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Averroes

Ibn Rushd Latinized as Averroes, was a Muslim Andalusi philosopher and jurist who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, medicine, physics, mathematics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, linguistics. His philosophical works include numerous commentaries on Aristotle, for which he was known in the West as The Commentator, he served as a judge and a court physician for the Almohad Caliphate. He was born in Córdoba in 1126 to a family of prominent judges—his grandfather was the chief judge of the city. In 1169 he was introduced to the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf, impressed with his knowledge, became his patron and commissioned many of Averroes' commentaries. Averroes served multiple terms as a judge in Seville and Córdoba. In 1182, he was appointed as the chief judge of Córdoba. After Abu Yusuf's death in 1184, he remained in royal favor until he fell into disgrace in 1195, he was exiled to nearby Lucena. He returned to royal favor shortly before his death on 11 December 1198. Averroes was a strong proponent of Aristotelianism.

He defended the pursuit of philosophy against criticism by Ashari theologians such as Al-Ghazali. Averroes argued that philosophy was permissible in Islam and compulsory among certain elites, he argued scriptural text should be interpreted allegorically if it appeared to contradict conclusions reached by reason and philosophy. In Islamic jurisprudence, he wrote the Bidāyat al-Mujtahid on the differences between Islamic schools of law and the principles that caused their differences. In medicine, he proposed a new theory of stroke, described the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease for the first time, might have been the first to identify the retina as the part of the eye responsible for sensing light, his medical book Al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb, translated into Latin and known as the Colliget, became a textbook in Europe for centuries. His legacy in the Islamic world was modest for intellectual reasons. In the West, Averroes was known for his extensive commentaries on Aristotle, many of which were translated into Latin and Hebrew.

The translations of his work reawakened Western European interest in Aristotle and Greek thinkers, an area of study, abandoned after the fall of the Roman Empire. His thoughts generated controversies in Latin Christendom and triggered a philosophical movement called Averroism based on his writings, his unity of the intellect thesis, proposing that all humans share the same intellect, became one of the most well-known and controversial Averroist doctrines in the West. His works were condemned by the Catholic Church in 1270 and 1277. Although weakened by the condemnations and sustained critique by Thomas Aquinas, Latin Averroism continued to attract followers up to the sixteenth century. Ibn Rushd's full, transliterated Arabic name is "Abū l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd". Sometimes, the nickname al-Hafid is appended to his name, to distinguish him from his similarly-named grandfather, a famous judge and jurist. "Averroes" is the Medieval Latin form of "Ibn Rushd". Other forms of the name in European languages include "Ibin-Ros-din", "Filius Rosadis", "Ibn-Rusid", "Ben-Raxid", "Ibn-Ruschod", "Den-Resched", "Aben-Rassad", "Aben-Rasd", "Aben-Rust", "Avenrosdy", "Avenryz", "Adveroys", "Benroist", "Avenroyth" and "Averroysta" Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rushd was born in 1126 in Córdoba.

His family was well known in the city for their public service in the legal and religious fields. His grandfather Abu al-Walid Muhammad was the chief judge of Córdoba and the imam of the Great Mosque of Córdoba under the Almoravids, his father Abu al-Qasim Ahmad was not as celebrated as his grandfather, but was chief judge until the Almoravids were replaced by the Almohads in 1146. According to his traditional biographers, Averroes' education was "excellent", beginning with studies in hadith, fiqh and theology, he learned Maliki jurisprudence under al-Hafiz Abu Muhammad ibn Rizq and hadith with Ibn Bashkuwal, a student of his grandfather. His father taught him about jurisprudence, including on Imam Malik's magnum opus the Muwatta, which Averroes went on to memorize, he studied medicine under Abu Jafar Jarim al-Tajail, who taught him philosophy too. He knew the works of the philosopher Ibn Bajjah, might have known him or been tutored by him, he joined a regular meeting of philosophers and poets in Seville, attended by philosophers Ibn Tufayl and Ibn Zuhr as well as the future caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub.

He studied the kalam theology of the Ashari school, which he criticized in life. His 13th century biographer Ibn al-Abbar said he was more interested in the study of law and its principles than that of hadith and he was competent in the field of khilaf. Ibn al-Abbar mentioned his interests in "the sciences of the ancients" in reference to Greek philosophy and sciences. By 1153 Averroes was in Marrakesh, the capital of the Almohad Caliphate, to perform astronomical observations and to

Bruce Papas

Bruce Papas is a New Zealand fashion designer. His mother’s family emigrated from Scotland to Hokianga and his father came from Greece, his parents met. Bruce's parents moved to Auckland. Bruce trained as a cabinet maker at Seddon Memorial Technical College in Auckland when the fashion designer Flora MacKenzie came across an example of his glass work, she offered the 15-year-old a job in her fashion boutique, Ninette Gowns. During his five-year apprenticeship, Bruce learnt about fabrics, drafting, pattern making, hand cording and embroidery, he left Ninette Gowns to start his own business named Staevros Gowns after his father who had passed away. He worked from a room in his mother's house that had fitting rooms on one side and a work space on the other. Bruce continued to specialise in haute couture for a small number of clients, some of whom followed him from Ninette Gowns, his wedding and bridesmaids gowns, in particular, received much acclaim. However, he was soon called up for compulsory training with the RAF.

On his return, Bruce was headhunted by Choyce department store. They were looking for a full-time designer to create three ranges a year – 500 styles – and manage a workroom of 50 staff. In 1961 Bruce won the inaugural Golden Shears Awards with his Golden Peacock gown. A large collection of his garments and design sketches are held at the Auckland War Memorial Museum. In 2018, New Zealand Fashion Museum celebrated his legacy with an exhibition "A Certain Style: Bruce Papas

St. Joachim Church, Philadelphia

St. Joachim Roman Catholic Church was the first Roman Catholic church founded in Northeast Philadelphia. Established in 1845 in the Frankford neighborhood of Philadelphia, the parish was closed on July 1, 2013, part of a wide-ranging re-organization of Catholic parishes in the Philadelphia Archdiocese; the history of St. Joachim’s Roman Catholic Church in Frankford began in the year 1843. About twenty men met in a small house in the area of the northern portion of the Frankford borough of Philadelphia; this meeting was held to discuss the purchase of a tract of land in which to construct a Catholic Chapel for the area of Frankford. Up until and during that period many Catholics in the area would worship at either St. Michael’s on Second Street or St. Stephen’s, both in Philadelphia; those present at that meeting included William Keenan, John McCafferty, John Haney, Timothy Britt, Patrick Farren. The result of the meeting was the purchase of a tract of land around the area of Harrison Street and Frankford Avenue for $600 from the Thompson estate.

Shortly after this the acquired land was exchanged for the present site of St. Joachim’s church on June 18, 1844; the reason given was that many residents felt that this location on Harrison Street was “out in the fields”. The present site, which a Dr. Lamb donated, stands at what is now Griscom and Penn Streets; the property at Harrison Street was sold for $650 to a Mr. Charles Ball; the cornerstone would not be laid until September 28, 1845. So until that time Sunday school was held in a house on Paul Street. Early in 1844, Rev. Dominick Forestal, who would become St. Joachim’s first pastor, was an assistant at St. Mary’s Church located on South 4th Street in Philadelphia, he was appointed to evaluate the situation. He found that the congregation was quite small, but large enough to warrant the building of a church. After informing the bishop with the state of affairs in Frankford, the bishop at the time was The Most Reverend Francis Patrick Kenrick, Father Forestal received the necessary authority to begin the task of building the church in Frankford.

An greater task now faced Father Forestal, and, collecting the funds to do so. To his surprise many of the residents of Frankford gave what they could; the building contract was awarded to Lewis Lakey and Thomas E. Deal, mason; the estimated cost was $9,000. Though the purchase of the land occurred in 1843, the permission was given to Father Forestal to build in 1844, the cornerstone was not laid until September 28, 1845 because of the nativist riots in the city in 1844, it was these riots, focused at but not limited to Catholics of Irish origin that saw the burning of Catholic churches in the area. These riots did not touch the Frankford area, the building of the new Catholic Church was underway; the blessing and laying of the cornerstone was officiated by the Rt. Rev. Célestine de la Hailandière, Bishop of Vincennes, with Bishop Kenrick in attendance; the work went and Father Forestal died in 1847 before the work was completed. Visitations by other priests occurred for a few months. Reverend James O'Kane was well acquainted with the parish.

He was an employee of nearby Friend's Asylum before entering the seminary. In Father O’Kane’s first year, the church was completed and the first mass was held; until the people of St. Joachim’s worshiped at another church, St. Ann’s, until the building was complete. In 1849 cholera desolated the area. Father O’Kane, along with the Rev. Henry S. Spackman, rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, threw aside their own safety and tended to those who fell victim to the disease and administered to the dying. Father O'Kane died in April 1852; the first high mass of the church was sung at his funeral, he was laid to rest in the cemetery behind the church. He was succeeded by the Rev. F. X. Villanis, who remained until the autumn of 1856. Under Father Villanis the pastoral house was built, it was a slanted roof facing Church Street. The only back building was an open shed; the residence cost $3,800. The Rev. John McGovern became pastor, it was under Father McGovern that the Old Baptist Church, now owned by the United Presbyterian Church standing on Penn Street, was purchased.

He converted it to a parochial school tended by the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart. The Baptist Church was built in 1807 on what was the corner of Edwards and Pine Streets; the purchase took place March 12, 1863 at a cost of $2,400. The present school was erected in 1885. Under Father McGovern’s charge the Convent in which the Sisters resided was built at a cost of $13,000. A steeple was erected on the church building at a cost of $8,000; the architect of the tower and spire was John T. Mahony; the builder of the steeple was Edward Allen, who became an undertaker. The mason was John Peters; the tower would stand 250 feet and during its construction one of the slate roofers fell from the structure to his death. Smaller congregations grew up in the outlining areas of the parish and were tended to by the priests of St. Joachim’s; these areas extended as far as Bustleton, started by Father McGovern, farther to Jenkintown and included Fox Chase and Tacony. These smaller congregations would break away from St. Joachim’s into their own parishes.

In 1872, Father Nicholas J. Walsh was appointed pastor. Under Father Walsh the congregation began to meet to discuss the building of a new church as the present church building had