Latins (Italic tribe)
The Latins, sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium, that is, the area between the river Tiber and the promontory of Mount Circeo 100 kilometres SE of Rome; the Latins were an Indo-European people who migrated into the Italian Peninsula during the late Bronze Age. Their language, belonged to the Italic branch of Indo-European, their material culture, known as the Latial culture, was a distinctive subset of the Proto-Villanovan culture that appeared in parts of the Italian peninsula in the first half of the 12th century BC. The Latins maintained close culturo-religious relations until they were definitively united politically under Rome in 338 BC, for centuries beyond; these included religious sanctuaries. The rise of Rome as by far the most populous and powerful Latin state from c. 600 BC led to volatile relations with the other Latin states, which numbered about 14 in 500 BC.
In the period of the Tarquin monarchy, it appears that Rome acquired political hegemony over the other states. After the fall of the Roman monarchy in c. 500 BC, there appears to have been a century of military alliance between Rome and the other Latins to confront the threat posed to all Latium by raiding by the surrounding Italic mountain-tribes the Volsci and Aequi. This system progressively broke down after c. 390 BC, when Rome's aggressive expansionism led to conflict with other Latin states, both individually and collectively. In 341–338 BC, the Latin states jointly fought the Latin War against Rome in a final attempt to preserve their independence; the war resulted in 338 BC in a decisive Roman victory. The other Latin states were either permanently subjugated to Rome, it has been suggested that the name Latium derives from the Latin word latus, referring, by extension, to the plains of the region. If this is true Latini meant "men of the plain"; the Latins belonged to a group of Indo-European tribes, conventionally known as the Italic tribes, that populated central and southern Italy during the Italian Iron Age.
The most accepted theory suggests that Latins and other proto-Italic tribes first entered Italy in the late Bronze Age Proto-Villanovan culture part of the central European Urnfield culture system. In particular various authors, like Marija Gimbutas, had noted important similarities between proto-Villanova, the South-German Urnfield culture of Bavaria-Upper Austria and Middle-Danube Urnfield culture. According to David W. Anthony proto-Latins originated in today's eastern Hungary, kurganized around 3100 BC by the Yamna culture, while Kristian Kristiansen associated the proto-Villanovans with the Velatice-Baierdorf culture of Moravia and Austria; this is further confirmed by the fact that the subsequent Villanovan culture of Central Italy, which introduced iron-working to the Italian peninsula, was so related to the Central European Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, that it is not possible to tell them apart in their earlier stages. Furthermore, the contemporary Canegrate culture of Northern Italy represented a typical western example of the western Hallstatt culture, whose diffusion most took place in a Celtic-speaking context.
Several authors have suggested that the Beaker culture of Central and Western Europe, was a candidate for an early Indo-European culture, more for an ancestral European branch of Indo-European dialects, termed "North-west Indo-European", ancestral to Celtic, Italic and Balto-Slavic. All these groups were descended from Proto-Indo-European speakers from Yamna-culture, whose migrations in Central Europe split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Leaving archaeology aside, the geographical distribution of the ancient languages of the peninsula may plausibly be explained by the immigration of successive waves of peoples with different languages, according to Cornell. On this model, it appears that the "West Italic" group were the first wave and displaced by, the East Italic group; this is deduced from the marginal locations of the surviving West Italic niches. Besides Latin, putative members of the West Italic group are Faliscan, Venetic and Sicel, spoken in central Sicily.
The West Italic languages were thus spoken in limited and isolated areas, whereas the "East Italic" group comprised the Oscan and Umbrian dialects spoken over much of central and southern Italy. However, the chronology of Indo-European immigration remains elusive, as does the relative chronology between the Italic IE languages and the non-IE languages of the peninsula, notably the Etruscan. Most scholars consider that Etruscan is a pre-IE survival, part of a Mediterranean linguistic substratum; some authors believe that, before the spread of the Gaulish language in the plain of the river Po from c. 400 BC onwards and central Italy were dominated by non-IE languages: Etruscan, which shared some similarities with the Raetic, the non-IE Ligurian and the language of the undeciphered Novilara inscriptions from the region around Ancona on the Adriatic coast. However, Etruscan could have been introduced by migrants; the ancient Greek historian Herodotus preserves the tradition that the Tyrrhenoi originated in Lydia in Anatolia.
Possible support for an eastern
Romulus and Remus
In Roman mythology and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus. The killing of Remus by his brother, other tales from their story, have inspired artists throughout the ages. Since ancient times, the image of the twins being suckled by a she-wolf has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the Roman people. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical basis for the story, as well as whether the twins' myth was an original part of Roman myth or a development, is a subject of ongoing debate. Romulus and Remus were born in Alba Longa, one of the ancient Latin cities near the future site of Rome, their mother, Rhea Silvia was a vestal virgin and the daughter of the former king, displaced by his brother Amulius. In some sources, Rhea Silvia conceived them when their father, the god Mars, visited her in a sacred grove dedicated to him.
Through their mother, the twins were descended from Latin nobility. Seeing them as a possible threat to his rule, King Amulius ordered them to be killed and they were abandoned on the bank of the river Tiber to die, they were saved by the god Tiberinus, Father of the River, survived with the care of others, at the site of what would become Rome. In the most well-known episode, the twins were suckled by a she-wolf, in a cave now known as the Lupercal, they were adopted by Faustulus, a shepherd. They grew up tending flocks, unaware of their true identities. Over time, they attracted a company of supporters from the community; when they were young adults, they became involved in a dispute between supporters of Numitor and Amulius. As a result, Remus was brought to Alba Longa. Both his grandfather and the king suspected his true identity. Romulus, had organized an effort to free his brother and set out with help for the city. During this time they learned of their past and joined forces with their grandfather to restore him to the throne.
Amulius was killed and Numitor was reinstated as king of Alba. The twins set out to build a city of their own. After arriving back in the area of the seven hills, they disagreed about the hill upon which to build. Romulus preferred the Palatine Hill, above the Lupercal; when they could not resolve the dispute, they agreed to seek the gods' approval through a contest of augury. Remus first saw 6 auspicious birds but soon afterward, Romulus saw 12, claimed to have won divine approval; the new dispute furthered the contention between them. In the aftermath, Remus was killed either by one of his supporters. Romulus went on to found the city of Rome, its institutions, government and religious traditions, he reigned for many years as its first king. The origins of the different elements in Rome's foundation myth are a subject of ongoing debate, they may have come from the Romans' own indigenous origins, or from Hellenic influences that were included later. Definitively identifying those original elements has so far eluded the classical academic community.
Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. There is an ongoing debate about when the "complete" fable came together; some elements are attested to earlier than others, the storyline and the tone were variously influenced by the circumstances and tastes of the different sources as well as by contemporary Roman politics and concepts of propriety. Whether the twins' myth was an original part of Roman myth or a development is the subject of an ongoing debate. Sources contradict one another, they include the histories of Livy, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Tacitus as well as the work of Virgil and Ovid. Quintus Fabius Pictor's work became authoritative to the early books of Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, Dionysius of Halicarnassus's Roman Antiquities, Plutarch's Life of Romulus; these three works have been among the most read versions of the myth. In all three works, the tales of the lupercal and the fratricide are overshadowed by that of the twins' lineage and connections to Aeneas and the deposing of Amulius.
The latter receives the most attention in the accounts. Plutarch dedicates nearly half of his account to the overthrow of their uncle. Dionysius cites, among others, the histories of Pictor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso, Cato the Elder, Lucius Cincius Alimentus; the first book of Dionysius' twenty-volume history of Rome does not mention Remus until page 235. After spending another 8 chapters discussing the background of their birth in Alba, he dedicates a total of 9 chapters to the tale. Most of, spent discussing the conflict with Amulius, he goes on to discuss the various accounts of the city's founding by others, the lineage and parentage of the twins for another 8 chapters until arriving at the tale of their abandonment by the Tiber. He spends the better part of the chapter 79 discussing the survival in the wild; the end of 79 through 84 on the account of their struggle with Amulius. 84 with the non-fantastical account of their survival 294. 295 is the augury 85–86, 87–88 the fratricide.303 Livy discusses the myth in chapters 4, 5, 6 of his work's first book.
P. 7 parentage 4 p. 8 survival. P. 8 the youth. 5 9–10 the struggle with Amulius. 6 p. 11 the augury and fratricide. Plutarch relates the legend in chapters 2–10 of the Life of Romulus, he dedicates nearly half the entire account, to conflict with Amulius. Fasti, the epic Latin poem by
Vorenus and Pullo
Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo were two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion mentioned in the personal writings of Julius Caesar. Vorenus and Pullo appear in Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Book 5, Chapter 44; the episode describes the two as centurions, approaching the first ranks, who shared a bitter personal rivalry, takes place in 54 BC when the Nervii attacked the legion under Quintus Cicero in their winter quarters in Nervian territory. In an effort to outdo Vorenus, Pullo attacked the enemy. Pullo casts his javelin into one of the enemy from a short distance, but his belt is pierced by a spear, preventing him from drawing his sword, he is surrounded by other Nervii. Just Vorenus, following Pullo from the fortifications, reached the site of the mêlée and engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. After slaying one of the enemy and driving back the rest, Vorenus lost his footing on the irregular terrain; as the Nervii drew closer to him, Pullo came to his rescue. After slaying many of their opponents, the two retreated to the fortifications amidst roaring applause from their comrades, or "covered with glory," as described by Caesar.
In the Civil War of 49 BC, Pullo was assigned to the XXI Victrix Rapax, a new Italian legion commanded by the legate Gaius Antonius. In 48 BC, Antonius was forced to surrender; that year, he is recorded bravely defending Pompey's camp in Greece from Caesar's attack shortly before the Battle of Pharsalus. Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo are principal characters in the HBO/BBC/RAI original television series Rome. Vorenus is played by actor Kevin Pullo by Ray Stevenson. Unlike the historical centurions, the fictional characters are members of the 13th Legion, an ally of Caesar, of Octavian. Unlike historical records, the two are close friends, are foils to one another. Vorenus is shown as more conservative and uptight, while Pullo is portrayed as a rowdy yet honorable solider. Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo are minor characters in Caesar, the fifth book in Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series, they are shown as centurions, serving under commander of the Ninth Legion. Vorenus and Pullo appear in the Legion tetralogy of the Videssos Cycle by Harry Turtledove.
The novels recount the adventures of several maniples of Caesar's legions in Gaul that are whisked away by druid spells to a land of magic loosely based on the Byzantine Empire. The two companions are faithful to Caesar's portrayal, starting as rival legionaries before rising to centurion rank and becoming fast friends. Vorenus and Pullo are characters in Michael Livingston's 2015 historical fantasy novel The Shards of Heaven; the Real Pullo and Vorenus by Ross Cowan De Bello Gallico: 5.44 The War in Gaul: 5:44
The Palatine Hill is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city and has been called "the first nucleus of the Roman Empire.". It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, upon the Circus Maximus on the other. From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here; the hill is its cognates in other languages. The term palace, from Old French palais or paleis, stems from the proper name of Palatine Hill; the Palatine Hill is the etymological origin of "palatine", a 16th century English adjective that signified something pertaining to the Caesar's palace, or someone, invested with the king's authority. Its use shifted to a reference to the German Palatinate; the office of the German count palatine had its origins in the comes palatinus, an earlier office in Merovingian and Carolingian times. Another modern English word "paladin", came into usage to refer to any distinguished knight under Charlemagne in late renditions of Matter of France.
According to Livy the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More it is derived from the noun palātum "palate". According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. Another legend occurring on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where a staircase bearing the name of Cacus was constructed. Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC. Excavations performed on the hill in 1907 and again in 1948 unearthed a collection of huts believed to have been used for funerary purposes between the 9th and 7th century BC approximating the time period when the city of Rome was founded. According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine.
The Palatine Hill was the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period had their residences there. From the start of the Empire Augustus built his palace there and the hill became the exclusive domain of emperors. Augustus built a temple to Apollo here; the great fire of 64 AD destroyed Nero's palace, but he replaced it by 69 AD with the larger Domus Aurea over, built Domitian's Palace The Palatine Hill is an archaeological site open to the public. The Palace of Domitian which dominates the site and looks out over the Circus Maximus was rebuilt during the reign of Domitian over earlier buildings of Nero. Emperors the Severans made significant additions to the buildings; the House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventionally attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus. The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the western end of the hill, on a lower terrace from the temple.
It is notable for its beautiful frescoes. The House of Tiberius was built by Tiberius, but Tiberius spent much of his time in his palaces in Campania and Capri, it was incorporated into Nero's Domus Transitoria. Part of it is remains in the current Farnese Gardens. During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools, he declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed; the museum contains Roman statuary. An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820. In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus. Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a ancient aristocratic house."
The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by palaces after the Great Fire of Rome, but this one was not. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra; the location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome. In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-
Maurus Servius Honoratus
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy. These works, In tria Virgilii Opera Expositio, constituted the first incunable to be printed at Florence, by Bernardo Cennini, 1471. In the Saturnalia of Macrobius, Servius appears as one of the interlocutors; the commentary on Virgil has survived in two distinct manuscript traditions. The first is a comparatively short commentary, attributed to Servius in the superscription in the manuscripts and by other internal evidence. A second class of manuscripts, all deriving from the 10th and 11th centuries, embed the same text in a much expanded commentary; the copious additions are in contrast to the style of the original. "The added matter is undoubtedly ancient, dating from a time but little removed from that of Servius, is founded to a large extent on historical and antiquarian literature, now lost. The writer is anonymous and a Christian", although not if, as is suggested, he is Aelius Donatus.
A third class of manuscripts, written for the most part in Italy, gives the core text with interpolated scholia, which demonstrate the continued usefulness of the Virgilii Opera Expositio. The authentic commentary of Maurus Servius Honoratus is in effect the only complete extant edition of a classic author written before the collapse of the Empire in the West, it is constructed much on the principle of a modern edition, is founded on an extensive Virgilian critical literature, much of, known only from the fragments and facts preserved in this commentary. The notices of Virgil's text, though or never authoritative in face of the existing manuscripts, which go back to, or beyond, the time of Servius, yet supply valuable information concerning the ancient recensions and textual criticism of Virgil. In the grammatical interpretation of his author's language, Servius does not rise above the stiff and overwrought subtleties of his time. Servius set his face against the prevalent allegorical methods of exposition of text.
For the antiquarian and the historian, the abiding value of his work lies in his preservation of facts in Roman history, religion and language, which but for him might have perished. Not a little of the laborious erudition of Varro and other ancient scholars has survived in his pages. Besides the Virgilian commentary, other works of Servius are extant: a collection of notes on the grammar of Aelius Donatus; the edition of Georg Thilo and Hermann Hagen, remains the only edition of the whole of Servius' work. In development is the Harvard Servius. Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: Maurus Servius Honoratus Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. Commentary on the Eclogues of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. De Centum Metris at Intratext.com De Centum Metris at Forum Romanorum Servii grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii, Georius Thilo, Hermannus Hagen, 3 voll. Lipsiae in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1881-1902: vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3 part 1, vol. 3 part 2
Glossary of ancient Roman religion
The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was specialized. Its study affords important information about the religion and beliefs of the ancient Romans; this legacy is conspicuous in European cultural history in its influence on juridical and religious vocabulary in Europe of the Western Church. This glossary provides explanations of concepts as they were expressed in Latin pertaining to religious practices and beliefs, with links to articles on major topics such as priesthoods, forms of divination, rituals. For theonyms, or the names and epithets of gods, see List of Roman deities. For public religious holidays, see Roman festivals. For temples see the List of Ancient Roman temples. Individual landmarks of religious topography in ancient Rome are not included in this list; the verb abominari was a term of augury for an action that rejects or averts an unfavourable omen indicated by a signum, "sign". The noun is abominatio. At the taking of formally solicited auspices, the observer was required to acknowledge any bad sign occurring within the templum he was observing, regardless of the interpretation.
He might, take certain actions in order to ignore the signa, including avoiding the sight of them, interpreting them as favourable. The latter tactic required promptness and skill based on discipline and learning, thus the omen had no validity apart from the observation of it. The aedes was the dwelling place of a god, it was thus a structure that housed the deity's image, distinguished from the templum or sacred district. Aedes is one of several Latin words that can be translated as "shrine" or "temple". For instance, the Temple of Vesta, as it is called in English, was in Latin an aedes. See the diminutive aedicula, a small shrine. In his work On Architecture, Vitruvius always uses the word templum in the technical sense of a space defined through augury, with aedes the usual word for the building itself; the design of a deity's aedes, should be appropriate to the characteristics of the deity. For a celestial deity such as Jupiter, Sol or Luna, the building should be open to the sky, thus in theory, though not always in practice, architectural aesthetics had a theological dimension.
The word aedilis, a public official, is related by etymology. The temple of Flora, for instance, was built in 241 BC by two aediles acting on Sibylline oracles; the plebeian aediles had their headquarters at the aedes of Ceres. In religious usage, ager was terrestrial space defined for the purposes of augury in relation to auspicia. There were five kinds of ager: Romanus, peregrinus and incertus; the ager Romanus included the urban space outside the pomerium and the surrounding countryside. According to Varro, the ager Gabinus pertained to the special circumstances of the oppidum of Gabii, the first to sign a sacred treaty with Rome; the ager peregrinus was other territory, brought under treaty. Ager hosticus meant foreign territory; the powers and actions of magistrates were based on and constrained by the nature of the ager on which they stood, ager in more general usage meant a territory as defined or politically. The ager Romanus could not be extended outside Italy; the focal point of sacrifice was the altar.
Most altars throughout the city of Rome and in the countryside would have been simple, open-air structures. An altar that received food offerings might be called a mensa, "table."Perhaps the best-known Roman altar is the elaborate and Greek-influenced Ara Pacis, called "the most representative work of Augustan art." Other major public altars included the Ara Maxima. A tree was categorized as felix; the adjective felix here means not only "fruitful" but more broadly "auspicious". Macrobius lists arbores felices as the oak, the birch, the hazelnut, the sorbus, the white fig, the pear, the apple, the grape, the plum, the cornus and the lotus; the oak was sacred to Jupiter, twigs of oak were used by the Vestals to ignite the sacred fire in March every year. Among the felices were the olive tree, a twig of, affixed to the hat of the Flamen Dialis, the laurel and the poplar, which crowned the Salian priests. Arbores infelices were those under the protection of chthonic gods or those gods who had the power of turning away misfortune.
As listed by Tarquitius Priscus in his lost ostentarium on trees, these were buckthorn, red cornel, black fig, "those that bear a black berry and black fruit," holly, woodland pear, butcher's broom and brambles." The verb attrectare referred in specialized religious usage to touching sacred objects while performing cultic actions. Attrectare had a positive meaning only in reference to the action
The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome. In legal terms, Rome existed only within its pomerium; the term is a classical contraction of the Latin phrase post moerium "beyond the wall". The Roman historian Livy writes in his Ab Urbe Condita that, although the etymology implies a meaning referring to a single side of the wall, the pomerium was an area of ground on both sides of city walls, he states that it was an Etruscan tradition to consecrate this area by augury and that it was technically unlawful to inhabit or to farm the area of the pomerium, which in part had the purpose of preventing buildings from being erected close to the wall. Tradition maintained that the pomerium was the original line ploughed by Romulus around the walls of the original city, that it was inaugurated by Servius Tullius; the legendary date of its demarcation, 21 April, continued to be celebrated as the anniversary of the city’s founding. The pomerium did not follow the line of the Servian walls, remained unchanged until the Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla, in a demonstration of his absolute power, expanded it in 80 BC.
Several white marker stones commissioned by Claudius have been found in situ and several have been found away from their original location. These stones mark relative dimensions of the pomerium extension by Claudius; this extension is outlined by Aulus Gellius. The pomerium was not a walled area, but rather a and religiously defined one marked by cippi, it encompassed neither the entire metropolitan area nor all the Seven Hills. The Curia Hostilia and the well of the Comitium in the Forum Romanum, two important locations in the government of the city-state and its empire, were located within the pomerium; the Temple of Bellona was beyond the pomerium. The magistrates who held imperium did not have full power inside the pomerium, they could have a citizen beaten, but not sentenced to death. This was symbolised by removing the axes from the fasces carried by the magistrate's lictors. Only a dictator's lictors could carry fasces containing axes inside the pomerium, it was forbidden to bury the dead inside the pomerium.
During his life, Julius Caesar received in advance the right to a tomb inside the pomerium, but his ashes were placed in his family tomb. However, Trajan's ashes were interred after his death in AD 117 at the foot of his Column, within the pomerium. Provincial promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering the pomerium, resigned their imperium upon crossing it. Ceremonies of triumph, in which an army would march through the city in celebration of a victory, were an exception to this rule, although a general could only enter the city on the day of his triumph, would be required to wait outside the pomerium with his troops until that moment. Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens: thus soldiers at their general's triumph wore civilian dress; the Comitia Centuriata, one of the Roman assemblies, consisting of centuriae, was required to meet on the Campus Martius outside the pomerium. Pompey's Theatre, where Julius Caesar was murdered, was outside the pomerium and included a chamber where the Senate could meet allowing the attendance of any senators who were forbidden to cross the pomerium and thus would not have been able to meet in the Curia Hostilia.
Weapons were prohibited inside the pomerium. Praetorian guards were allowed in only in civilian dress, were called collectively cohors togata, but it was possible to sneak in daggers. Since Julius Caesar's assassination occurred outside this boundary, the senatorial conspirators could not be charged with sacrilege for carrying weapons inside the sacred city. Roma quadrata Samuel Ball Platner, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome: Pomerium Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: Pomoerium Transactions of the American Philological Association Alternate etymology: pro-murium