Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
Fan Expo Canada
Fan Expo Canada is an annual speculative fiction fan convention held in Toronto, Ontario. It was founded as the Canadian National Comic Book Expo in 1995 by Hobby Star Marketing Inc, it includes distinctly branded sections, including GX and SFX, CNAnime. It is a four-day event held the weekend before Labour Day during the summer at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre and is now owned by Informa. Showcasing comic books, science fiction/fantasy and film/television and related popular arts, Fan Expo Canada has expanded over the years to include a larger range of pop culture and fandom elements, such as horror, manga, toys, collectible card games, video games, web entertainment; the convention is the largest of its kind in Canada and among the largest in world, filling the entire North and South Buildings of the MTCC with over 130,000 attendees in 2016. In 2013, Fan Expo Canada's parent company Hobby Star Marketing was acquired by Informa Canada Inc, which now organizes the event. Along with panels and workshops with comic book professionals, there are previews of upcoming feature films, portfolio review sessions with top comic book and video game companies, evening events such as the Masquerade, special screenings and the Diamond Distribution Industry Night Dinner and Reception for industry professionals only.
Traditional events include screening rooms devoted to Japanese animation and over 300 hours of other programming on all aspects of comic books and popular culture. Like most comic book conventions, Fan Expo Canada features a large floorspace for exhibitors; these include media companies such as movie studios and TV networks, as well as comic book dealers and collectibles merchants. Fan Expo Canada includes a large autographs area, as well as an Artists Alley where comic book artists can sign autographs and sell or do free sketches. In recent years, Fan Expo Canada has become one of the few events that provides selling "exclusive" products to attendees; the vast majority of the exclusives offered at Fan Expo Canada are licensed properties of popular movie, comic book and related characters. |} Fan Expo Canada is the site of many unique attractions that include Exclusive Pre-screenings and live presentations of upcoming television series and feature films including live introductions from the Directors and Cast members.
Some recent projects featured at Fan Expo Canada included the television series: Revolution cast Billy Burke, Tracy Spiridakos and Giancarlo Esposito Arrow cast Stephen Amell, Willa Holland, Colin Donnell and Katie Cassidy Criminal Minds cast A. J. Cook and Matthew Gray Gubler Flashpoint cast David Paetkau, Sergio Di Zio and Oluniké Adeliyi entire cast for Bitten entire casts and producers for Continuum, Dead Before Dawn and Lost Girl Harry Potter Reunion with Tom Felton, Rupert Grint and James and Oliver PhelpsIn 2012, for the first time Fan Expo Canada was the site of a wedding. Two longtime Fan Expo attendees were married in front of a live audience of thousands of fans on the afternoon of August 24. There was a proposal of marriage that took place between two attendees on the afternoon of August 26; the engaged couple credited Fan Expo Canada’s Nerd Speed Dating event from the previous year in finding one another. Some attractions at Fan Expo Canada have become standard from year to year due to their continued popularity.
Some of these attractions include the aforementioned Speed Dating, Steampunk activities, Web series presentations, Star Wars sessions provided by the 501st Legion, Lolita fashion and others. Capacity attendance at Fan Expo Canada in 2005 has raised crowding issues. Concerns have been that the event is too big for the Metro Toronto Convention Centre though they have moved to the largest halls in the facility; the worry of fans is that the event will sell out and potential attendees will be denied entry as has happened at similar events such as Anime North, the New York Comic Con and San Diego Comic-Con International. The 2010 event left thousands of fans standing outside as capacity became an issue, many waiting several hours for re-entry. At one point during Saturday afternoon organizers announced that they would not be letting anyone else in, including those who had purchased tickets in advance, but the majority of fans remained unaware of this and continued to line up in ignorance until word-of-mouth reached them.
They announced that they would be staying open an extra hour to try to accommodate the lines, though many had waited for more than 2 hours for re-entry. Due to additional space, more staff, a new advance ticketing system, expanded hours and the additional day added to the event, capacity issues were avoided in 2011. In recent years, HSM has cleaned up their organization and become more respectful to attendees of their fan-based events. After the capacity issue at Fan Expo 2010 and extending the event, CEO and President Aman Gupta released an apology statement to the fans, stated that while no refunds would be made under any circumstances, the South Building of the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, the location in previous years, was booked for the 2011 edition. Public relations employees at Hobby Star contacted as many of the fans who had expressed their dissatisfaction, gathering feedback on the convention and expressing personal apologies; some of the negative aspects described by fans is the overpricing of the conventions, including entry fees, merchandise and poor services.
Canadian journalist and book writer Jonathan Kay, an attender at the convention with his daughters, criticized the high pr
Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor
The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor is a proposed nuclear fusion reactor project at Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Its high-beta configuration, which implies that the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure is greater than or equal to 1, allows a compact fusion reactor design and expedited development; the CFR chief designer and technical team lead, Thomas McGuire studied fusion as a source of space propulsion in response to a NASA desire to improve travel times to Mars. The project began in 2010, was publicly presented at the Google Solve for X forum on February 7, 2013. In October 2014 Lockheed Martin announced a plan to "build and test a compact fusion reactor in less than a year with a prototype to follow within five years". In May 2016, Rob Weiss announced that Lockheed Martin continued to support the project and would increase its investment in it. CFR plans to achieve high beta by combining cusp confinement and magnetic mirrors to confine the plasma. Cusps are bent magnetic fields.
Ideally, the plasma forms a sheath along the surface of the cusps and plasma leaks out along the axis and edges of the bent field. The plasma lost along the edges recycles back into the cusps. CFR uses two mirror sets. A pair of ring mirrors is placed inside the cylindrical reactor vessel at either end; the other mirror set encircles the reactor cylinder. The ring magnets produce a type of magnetic field known as a diamagnetic cusp, in which magnetic forces change direction and push the nuclei towards the midpoint between the two rings; the fields from the external magnets push the nuclei back towards the vessel ends. Magnetic field strength is an increasing function of distance from the center; this implies that as the plasma pressure causes the plasma to expand, the magnetic field becomes stronger at the plasma edge, increasing containment. CFR employs superconducting magnets; these allow strong magnetic fields to be created with less energy than conventional magnets. The CFR has no net current, which Lockheed claimed eliminates the prime source of plasma instabilities.
The plasma has a favorable surface-to-volume ratio. The plasma's small volume reduces the energy needed to achieve fusion; the project plans to replace the microwave emitters that heat the plasma in their prototypes with neutral beam injection, in which electrically neutral deuterium atoms transfer their energy to the plasma. Once initiated, the energy from fusion maintains the necessary temperature for subsequent fusion events; the eventual device may reach 21 m in width. The company claims that each design iteration is shorter and far lower cost than large-scale projects such as the Joint European Torus, ITER or NIF. A 200 MW Pth reactor, 18 m long by 7 m in diameter, produces about a 2000 ton reactor, similar in size to an A5W nuclear submarine fission reactor. Ring magnets require protection from the plasma's neutron radiation. Plasma temperatures must reach many millions of kelvins. Superconducting magnets must be kept just above absolute zero to maintain superconductivity; the blanket component that lines the reactor vessel has two functions: it captures the neutrons and transfers their energy to a coolant, forces the neutrons to collide with lithium atoms, transforming them into tritium to fuel the reactor.
The blanket must weigh 300 -- 1000 tons. The prototype was planned to be a 100-megawatt deuterium and tritium reactor measuring 7 by 10 feet that could fit on the back of a large truck and would be about one tenth the size of current reactor prototypes. 100 megawatts is enough to provide power for 80,000 people. A series of prototypes were constructed to approach this goal. Technical results presented on the T4 experiment in 2015 showed a cold ionized plasma with the following parameters: peak electron temperature of 20 Electron volts, 1016 m−3 electron density, less than 1% ionization fraction and 3 kW of input power. No confinement or fusion reaction rates were presented. McGuire presented two theoretical reactor concepts in 2015. One was an ideal configuration weighing 200 metric tons with 1 meter of cryogenic radiation shielding and 15 tesla magnets; the other was a conservative configuration weighing 2,000 metric tons, with 2 meters of cryogenic radiation shielding and 5 Tesla magnets. The T4B prototype was announced in 2016.
Parameters: 1 m diameter × 2 m long 1 MW, 25 keV H-neutral beam heating power 3 ms duration Assume 500 kW is converted into fast ions. N = 5×1019 m−3 β = 1 V = 0.2 m3, 1170 J total energy Peak Ti = 75 eV Peak Te = 250 eV Peak sheath loss = 228 kW, about equal to Pei Peak ring cusp loss = 15 kW Peak axial cusp loss = 1 kW Parameters: 7 m diameter × 18 m long, 1 m thick blankets 320 MW gross 40 MW heating power, 2.3 s n = 5×1020 m−3 β = 1 V = 16.3 m3, 51 MJ total energy Ti = 9.6 keV Te = 12.6 keV In February 2018, Lockheed Martin was granted one patent. It applied for three others. Physics professor and director of the UK's national Fusion laboratory Steven Cowley called for more data, pointing out that the current thinking in fusion research is that "bigger is better". Other fusion reactors achieve 8 times improvement in heat confinement. ARC fusion reactor Beta Fusion power Fusor Inertial electrostatic confinement Magnetic mirror Polywell Lockheed Martin Compact Reactor design page Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion on YouTube Solve for X: Charles Chase on energy for everyone on YouTube February 11, 2013
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, machinery, building infrastructure, supporting utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational. Together, these functions are referred to as Maintenance and overhaul. MRO is used for Maintenance and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized; the United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions: Any activity—such as tests, replacements and repairs—intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. All action taken to restore it to serviceability, it includes inspections, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair and reclamation. All repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.
The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. Maintenance is connected to the utilization stage of the product or technical system, in which the concept of maintainability must be included. In this scenario, maintainability is considered as the ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, using prescribed procedures and resources. In some domains like aircraft maintenance, terms maintenance and overhaul include inspection, rebuilding and the supply of spare parts, raw materials, sealants and consumables for aircraft maintenance at the utilization stage. In international civil aviation maintenance means: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, replacement, defect rectification, the embodiment of a modification or a repair.
This definition covers all activities for which aviation regulations require issuance of a maintenance release document. The basic types of maintenance falling under MRO include: Preventive maintenance known as PM Corrective maintenance where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down. Predictive maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs. ReinforcementArchitectural conservation employs MRO to preserve, restore, or reconstruct historical structures with stone, glass and wood which match the original constituent materials where possible, or with suitable polymer technologies when not. Preventive maintenance is "a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of "noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop." Ideally, "nothing breaks down."The main goal behind PM is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next planned service without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve by replacing worn components before they fail.
Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, minor adjustments, so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure; the New York Times gave an example of "machinery, not lubricated on schedule" that functions "until a bearing burns out." Preventive maintenance contracts are a fixed cost, whereas improper maintenance introduces a variable cost: replacement of major equipment. Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects; the work carried out on equipment in order to avoid its malfunction. It is a routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Maintenance, including tests, adjustments, parts replacement, cleaning, performed to prevent faults from occurring.
Other terms and abbreviations related to PM are: scheduled maintenance planned maintenance, which may include scheduled downtime for equipment replacement planned preventive maintenance is another name for PM breakdown maintenance: fixing things only when they break. This is known as "a reactive maintenance strategy" and may involve "consequential damage." Planned preventive maintenance, more referred to as planned maintenance or scheduled maintenance, is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime; the key factor as to when and why this work is being done is timing, involves a service, resource or facility being unavailable. By contrast, co
Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work.
For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation are among the major global players
The Myasishchev M-50 is a Soviet prototype four-jet engine supersonic strategic bomber, which never attained service. Only one flightworthy prototype was built, first flown in October 1959; the M-50 was constructed by the Myasishchev design bureau. It was a fast jet bomber with four engines: two Dobrynin VD-7 non-afterburning turbojet engines at the outer and two VD-7F afterburning turbojet engines at the inner positions; the two inner engines were located under the wing and the two outer on the wingtips of its shoulder-mounted, truncated delta wings. The second M-50 was designated M-52 and carried Zubets 16-17 turbofans, around which the aircraft had been designed; the engine installation was modified, a second tailplane added to the top of the fin. M-50 participated in a Soviet Aviation Day flyby in 1961. M-52 was not flight tested. An unmanned M-51 intercontinental cruise missile variant was developed, would have delivered multiple warheads on targets in the continental United States. Like most of the early 1960s supersonic strategic bomber projects, the M-50/52 program was terminated due to the development of the intercontinental ballistic missiles and the priority assigned to the Soviet space program.
The 1 December 1958 issue of Aviation Week included an article Soviets Flight Testing Nuclear Bomber claiming that the Soviets had made great progress in their own nuclear aircraft program. This was accompanied by an editorial on the topic as well; the magazine claimed that the aircraft was real beyond a doubt, stating that "A nuclear-powered bomber is being flight tested in the Soviet Union.... It has been observed both in flight and on the ground by a wide variety of foreign observers from Communist and non-Communist countries." In reality, the article was a hoax. The aircraft in the photographs was revealed to be a M-50 and not a nuclear-powered plane at all. In reality, in the early 1960s Soviet Union did test a technology demonstrator for a nuclear-powered strategic bomber, Tupolev Tu-95LAL, similar to the somewhat earlier American Convair NB-36H project, being based on the turboprop Tu-95, it was never supersonic, it never flew under nuclear power, moreover, it was developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau, as Myasischev company had lost the competition to develop the prototype.
It was deemed successful. When the functional ICBMs appeared, the majority of funding and development effort was shifted into that field, in the late 1960s the project was stopped. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 57.48 m Wingspan: 35.10 m Height: 8.25 m Wing area: 290.6 m2 Empty weight: 85,000 kg Gross weight: 175,000 kg Max takeoff weight: 200,000 kg Powerplant: 2 × Dobrynin VD-7F afterburning turbojet, 137.29 kN thrust each wet Powerplant: 2 × Dobrynin VD-7 non-afterburning turbojet, 110 kN thrust eachPerformance Maximum speed: 1,950 km/h Cruise speed: 1,500 km/h Range: 7,400 km Service ceiling: 16,500 m Wing loading: 602 kg/m2 Thrust/weight: 0.29Armament 30,000 kg of bombs or missiles carried in internal bays, including M-59 and M-61 long-range cruise missiles Aircraft of comparable role and era Convair B-58 Hustler https://web.archive.org/web/20051029071603/http://www.aviation.ru/Mya/#50 Another story, in English