Axum or Aksum, Ethiopia is the site of the historic capital of the Aksumite Empire. It is now a tourist town with a population of 66,800 residents; the Aksumite Empire was a naval and trading power that ruled the region from about 400 BCE into the 10th century. In 1980, UNESCO added Axum's archaeological sites to its list of World Heritage Sites due to their historic value. Axum is located near the base of the Adwa mountains, it is surrounded by La'ilay Maychew district. Axum was the centre of the marine trading power known as the Aksumite Empire, which predated the earliest mentions in Roman-era writings. Around 356 CE, its ruler was converted to Christianity by Frumentius. Under the reign of the Emperor Kaleb, Axum was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Sasanian Empire which had adopted Zoroastrianism; the historical record is unclear, with ancient church records the primary contemporary sources. It is believed it began a long and slow decline after the seventh century due to the Persians and the Arabs contesting old Red Sea trade routes.
Aksum was cut off from its principal markets in Alexandria and Southern Europe and its trade share was captured by Arab traders of the era. The Aksumite Empire was destroyed by Empress Gudit, some of the people of Aksum were forced south and their old way of life declined; as the empire's power declined so did the influence of the city, believed to have lost population in the decline, similar to Rome and other cities thrust away from the flow of world events. The last known emperor to reign was crowned in about the 10th century, but the empire's influence and power ended long before that, its decline in population and trade contributed to the shift of the power center of the Ethiopian Empire south to the Agaw region as it moved further inland. The city of Axum was the administrative seat of an empire spanning one million square miles; the alternative name was adopted by the central region, subsequently, the present modern state. The Aksumite Empire had its own written language, Ge'ez, developed a distinctive architecture exemplified by giant obelisks, the oldest of which date from 5000–2000 BCE.
The empire was at its height under Emperor Ezana, baptized as Abreha, in the 4th century. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum houses the Biblical Ark of the Covenant, in which lie the Tablets of Stone upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed. Ethiopian traditions suggest that it was from Axum that Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, journeyed to visit King Solomon in Jerusalem and that the two had a son, who grew up in Ethiopia but traveled to Jerusalem as a young man to visit his father's homeland, he lived several years in Jerusalem before returning to his country with the Ark of the Covenant. According to the Ethiopian Church and Ethiopian tradition, the Ark still exists in Axum; this same church was the site where Ethiopian emperors were crowned for centuries until the reign of Fasilides again beginning with Yohannes IV until the end of the empire. Axum is considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia and is an important destination of pilgrimages.
Significant religious festivals are the Timkat festival on 19 January and the Festival of Maryam Zion on November 24. In 1937, a 24-metre tall, 1,700-year-old Obelisk of Axum, broken into five parts and lying on the ground, was found and shipped by Italian soldiers to Rome to be erected; the obelisk is regarded as one of the finest examples of engineering from the height of the Axumite empire. Despite a 1947 United Nations agreement that the obelisk would be shipped back, Italy balked, resulting in a long-standing diplomatic dispute with the Ethiopian government, which views the obelisk as a symbol of national identity. In April 2005, Italy returned the obelisk pieces to Axum amidst much official and public rejoicing. UNESCO assumed responsibility for the re-installation of this stele in Axum, by the end of July 2008 the obelisk had been reinstalled, it was unveiled on 4 September 2008. The Aksumite Empire had a longstanding relationship with Islam. According to ibn Hisham, when Muhammad faced oppression from the Quraysh clan, he sent a small group that included his daughter Ruqayya and her husband Uthman to Axum.
Sahama, the Aksumite monarch, gave them protection. He refused the requests of the Quraish clan to send these refugees back to Arabia; these refugees did not return until the sixth Hijri year, then many remained in Ethiopia settling at Negash in what is now the Mibraqawi Zone. There are different traditions concerning the effect; the Muslim tradition is that the ruler of Axum was so impressed by these refugees that he became a secret convert. On the other hand, Arabic historians and Ethiopian tradition state that some of the Muslim refugees who lived in Ethiopia during this time converted to Orthodox Christianity. There is a second Ethiopian tradition that, on the death of Ashama ibn Abjar, Muhammed is reported to have prayed for the king's soul, told his followers, "Leave the Abyssinians in peace, as long as they do not take the offensive." The major Aksumite monuments in the town are steles. These obelisks are around 1,700 years old a
František Ladislav Chleborád was a Czech political economist and a pioneer of cooperatives. Born in Habry in Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire, he graduated Staroměstské gymnázium in Prague and went on to study law and political economy. Being fluent in Bulgarian, German, Serbian or French, Chleborád travelled the world and became an honorary consul of the Republic of Venezuela, he held many posts during his active career, including the chairman of the Brno Sokol, leadership roles in financial institutions and banks. Chleborád was prominent for founding the worker's cooperatives, named Oul, encouraging workers to unite and to be educated; the organization was inspired by the ideas of Schulze-Delitzsch. The Czech mutual aid movement spread outside of Prague and was established in Brno and Liberec, he taught political economy at the University of Prague, writing influential textbooks, arguing for nationalist socialism. He was academically active at around the financial crisis of 1873. In 1888, Chleborád emigrated to the Russian Empire, where he became the government's adviser on matters Slavic and financial.
He died in St. Petersburg in 1911. Chleborád wrote many treatises on political economy, published in newspapers and wrote a poetic work on saints Cyril and Methodius: Boj o majetek Hospodářství vlastenecké Pomoc chudým dělníkům Soustava národního hospodářství politického Věštcové slávy. K oslavení tisícileté památky prvosvětitelů Slovanů sv. Cyrilla a Methoděje Credit union Seligman, Edwin R.. "CHLEBORAD, FRANTISEK LADISLAV". Encyclopaedia of the social sciences. New York: The Macmillan Company
Derek Landri is a former American football defensive tackle. He was drafted by the Jacksonville Jaguars in the fifth round of the 2007 NFL Draft, he played college football at Notre Dame. Landri played for the Carolina Panthers, Philadelphia Eagles and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Named Mr California for the highest award for Calif High school players. Landri played high school football for De La Salle. Landri's selection by the Jacksonville Jaguars in the 5th round was rated one of the "Top 10 Draft Steals" of the 2007 draft by Sports Illustrated. Playing in a reserve role, Landri recorded a sack and an interception on Pittsburgh Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger during the Jaguars' Wildcard playoff game on January 5, 2008, he recovered a fumble which sealed the win for the Jaguars. On December 3, 2009, Landri was waived by the Jaguars. Landri was claimed off waivers by the Carolina Panthers on December 4, 2009, he became an unrestricted free agent following the 2010 season. Landri was signed by the Philadelphia Eagles on August 3, 2011.
He was released on September 3 during final roster cuts. Following a season-ending injury to Antonio Dixon, Landri was re-signed on October 3. Following the 2011 season, Landri became an unrestricted free agent, but was re-signed to a one-year contract on April 9, 2012. Landri signed a two-year, $3.25 million contract with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on March 30, 2013. He was released on February 10, 2014. ESPN Page 2 - Fleming: Jacksonville's uber-sub - A lineman who's ready for his close-up
Nina M. Armagno is a Major General in the United States Air Force and is Director, Space Programs, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Acquisition, Washington, D. C. Armagno received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1988, from the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, she graduated Squadron Officer School in 1992, at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. She received a Master of Arts degree in 1999, in Education Administration and Management, from Chapman University in California, she graduated from the Air Command and Staff College by correspondence. In 2002, she participated in an Air Force Legislative Fellowship in Washington, D. C. In 2003, she received a certificate in Legislative Studies from Georgetown University in Washington, D. C, she graduated from the Air War College by correspondence. In 2007, she received a Master of Science degree, in National Security Studies, from the National War College in Washington, D. C. In 2010, she attended the United States Air Force Enterprise Leadership Seminar at the University of Virginia, Darden School of Business, in Virginia.
In 2010, she attended the Leadership Development Program at the Center for Creative Leadership in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Armagno entered the Air Force after graduating from the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado, in June 1988, her experience in space systems operations includes combat mission ready operator, instructor and flight commander in strategic missile warning, space surveillance, space control, space launch and theater missile warning mission areas. She was the operations officer at the 1st Space Launch Squadron, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Prior to her current assignment, Armagno served as second Commander, 30th Space Wing, Vandenberg Air Force Base, responsible for space lift and range operations, support of operational and developmental missile system testing for the Department of Defense from the West Coast of the United States, she has served as the installation commander of the 6th Space Warning Squadron at Cape Cod Air Force Station, the commander and deputy commander, 21st Operations Group, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, as the Department of Defense senior military assistant and chief of staff to the director, Operational Test and Evaluation, Office of the Secretary of Defense.
In addition, she has held staff assignments at Headquarters U. S. Air Force, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Headquarters 14th Air Force and the 381st Training Group and served as an Air Force Legislative Fellow in the office of Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher. Since August 2015, Armagno is responsible for developing strategy and policy for the command’s space and cyberspace operations. With promotion to general officer rank on June 15, 2013, Armagno was assigned as Commander of the 45th Space Wing, or Director, Eastern Range, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, she was responsible for the processing and launching of U. S. government and commercial satellites from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. She was the final approval authority for all launches on the Eastern Range, a 15-million-square-mile area which supports an average of 15 launches per year aboard Delta, Falcon and emerging launch vehicles. In addition, she managed wing launch and range infrastructure supporting NASA, commercial and missile test missions
Benjamin Ijalana is an American football offensive tackle for the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League. He played college football for Villanova and was drafted by the Indianapolis Colts in the second round of the 2011 NFL Draft. Ijalana's parents immigrated to the U. S. from Nigeria. A native of New Brunswick, New Jersey, Ijalana attended Willingboro High School in his freshman and sophomore year, before moving to Hainesport Township and transferring to Rancocas Valley Regional High School, where he was a two-way lineman, district champion in wrestling, he started every game at left tackle since his true freshman year at Villanova. Ijalana was named to the 2010 Outland Trophy watch list as the only Football Championship Subdivision player; the Sporting News listed Ijalana as one of the five most "intriguing small-school prospects". He was selected 49th overall by the Indianapolis Colts in the 2011 NFL Draft, the highest selected Villanova Wildcat since Howie Long in 1981. Entering draft day, Ijalana was listed as a second round prospect with the possibility of jumping into the first round.
He was projected as a right tackle, following his strong showing as a left tackle in college and his good arm length and hand size. Additionally, he had the ability to fall back as a guard. On day two of the draft, the Indianapolis Colts traded their 53rd and 152nd pick to the Redskins for the 49th pick to draft Ijalana. Ijalana played four games in his rookie season before tearing his ACL and landing on injured reserve. A few weeks after being cleared to play, Ijalana tore his ACL again during training camp in 2012. Ijalana was declared out for the 2012 season, he was waived/injured on August 1, 2012, he was subsequently placed on injured reserve on August 5. Ijalala was claimed off waivers by the New York Jets on September 1, 2013. On April 9, 2016, Ijalana signed a one-year contract extension with the Jets. On March 9, 2017, Ijalana signed a two-year, $11 million contract extension with the Jets. On February 19, 2018, the Jets declined the second-year option on Ijalana's contract, making him a free agent.
However on March 16, 2018, Ijalana re-signed with the Jets on a one-year deal. He was placed on injured reserve on August 15, 2018. On August 11, 2019, Ijalana was signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars, he was placed on injured reserve on August 31, 2019. Career statistics and player information from NFL.com · ESPN · Pro-Football-Reference Villanova Wildcats bio New York Jets bio
The Blazer Horse is a horse breed developed in the 1950s and 1960s in northwestern United States. Tracing back to one founding stallion, this breed of horse was bred to meet demands of daily ranch work, while still being gentle. Blazers are known for being versatile at any sport competition and having gentle and intelligent dispositions; the Blazer horse traces back to the chestnut stallion Little Blaze, foaled in 1959. Little Blaze was bred and owned by F. Neil Hinck, an American horse trainer from Bedford, Wyoming; the descendant of Mormon pioneers and Danish horsemen, Hinck came from a ranch family and had extensive experience with most breeds of the day. He produced the Blazer by combining the American Quarter Horse and the Morgan Horse with blood of the Shetland Pony, Thoroughbred; the Blazer Horse Association was incorporated in 1967 at Idaho. In 2006 it was renamed the American Blazer Horse Association and became a nonprofit, dedicated to the preserving the breed and maintaining its history.
The headquarters was moved to Idaho the same year. Registered Blazer horses in stud book must pass a veterinary inspection and have at least one parent with documented lineage to the stallion Little Blaze. Blazer horses do not exceed 15 hands at full maturity, although they can be registered as small as 13 hands, their colors include black and chestnut, as well as buckskin and many shades of dun. They have a refined head, bold eyes, extreme sloping of the shoulders, short backs, round croups, long hips, have thick bone for strength and durability, they must have a good disposition. The American Blazer Horse Association is one of the few Associations that mandate a gentle disposition as a registerable trait