all its rights and customs, as well as its language" as it was customary in the vast Holy Roman Empire. In 1495 the Count of Montbeliard Eberhard V of Württemberg was raised to the rank of Duke and the county became the "Principality of Montbéliard".
In spite of vicissitudes, Montbéliard was ruled by junior branches of the House of Württemberg for several centuries. Count Frederick I of Montbéliard again inherited the Württemberg duchy in 1593, but in 1617 the county was again separated for his younger son Ludwig Frederick and ruled by his descendants until it fell back to Württemberg in 1723. With the annexation in 1748 of the "Four Lands" by King Louis XV of France, the Principality was reduced to a "single county" until the French Revolution, or more until November 1793. In 1793, the County of Montbéliard was occupied by the First French Republic, bringing it forty new townships. With Mandeure, from the Republic of Mandeure annexed at the same time, these municipalities were first linked to the département of Haute-Saône, constituting the new district of Montbéliard in 1793, including 3 cantons. After the French forces under Jean Victor Marie Moreau had campaigned Württemberg in the course of the War of the First Coalition in 1796, Duke Frederick II Eugene renounce all rights to Montbéliard.
In 1797, the cantons were transferred to the département Mont-Terrible. The département was abolished in 1800. With the new arrangement put in place that year, there were more than 2 cantons in the District of Porrentruy. In 1814, Haut-Rhin lost the territories, part of Mont-Terrible and returned them to Switzerland, with the exception of Montbéliard, transferred to the department of Doubs. Louis Theodoric I Theodoric II Amadeus I Richard I Theodoric III Guillemette, with Reginald Reginald, solo Othenin Henry I Stephen Henriette Ludwig I Ludwig II Eberhard I Henry Eberhard II Ulrich George I Cristoph Frederick I Johann Frederick From 1617 to 1723, Montbéliard was ruled under the Mömpelgard branch of the House of Württemberg. See below. Eberhard-Ludwig Karl I Alexander Karl II Eugen Louis Frederick Leopold Frederick George II Leopold Eberhard Montbéliard had been in Catholic until 1524, when Duke Ulrich sent for French theologian William Farel to bring the teachings of Oecolampadius to the county.
Raitt, Jill. The Coloquy of Montbéliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford University Pres. ISBN 0-19-507566-8