Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin was an American architect and landscape architect. He is known for designing Australia's capital city, he has been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use of reinforced concrete. Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin developed a unique modern style, he worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In 28 years they designed over 350 buildings and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors and other household items. Griffin was born in 1876 in a suburb of Chicago, he was the eldest of the four children of George Walter Griffin, an insurance agent, Estelle Burley Griffin. His family moved to Oak Park and to Elmhurst; as a boy he had an interest in landscape design and gardening, his parents allowed him to landscape the yard at their new home in Elmhurst. Griffin went to Oak Park High School, he considered studying landscape design but was advised by the landscape gardener O. C. Simonds to pursue a more lucrative profession.
Griffin chose to study architecture, and, in 1899, completed his bachelor's degree in architecture at the University of Illinois. The University of Illinois program was run by Nathan Clifford Ricker, a German-educated architect, who emphasized the technical aspects of architecture. During his studies, he took courses in horticulture and forestry. After his studies, Griffin moved to Chicago and was employed as a draftsman for two years in the offices of progressive architects Dwight H. Perkins, Robert C. Spencer, Jr. and H. Webster Tomlinson in "Steinway Hall". Griffin's employers worked in the distinctive Prairie School style; this style is marked by horizontal lines, flat roofs with broad overhanging eaves, solid construction and strict discipline in the use of ornament. Louis Sullivan was influential among Prairie School architects and Griffin was an admirer of his work, of his philosophy of architecture which stressed that design should be free of historical precedent. Other architects of that school include George Grant Elmslie, George Washington Maher, William Gray Purcell, William Drummond and most Frank Lloyd Wright.
In July 1901 Griffin passed the new Illinois architects' licensing examination and this permitted him to enter private practice as an architect. He began to work in Frank Lloyd Wright's famous Oak Park, studios. Although he was never made a partner, Griffin oversaw the construction on many of Wright's noted houses including the Willits House in 1902 and the Larkin Administration Building built in 1904. From 1905 he began to supply landscape plans for Wright's buildings. Wright allowed his other staff to undertake small commissions of their own; the William Emery house, built in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1903 was such a commission. While working for Wright, Griffin fell in love with Maginel Wright, he proposed marriage to her, but his affections for her were not returned, she refused. In 1906 he resigned his position at Wright's studio and established his own practice at Steinway Hall. Griffin and Wright had fallen out over events following Mr. Wright's trip to Japan in 1905. While Wright was away for five months, Griffin ran the practice.
When Wright returned, he told Griffin that he had overstepped his responsibilities, completing several of Wright's jobs, sometimes substituting his own building designs. Further, Wright had borrowed money from Griffin to pay for his travels abroad, he tried to pay off his debts to Griffin with prints he had acquired in Japan, it became clear to Griffin that Wright would not make Griffin a partner in his business. Griffin's first independent commission was a landscape design for the State Normal School at Charleston, now known as the Eastern Illinois University. In the fall of 1906, he received his first residential job from Harry Peters; the Peters' House was the first house designed with an open floor plan. The L-shape was an economical design and constructed. From 1907, 13 houses in this style were built in the Chicago neighborhood now known as Beverly-Morgan Park. Seven of these houses are on W. 104th Place in Chicago. This street is now named Walter Burley Griffin Place, forms a municipal historical district within the national Ridge Historic District, as it contains the largest collection of small scale Griffin designs.
In 1911 Griffin married Marion Lucy Mahony, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in architecture. She was employed first in Wright's office, by Hermann V. von Holst, who had taken over Wright's work in America when Wright left for Europe in 1909. Marion Mahony recommended to von Holst that he hire Griffin to develop a landscape plan for the area surrounding the three houses on Milliken Place for which Wright had been hired in Decatur, Illinois. Mahony and Griffin worked on the Decatur project before their marriage. After their marriage, Mahony went to work in Griffin's practice. A Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony-designed development with several homes, Rock Crest – Rock Glen in Mason City, Iowa, is seen as their most dramatic American design development of the decade and remains the largest collection of Prairie Style homes surrounding a natural setting. From 1899 to 1914, Griffin created more than 130 designs in his Chicago office for buildings, urban plans and landscapes.
In 1981, the city of Chicago granted landmark status to the Prairie-style bungalows designed between 1909 and 1914 by Griffin in the 1700 block of West 104th Place (also known as the Griffin Place H
Alexander Jackson Davis
Alexander Jackson Davis, or A. J. Davis, was an American architect, known for his association with the Gothic Revival style. Davis was born in New York City and studied at the American Academy of Fine Arts, the New-York Drawing Association, from the Antique casts of the National Academy of Design. Dropping out of school, he became a respectable lithographer and from 1826 he worked as a draftsman for Josiah R. Brady, a New York architect, an early exponent of the Gothic revival style: Brady's Gothic 1824 St. Luke's Episcopal Church is the oldest surviving structure in Rochester, New York. Davis made a first independent career as an architectural illustrator in the 1820s, but his friends painter John Trumbull, convinced him to turn his hand to designing buildings. Picturesque siting and contrasts remained essential to his work when he was building in a Classical style. In 1826, Davis went to work in the office of Ithiel Town and Martin E. Thompson, the most prestigious architectural firm of the Greek Revival.
From 1829, in partnership with Town, Davis formed the first recognizably modern architectural office and designed many late Classical buildings, including some of public prominence. In Washington, Davis designed the Executive Department offices and with Robert Mills the first Patent Office building, he designed the Custom House of New York City. Bridgeport City Hall, constructed in 1853 and 1854, is a government building Davis designed in the Classical style. A series of consultations over state capitols followed, none built as Davis planned: the Indiana State House, elicited calls for his advice and designs in building other state capitols in the 1830s: North Carolina's, the Illinois State Capitol attributed to the Springfield, Illinois architect John F. Rague, at work on the Iowa State Capitol at the same time, in 1839, the committee responsible for commissioning a design for the Ohio Statehouse asked his advice; the resulting capitol in Columbus, Ohio attributed to the Hudson River School painter Thomas Cole consulting with Davis and Ithiel Town, has a stark Greek Doric order colonnade across a recessed entrance, flanked by recessed window bays that continue the rhythm of the central portico, all under a unique drum capped by a low saucer dome.
With Town's partner James Dakin, he designed the noble colossal Corinthian order of the Greek Revival "Colonnade Row" on New York's Lafayette Street, the first apartments designed for the prosperous American middle class. He continued in partnership with Town until shortly before Town's death in 1844. In 1831, he was elected an associate member of the National Academy. From 1835, Davis began work on his own on Rural Residences, his only publication, the first pattern book for picturesque residences in a domesticated Gothic Revival taste, which could be executed in carpentry, containing the first of the Italianate style "Tuscan" villas, flat-roofed with wide overhanging eaves and picturesque corner towers; the Panic of 1837 cut short his plans for a series of like volumes, but Davis soon formed a partnership with Andrew Jackson Downing, illustrating his read books. Additions to Vesper Cliff were built in 1834; the 1840s and 1850s were Davis's two most fruitful decades as a designer of country houses.
His villa "Lyndhurst" at Tarrytown, New York, is his single most famous house. Many of his villas were built in the scenic Hudson River Valley— where his style informed the vernacular Hudson River Bracketed that gave Edith Wharton a title for a novel —but Davis sent plans and specifications to clients as far afield as Indiana, he designed Blandwood, the 1846 home of Governor John Motley Morehead that stands as America's earliest Italianate Tuscan Villa. Innovative interior features, including his designs for mantels and sideboards, were widely imitated in the trade. Other influential interior details include pocket shutters at windows, bay windows, mirrored surfaces to reflect natural light; the Greek Revival style William Walsh House was built at Albany, New York, Gothic Revival style Belmead was built near Powhatan, Virginia, in 1845. Two smaller but well known structures designed by Davis include one built for John Cox Stevens in 1845; this building, fondly called "Station 10", still can be found in Newport.
Davis built a similar pavilion for his colleague and fellow NYYC founder, John Clarkson Jay, on Jay's Long Island Sound waterfront property in Rye, New York, in 1849. Although this building was taken down in the 1950s, the original setting and garden where it was once located is part of a National Historic Landmark site and open to the public. Inspired in part by friend Andrew Jackson Downing, Davis constructed several Gothic Revival cottage-style homes in Central New York, including the 1852-completed Reuel E. Smith House, included in the National Register of Historic Places. In 1851, Davis completed Winyah Park, one of eighteen or more Italianate houses he designed in the 1850s. Winyah was built for Richard Lathers, who had studied architecture with Davis in New York in the 1830s, it was situated on Lathers's estate in the town of New Rochelle in New York. For this design Davis won the first architectural prize at the New York World's Fair of 1853–54
Oscar Florianus Bluemner
Oscar Bluemner, born Friedrich Julius Oskar Blümner and after 1933 known as Oscar Florianus Bluemner, was a German-born American Modernist painter. Bluemner was born as Friedrich Julius Oskar Blümner in Prenzlau, Germany, on June 21, 1867, he studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Design in Berlin. Bluemner moved to Chicago in 1893 where he freelanced as a draftsman at the World's Columbian Exposition. After the exposition, he attempted to find work in Chicago. In 1901, he relocated to New York City where he was unable to find steady employment. In 1903, he created the winning design for the Bronx Borough Courthouse in New York, although it is credited to Michael J. Garvin; the scandal that arose around this took down borough president Louis Haffen for corruption and fraud. In 1908 Bluemner met Alfred Stieglitz, who introduced him to the artistic innovations of the European and American avant-garde. By 1910, Bluemner had decided to pursue painting full-time rather than architecture, he exhibited in the 1913 Armory Show.
He said that the Americans' contribution failed to match that of the Europeans because the American selection process reflected rivalries and compromises rather than curatorial judgment, resulting in a "melée of antagonistic examples". In 1915 Stieglitz gave him a solo exhibition at his gallery, 291. Despite participating in several exhibitions, including solo shows, for the next ten years Bluemner failed to sell many paintings and lived with his family in near poverty, he created paintings for the Federal Arts Project in the 1930s. After his wife's death in 1926, Bluemner moved to Massachusetts. From there in 1932 he contributed a letter to an ongoing debate in the New York Times on the question "What is American Art?". He wrote: America sells its shoes, canned beef and so forth in Europe and all over the world not because they have an American style or are wrapped in the American flag, but because they are best, thus the French export their paintings and birth-control, the Germans export sauerkraut and prima donnas, because those things, are best.
Today, for quality, nationalism, as a race-attribute, means nothing. Let us, make progressive and best painting, each one as he is fit to do, ask: What and when is painting, in a critical sense?... How can the people agree on what is American style, if the painters themselves, by their work, disagree profoundly as to what real painting itself is! And there is, always was, nothing more contemptible, ridiculous and, to art, than patrioteering, which thinly veils profiteering. Ideally, pure, is of a sphere and of no country. El Greco, an immigrant... defied the Spanish professors.... And in the same sense, the future will not fail to stamp that of our own work as peculiarly American in which the living painter, has injected no conscious thought of his hailing from Hoboken or Kankakee, every consideration of pure and modern painting and of the supreme quality he maybe capable of, he had a successful one-man show in 1935 at the Marie Harriman Gallery in New York City. In the New York Times, Edward Alden Jewell called it Bluemner's "apotheosis".
He wrote: He is mush alive and has been working of late... with robustious results. These twenty-eight canvases bear the generic title, "New Landscape Paintings." That is because Mr. Blkuemner feels that some degree of "representation" is essential if abstract ideas are to be put over with entire success. However, the artist more and more classifies them as "compositions for color themes." He might, if he chose call them "color music" without risking the opprobrium that attends excursions into so hazardous a field.... These startling pictures build rhythms that depend as a rule on simple statement. Here we find none of the overtones and undertones that some other artists have employed in projecting visual music. Bluemner relies for his effect upon resonant chords. Though modulations of tone occur, these seem of secondary importance in his scheme. There is decidedly something in this new, exclamatory style. Bluemner committed suicide on January 12, 1938. Stetson University holds more than 1,000 pieces of Oscar Bluemner's work bequeathed in 1997 by his daughter, Vera Bluemner Kouba.
In 2009 the Homer and Dolly Hand Art Center at Stetson opened with a primary mission of housing a providing exhibition space for the Kouba Collection. Overlooked in his lifetime, Bluemner now is acknowledged as a key player in the creation of American artistic Modernism, with better-known colleagues such as Georgia O'Keeffe and John Marin. In 2013, the Montclair Art Museum in New Jersey presented an exhibition of Bluemner's works depicting the landscapes and industrial areas of Paterson, painted between 1910 and 1917, drawn from the Stetson holdings, it marked the centenary of the Paterson silk strike. An oil painting by Bluemner, Illusion of a Prairie, New Jersey sold at Christie's, New York, for $5,346,500 on November 30, 2011. Haskell, Barbara. Oscar Bluemner: A Passion for Color. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. ISBN 9780874271508. OCLC 61130814. Archives of American Art. From Reliable Sources: a selection of letters and photographs from the Archives of American Art. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Pp. 14–15. OCLC 3255571. Exhibit
Ernest Flagg was a noted American architect in the Beaux-Arts style. He was an advocate for urban reform and architecture's social responsibility. Flagg was born in New York, his father Jared Bradley Flagg was a notable painter. Ernest left school at 15 to work as an office boy on Wall Street. After working with his father and brothers in real estate for a few years, he designed duplex apartment plans in 1880 with the architect Philip Gengembre Hubert, for the co-operative apartment buildings Hubert was known for. Cornelius Vanderbilt II, Flagg's cousin through his marriage to Alice Claypoole Gwynne, was impressed by Flagg's work and sent him to study at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1889–1891, under his patronage. In 1891, Flagg began his architectural practice in New York influenced by his knowledge of the French ideas of architectural design, such as structural rationalism. During this time he joined with John Prentiss Benson to create Flagg & Benson, which became Flagg, Benson & Brockway with the addition of Albert Leverett Brockway.
FB&B designed St. Luke's Hospital in New York City. In 1894, he established the architectural firm of Flagg & Chambers with Walter B. Chambers, whom he met in Paris. Flagg alone is credited for some of the work he and Chambers worked on together, such as the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the U. S. Naval Academy, Pomfret School in Connecticut which he saw as "part of the process of evolution that would contribute to the creation of a national style of architecture.”Louisa Flagg Scribner, Flagg's sister, was the wife of Charles Scribner II. Through this familial connection, Flagg designed six structures located in Manhattan for the publishing family. Flagg is best known for his design of the Singer Tower. Completed in 1908, it was the tallest office building in the world, at 612 feet. Faithful to his Beaux-Arts training, Flagg allowed space around the tall building for light to enter, unusual for the time. Though Flagg is best known for his large institutional designs, he was interested in producing modest, attractive homes affordable to average Americans.
He developed innovative techniques toward that end and in 1922 published the book Small Houses, Their Economic Design and Construction. He packaged these techniques and ideas into the Flagg System, collaborated with builders scattered across the U. S. to build them. His contributions to zoning and height regulations were essential to New York's first laws governing this aspect of the city's architecture. Flagg argued in favor of zoning laws which would regulate the height and setback of buildings, to allow light and air to reach the streets below them, he was a president of the New York Society of Beaux-Arts Architects. A small collection of Flagg's personal and professional papers is held in the Department of Drawings & Archives at Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University; the homes that Flagg designed are modest, low to the ground, with stone walls, with steep roofs, distinctive ridge dormers, round-capped chimneys. Their styles suggest Cotswold Cottage, or French Provincial to various extents.
Flagg considered surface decoration "sham," and preferred to suggest styles with the general form of the building, adding interest with chimneys and dormers. As mentioned above, Flagg aimed to make attractive homes affordable to average families, he did this by the following means: The houses are somewhat small in scale compared to their contemporaries; this gives them an intimate cottage feel. Flagg designed the homes on a "module system. 45 inches was chosen to reduce cutting of standard-length boards and sheets of glass. The same standard sizes were used for vertical dimensions; this grid allowed simplified designs, easy for the builder to follow, standardized parts that could be produced in quantity for many houses. This was 25 years before the American Institute of Architects and the General Contractors Association settled on standardized sizes; the exterior walls are concrete. The builder constructed wooden forms and laid natural stone inside, with its flat side against the outside of the form.
Concrete was poured behind the stone, 16 to 20 inches thick. After the forms were removed, the joints were finished from the outside; the result was a load-bearing wall. Cost was reduced by designing most of the walls low enough to be built without scaffolding, with unskilled labor, or so Flagg claimed; the houses have no full basement or full attic, both of which Flagg considered expensive useless space. The lack of basement helped keep the walls low. Steep roofs reach down to the low walls, inside these roofs Flagg tucked storage space and sometimes rooms; the spaces within the roof are lit by dormers including unusual ridge dormers. These dormers can be opened in summer for ventilation. Many of the houses have distinctive round-capped stone chimneys on the end walls. Instead of gutters and rainpipes, a cement walk ran around the house under the eaves, so run-off would splash and run away, instead of eroding the landscaping. Inside, Flagg minimized hallways. Interior walls were constructed by stretching a jute screen where wanted plastering both sides, making a fireproof, sound-dampening partition only 1.5 inches thick.
This saved space and cost that would have otherwise been spent on studs and plaster. Ceiling beams were left both to save plastering costs and to add interest. Inward-opening casement windows were used instead of sash
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian humanist author, architect, priest, linguist and cryptographer. Although he is characterized as an architect, as James Beck has observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's'fields' over others as somehow functionally independent and self-sufficient is of no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive explorations in the fine arts." Although Alberti is known for being an artist, he was a mathematician of many sorts and made great advances to this field during the 15th century. Alberti's life was described in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects. Leon Battista Alberti was born in 1404 in Genoa, his mother is not known, his father was a wealthy Florentine, exiled from his own city, allowed to return in 1428. Alberti was sent to boarding school in Padua studied Law at Bologna, he lived for a time in Florence travelled to Rome in 1431 where he took holy orders and entered the service of the papal court. During this time he studied the ancient ruins, which excited his interest in architecture and influenced the form of the buildings that he designed.
Alberti was gifted in many ways. He was strong and a fine athlete who could ride the wildest horse and jump over a man's head, he distinguished himself as a writer while he was still a child at school, by the age of twenty had written a play, passed off as a genuine piece of Classical literature. In 1435, he began his first major written work, Della pittura, inspired by the burgeoning pictorial art in Florence in the early 15th century. In this work he analyses the nature of painting and explores the elements of perspective and colour. In 1438 he began to focus more on architecture and was encouraged by the Marchese Leonello d'Este of Ferrara, for whom he built a small triumphal arch to support an equestrian statue of Leonello's father. In 1447 he became the architectural advisor to Pope Nicholas V and was involved with several projects at the Vatican, his first major architectural commission was in 1446 for the facade of the Rucellai Palace in Florence. This was followed in 1450 by a commission from Sigismondo Malatesta to transform the Gothic church of San Francesco in Rimini into a memorial chapel, the Tempio Malatestiano.
In Florence, he designed the upper parts of the facade for the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella, famously bridging the nave and lower aisles with two ornately inlaid scrolls, solving a visual problem and setting a precedent to be followed by architects of churches for four hundred years. In 1452, he completed De re aedificatoria, a treatise on architecture, using as its basis the work of Vitruvius and influenced by the archaeological remains of Rome; the work was not published until 1485. It was followed in 1464 by De statua, in which he examines sculpture. Alberti's only known sculpture is a self-portrait medallion, sometimes attributed to Pisanello. Alberti was employed to design two churches in Mantua, San Sebastiano, never completed, for which Alberti's intention can only be speculated upon, the Basilica of Sant'Andrea; the design for the latter church was completed in 1471, a year before Alberti's death, but was brought to completion and is his most significant work. As an artist, Alberti distinguished himself from the ordinary craftsman, educated in workshops.
He was a humanist, part of the expanding entourage of intellectuals and artisans supported by the courts of the princes and lords of the time. Alberti, as a member of noble family and as part of the Roman curia, had special status, he was a welcomed guest at the Este court in Ferrara, in Urbino he spent part of the hot-weather season with the soldier-prince Federico III da Montefeltro. The Duke of Urbino was a shrewd military commander, who generously spent money on the patronage of art. Alberti planned to dedicate his treatise on architecture to his friend. Among Alberti's smaller studies, pioneering in their field, were a treatise in cryptography, De componendis cifris, the first Italian grammar. With the Florentine cosmographer Paolo Toscanelli he collaborated in astronomy, a close science to geography at that time, produced a small Latin work on geography, Descriptio urbis Romae. Just a few years before his death, Alberti completed De iciarchia, a dialogue about Florence during the Medici rule.
Alberti, having taken holy orders, remained unmarried all his life. He had a pet dog, a mongrel, for whom he wrote a panegyric. Vasari describes him as "an admirable citizen, a man of culture.... A friend of talented men and courteous with everyone, he always lived honourably and like the gentleman he was." Alberti died in Rome on April 25, 1472 at the age of 68. Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of the sciences. "To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting," Alberti began his treatise, Della Pittura, "I will take first from the mathematicians those things with which my subject is concerned."Della pittura relied in its scientific content on classical optics in determining perspective as a geometric instrument of artistic and architectural representation. Alberti was well-versed in the sciences of his age, his knowledge of optics was connected to the handed-down long-standing tradition of the Kitab al-manazir of the Arab polymath Alhazen, mediated by Franciscan optical workshops of th
Gordon Bunshaft, was an American architect, a leading proponent of modern design in the mid-twentieth century. A partner in the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Bunshaft joined in 1937 and remained for more than 40 years; the long list of his notable buildings includes Lever House in New York, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. the National Commercial Bank in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 140 Broadway and Manufacturers Hanover Trust Branch Bank in New York. Bunshaft was born in Buffalo, New York, to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, attended Lafayette High School, he received both his undergraduate and his master's degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, studied in Europe on a Rotch Traveling Scholarship from 1935 to 1937. After his traveling scholarship, Bunshaft worked for Edward Durell Stone and industrial designer Raymond Loewy before joining SOM. Bunshaft's early influences included Le Corbusier.
In the 1950s, Bunshaft was hired by the State Department's Office of Foreign Building Operations as a collaborator on the design for several U. S. consulates in Germany. Bunshaft's only single-family residence was the 2300 square foot Travertine House, built for his own family. On his death he left the house to MoMA, which sold it to Martha Stewart in 1995, her extensive remodelling stalled amid an acrimonious planning dispute with a neighbour. In 2005, she sold the house to textile magnate Donald Maharam, who described the house as "decrepit and beyond repair" and demolished it. Bunshaft was elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters and was the recipient of numerous other honors and awards, he received the Brunner Prize of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1955, its gold medal in 1984. He received the American Institute of Architects Twenty-five Year Award for Lever House, in 1980, the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 1988. In 1958, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full member in 1959.
From 1963 to 1972, he was a member of the Commission of Fine Arts in Washington. Upon receiving the Pritzker Prize in 1988, for which he nominated himself, he gave the shortest speech of any winner in the award's history, stating: In 1928, I entered the MIT School of Architecture and started my architectural trip. Today, 60 years I've been given the Pritzker Architecture Prize for which I thank the Pritzker family and the distinguished members of the selection committee for honoring me with this prestigious award, it is the capstone of my life in architecture. That's it. Bunshaft was a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art, he received the Medal of Honor of the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Bunshaft's personal papers are held by the Department of Drawings & Archives in the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University. C. 1983 - National Commercial Bank - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia In 1943, Bunshaft married Nina Wayler. They were avid collectors of contemporary art and owned many major pieces including works by Joan Miró, Giacometti, Léger and Noguchi.
They lived in the Manhattan House Apartments in New York's Upper East Side, which he helped design, at the Travertine House in East Hampton, his only single-family residence. He is buried next to his wife and parents in the Temple Beth El cemetery on Pine Ridge Road in Buffalo, New York. Carol Herselle Krinsky, Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, MIT Press, 1988 "Oral history interview with Gordon Bunshaft". Chicago Architects Oral History Project, The Art Institute of Chicago. Archived from the original on May 16, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2005. "Wrecking Ball". MetaFilter. Retrieved October 12, 2005. Discussion and links about preservation and rebuilding of the Bunshaft Residence, aka "Travertine House.". "Gordon Bunshaft 1988 Laureate". The Pritzker Architecture Prize. Retrieved October 12, 2005. Gordon Bunshaft architectural drawings and papers, 1909-1990. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. Gordon Bunshaft at Find
Ralph Adams Cram
Ralph Adams Cram was a prolific and influential American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style. Cram & Ferguson and Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson are partnerships. Together with an architect and artist, he is honored on December 16 as a feast day in the Episcopal Church of the United States. Cram was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Cram was born on December 16, 1863, at Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, to William Augustine and Sarah Elizabeth Cram, he was educated at Augusta, Hampton Falls, Westford Academy, which he entered in 1875, Exeter. At age 18, Cram moved to Boston in 1881 and worked for five years in the architectural office of Rotch & Tilden, after which he left for Rome to study classical architecture. From 1885 to 1887, he was art critic for the Boston Transcript. During an 1887 Christmas Eve mass in Rome, he had a dramatic conversion experience. For the rest of his life, he practiced as a fervent Anglo-Catholic who identified as high-church Anglican.
In the 1890s, Cram was a key figure in "social-controversial-inspirational" groups including the Pewter Mugs and the Visionists. In 1900, Cram married Elizabeth Carrington Read at Massachusetts, she was the daughter of his wife. Read had served as a captain in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Elizabeth and Ralph had three children, Mary Carrington Cram, Ralph Wentworth Cram and Elizabeth Strudwick Cram; the family burial site is at the St. Elizabeth's Memorial Churchyard; the churchyard is adjacent to St Elizabeth's Chapel. Cram and business partner Charles Wentworth started business in Boston in April 1889 as Cram and Wentworth, they had landed only four or five church commissions before they were joined by Bertram Goodhue in 1892 to form Cram and Goodhue. Goodhue brought an award-winning commission in Dallas and brilliant drafting skills to the Boston office. Wentworth died in 1897 and the firm's name changed to Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson to include draftsman Frank Ferguson. Cram and Goodhue complemented each other's strengths at first but began to compete, sometimes submitting two differing proposals for the same commission.
The firm won design of the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1902, a major milestone in their career. They set up the firm's New York office, where Goodhue would preside, leaving Cram to operate in Boston. From 1907 to 1909 Cram was the editor of Christian Art. Cram's acceptance of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine commission in 1911 heightened the tension between the two. Architectural historians have attributed most of their projects to one partner or the other, based on the visual and compositional style, the location; the Gothic Revival Saint Thomas Church was designed by them both in 1914 on Manhattan's Fifth Avenue. It is the last example of their collaboration, the most integrated and strongest example of their work together. Goodhue began his solo career on August 14, 1913. Cram and Ferguson continued with major college commissions through the 1930s. Important work includes the original campus of Rice University, Houston, as well as the library and first city hall of that city.
Notable is Cram's first church in the Boston area, All Saint's, Dorchester. The successor firm is Ferguson of Boston. A leading proponent of disciplined Gothic Revival architecture in general and Collegiate Gothic in particular, Cram is most associated with Princeton University, where he served as supervising architect from 1907 to 1929, during a period of major construction; the university awarded him a Doctor of Letters for his achievements. In 1907, he served as chairman of the American Institute of Architects' Committee on Education. For seven years he headed the Architectural Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Through the 1920s Cram was a public figure and mentioned in the press; the New York Times called him "one of the most prominent Episcopalian laymen in the country". He made news with his defense of Al Smith during his electoral campaign, when anti-Catholic rhetoric was used, saying "I... express my disgust at the ignorance and superstition now rampant and in order that I may go on record as another of those who, though not Roman Catholics, are Americans and are outraged by this recrudescence of blatant bigotry, operating through the most cowardly and contemptible methods."In around 1932, he designed the Desloge Chapel in St. Louis, MO, the Gothic chapel designed to echo the contours of the St. Chapelle in Paris.
Desloge Chapel, associated with the Firmin Desloge Hospital and St. Louis University, in 1983, was declared a landmark by the Missouri Historical Society. In 1938, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician; as an author and architect, Cram propounded the view that the Renaissance had been, at least in part, an unfortunate detour for western culture. Cram argued that authentic development could come only by returning to Gothic sources for inspiration, as his "Collegiate Gothic" architecture did, with considerable success. For his Rice University buildings, he favored a medieval north Italian Romanesque style, more in keeping with Houston's hot, humid climate. A modernist in many ways, he designed Art Deco landmarks of great distinction, including the Federal Building skyscraper in Boston and numerous churches. For example, his design of the tower of the East Liberty Presbyterian Church, was inspired by the Empire State Building, his work at Rice was as modernist as medieval in inspiration.
His administration building, his secular masterwork, has been compared by