The estuarine whiting, Sillago vincenti, is a species of benthic inshore marine fish of the smelt-whiting family, Sillaginidae. The estuarine whiting is similar in appearance to the northern whiting, Sillago sihama, as such was mistaken for the latter until 1980, when R. J. McKay identified the species based on swimbladder morphology; the estuarine whiting is distributed along both the east and west coasts of India inhabiting the muddy substrates of estuaries. The species is locally important to fisheries in India, is recognized as having aquaculture potential; the estuarine whiting is one of 29 species in the genus Sillago, one of three genera of the smelt whiting family Sillaginidae. The smelt-whitings are Perciformes in the suborder Percoidea; the species was first scientifically described by Roland McKay of the Queensland Museum in 1980, the first to recognize it as a distinct species from the anatomically similar S. sihama. McKay designated a specimen collected in 1965 from Mandapam Camp in India to be the holotype.
It is known as the estuarine whiting in reference to its preferred habitat, as well as Vincent's whiting in relation to its specific name. In India it is referred to as'Kalimeen'; the estuarine whiting is similar to S. sihama in its external morphology, with a dissection of the swimbladder required to identify the species in the field. The species is known to reach a maximum length of 30 cm; the external morphology is similar to all sillaginids, having a straight ventral profile and a curved dorsal profile. The dorsal fin is composed of two sections, the first consisting of 11 spines, while the second, longer dorsal has a single spine followed by 21 to 23 soft rays posteriorally; the anal fin is followed by 22 or 24 soft rays. The scales are ctenoid in nature except for the cheek scales, of which there are 2 rows of cycloid scales. There are 34 vertebrae in total; the anterior extremity of the swimbladder has a short bulbous projection with 1 to 3 short anterolateral lobate or recurved extensions either side of the central projection.
There is a single post coelomic extension and a duct like process on the ventral surface that continues to the vent. The estuarine whiting's body and head are sandy to light olive above with a silvery side and a whitish belly; the head has a deeper golden tinge, as do parts of the silivery sides, which do not have a distinct lateral silver band. The eye has a golden outer surface, while the snout has a dusky tinge; the opercle is dark yellow to golden. The spinous dorsal fin is hyaline with the tips of the membranes dusky and blotched with fine dusted black spots; the second dorsal fin is hyaline to pale white with 5 to 7 rows of blackish spots, giving a vague appearance of lateral bands. The anal fin is hyaline to milky white with white or yellow tips; the pectoral fin base is golden yellow, the ventral is white with a yellowish tip and the caudal fin is hyaline to dusky. The estuarine whiting is distributed on both the eastern and western coasts of India, with an apparent break in its range on the southern tip of India.
This would suggest there are two separate populations, but it is possible the fish has just not been identified in this region. The species occurs in shallow inshore waters between 0 and 10 m deep frequenting estuaries with muddy substrates. Estuarine whiting have been known to form schools with northern whiting in these environments, adding to identification problems; the biology and ecology of the species is unknown, with only two studies concentrated on estuarine whiting. In his description of S. vincenti, McKay noted that egg bearing females of 25 to 28 cm in length were present in January and February, suggesting this to be at least part of the spawning period. The second study was an investigation into the species diet, was presented at the First Indian Fisheries Forum held in 1987; the publication of this meeting's proceedings is somewhat rare outside of India and thus can not be commented on at the present. Estuarine whiting, along with other common sillaginids, are locally important to fisheries in India.
Fishermen catch the species in the upper reaches of estuaries, making it important in many communities situated in deltaic regions of India. The species is recognized as having considerable potential for aquaculture in impoundments and tidal ponds, with a reported rapid growth rate. Sillago vincenti at Fishbase Encyclopedia of Life page
Rhodes College is a private liberal arts college in Memphis, Tennessee. Affiliated with the Presbyterian Church, it is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Rhodes enrolls 2,000 students, its Collegiate Gothic campus sits on a 123-acre wooded site in Memphis' historic midtown neighborhood; the early origins of Rhodes can be traced to the mid-1830s and the establishment of the all-male Montgomery Academy on the outskirts of Clarksville, Tennessee. The city's flourishing tobacco market and profitable river port made Clarksville one of the fastest growing cities in the western United States and led to calls to turn the modest "log college" into a proper university. In 1848, the Tennessee General Assembly authorized the conveyance of the Academy's property for the establishment of the Masonic University of Tennessee. In 1855, control of the university passed to the Presbyterian Church, it was renamed Stewart College in honor of its president and benefactor, William M. Stewart.
The college's early growth halted during the American Civil War, during which its buildings served as a headquarters for the Union Army throughout the federal occupation of Clarksville. The war was costly for the young institution, as the campus suffered extensive damage and looting; the sad condition of campus and the slow recovery of the Southern economy made getting the college back on its feet a slow and difficult process. However, renewed support from the Presbyterian Church gave the college new life, leading Stewart College to be renamed Southwestern Presbyterian University in 1879. In 1885, the college added an undergraduate School of Theology under the leadership of Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, father of President Woodrow Wilson, which operated until 1917. However, by the early 20th century, the college had still not recovered from the Civil War and faced dwindling financial support and inconsistent enrollment. Hoping to reverse the institution's fortunes, the board of directors hired Charles E. Diehl, the pastor of Clarksville's First Presbyterian Church, to take over as president.
In order to revive the college, Diehl implemented a number of reforms: the admission of women in 1917, an honor code for students in 1918, the recruitment of Oxford-trained scholars to lead the implementation of an Oxford-Cambridge style of education. Diehl's application of an Oxbridge-style tutorial system, in which students study subjects in individual sessions with their professors, allowed the college to join Harvard as the only two colleges in the United States employing such a system. During Diehl's tenure as president, he would add more than a dozen Oxford-educated scholars to the faculty, their style of teaching would form the foundation of the modern Rhodes curriculum. However, President Diehl's most significant change to the college came in 1925, when he orchestrated the movement of Rhodes' campus from Clarksville to its present location in Memphis, Tennessee; the move provided an increase in financial contributions and student enrollment, despite the Great Depression and World War II, the college began to grow.
In 1945, the college adopted the name Southwestern at Memphis in order to distinguish itself from other colleges and universities containing the name "Southwestern."Charles Diehl retired in 1948, the Board of Trustees unanimously chose physics professor Dr. Peyton N. Rhodes as his successor. During Rhodes' sixteen-year presidency the college admitted its first black students. In 1984, the Board of Trustees decided the name "Southwestern" needed to be retired, the college's name was changed to Rhodes College to honor the man who had served the institution for more than fifty years. Since 1984, Rhodes has grown into a nationally ranked liberal sciences college. Under the leadership of Dr. James Daughdrill and Dr. William E. Troutt, the college's physical expansion continued, Rhodes now offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs. Additionally, the school has built partnerships with numerous Memphis institutions to provide students with a network of research and internships opportunities.
Today, Rhodes has the largest, most academically talented, diverse student body in its history. In July 2017, Dr. Marjorie Hass began her tenure as the 20th president of Rhodes College and is the college's first female president; the academic environment at Rhodes centers around small classes, faculty mentorship, an emphasis on student research and writing. The average class size is 14, the college has a 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio. In 2017, The Princeton Review ranked Rhodes #9 for Most Accessible Professors. Rhodes is featured perennially on the US News and Forbes lists of the Top 50 Liberal Arts Universities and has been hailed by Forbes as one of the Top 20 Colleges in the South. In US News 2020 edition, Rhodes is ranked No. 53 on its National Liberal Arts College Ranking and 28th college in the south on Forbes 2019 edition. Through 18 academic departments and 13 interdisciplinary programs, Rhodes offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs. If students are unable to find a major that meets their specific interests, the college may allow them to design their own major, better tailored to their goals.
Although the college is focused on undergraduate educa