click links in text for more info

Tigray Region

The Tigray Region is the northernmost of the nine regions of Ethiopia. Tigray is the homeland of the Tigrayan and Kunama peoples. Tigray is known as Region 1 according to the federal constitution, its capital and largest city is Mekelle. Tigray is the 6th largest by area, the 3rd most populous, the 5th most densely populated of the 9 Regional States. Tigray's official language is Tigrigna. Tigray is situated between 12°–15° N and 36° 30' – 40° 30' E and comprises 53,638 square kilometres Tigray has ca. 8.3 million inhabitants. The greatest part of the population are agriculturalists, contributing 46% to the regional gross domestic product; the highlands have the highest population density, specially in central Tigray. The much less densely populated lowlands of Tigray comprise 48% of Tigray. Tigray is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, the Amhara Region to the south and the Afar Region to the east and south east. Besides Mekelle, major cities include Adigrat, Shire, Adwa, Adi Remets, Wukro, Sheraro, Abiy Adi, Qwiha, Hawzen, Mekoni,Dansha and Zalambessa.

There is the significant town of Yeha. The government of Tigray is composed of the executive branch, led by the President. Ferrah Imba, 3939 metres, summit of the Tsibet massif in Endamekoni woreda, highest peak of Tigray Imba Alaje, 3438 metres, in Alaje woreda Mugulat, 3263 metres, in Ganta Afeshum woreda Upper plateaus the Atsbi Horst at 3057 metres in Atsbi Wenberta woreda Imba Tsion, 2917 metres, in Hawzen woreda Ekli Imba, 2799 metres, summit of the Arebay massif in Degua Tembien woreda Imba Aradom – sometimes transliterated as Amba Aradam, 2756 metres, in Hintalo Wajirat woreda Soloda, 2436 metres, part of the Adwa plugs in Adwa woreda Imba Neway, 2388 metres, in Abergele Overall, the region is semi-arid; the rainy season lasts only for a couple of months. The farmers are adapted to this. Another major challenge is providing water to urban areas. Smaller towns, but Mekelle, face endemic water shortages. Reservoirs have been built. Mekelle is the capital of Tigray, near the geographic center of the state.

Other Tigray cities functioning as centers of Ethiopian metropolitan areas include: Adigrat Adwa Axum Maychew Of the 10 largest cities in Tigray, Maychew has the highest elevation at 2479 meter above sealevel. Plenty of smaller towns, like Atsbi and Edaga Hamus are located at higher elevations. Of the large cities, Humera is located at the lowest altitude; the population pyramid has a wide base, similar to most other low-income countries. However, the two lower age groups show; this may be related to a changing position of women in the society. Indeed, a revised Family Code came into effect in 2000, advocating the principles of gender equality; this raised the minimum age of marriage from 15 to 18 years old and established women rights in terms of sharing any assets the household has accumulated. The Ethiopian penal code states that it is a crime to beat one’s wife, harmful traditional practices such as early marriage and female genital mutilation are now considered to be a crime. Nowadays all children are going to school but girls drop out when they reach the age of 13 to 15 years: schools have no facilities for menstrual hygiene management and this is a major reason to interrupt schooling.

Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the Tigray Region has a population of 4,316,988, of whom 2,126,465 are men and 2,190,523 women. With an estimated area of 41,410 square kilometers, the region has an estimated density of 100 people per square kilometer. In the entire region 992,635 households were counted, for an average of 4.4 people per household, with urban households having on average 3.4 and rural households 4.6. The population was projected to be 5,247,005 in 2017. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was 3,136,267, of whom 1,542,165 were men and 1,594,102 women. According to the CSA, as of 2004, 53.99% of the total population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 42.68% were rural inhabitants and 97.28% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Tigray as of 2005 include: 31.6% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile.

Old Jewish cemetery, Hebron

The old Jewish cemetery in Hebron, is located to the west of the Tomb of Machpela on a hill and has been used as a Jewish cemetery for hundreds of years, as attested to by Ishtori Haparchi, who noted a Jewish cemetery in the area in 1322. Other sources indicate the cemetery being mentioned in a letter dated to 1290. Among the prominent rabbinical sages and community figures buried in the cemetery include Rabbi Eliyahu de Vidas known as the Reshit Hokhma, Rabbi Abraham Azulai, Rabbi Solomon Adeni, Rabbi Elijah Mizrachi, Rabbi Chaim Hezekiah Medini known as the Sdei Chemed, Rabbi Judah Bibas, Rabbi Haim Rahamim Yosef Franco, Rabbi Hillel Moshe Gelbstein, Rabbi Shimon Menashe Chaikin, Menucha Rochel Slonim. Menachem Mendel of Kamenitz, the first hotelier in the Land of Israel, references his visit to the grave of Eliyahu de Vidas in his 1839 book Sefer Korot Ha-Itim, he states, "here I write of the graves of the righteous to which I paid my respects." After describing the Cave of Machpela and the tombs of such Biblical figures as Ruth and Jesse, Othniel Ben Knaz and Abner Ben Ner, he reports, "I went to a grave said to be that of the Righteous Rav, author of "Reshit Hokhma."During the Jordanian period, the cemetery was intentionally destroyed and the site was cultivated by Arab residents for growing produce.

Around 4,000 tombstones were used for construction purposes. In the aftermath of the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel convened an inter-ministerial investigating committee to determine the scope of the desecration to Jewish holy sites under Jordanian rule. A local resident declared that before he ploughed the cemetery, a Muslim priest gave him permission "to clean away the graves of the Jews." A former member of the Hebron city council testified that a prominent Palestinian Arab councilor told him that the Jewish cemetery had been destroyed by direct order of the Jordanian government. After Jews returned to Hebron, they requested; as it was located in a hilly residential area opposite Hebron's main market the Israeli government prohibited the cemetery from being used. The cemetery was re-opened for civilian use once again in 1975 with the untimely death of a local baby. Baruch Nachshon, a noted hasidic artist and his wife Sarah gave birth to a baby boy named Avraham Yedidya who died six months of crib death.

According to Hebron Jews by Prof. Jerold S. Auerbach... His parents decided to bury him in the old Jewish cemetery in Hebron where no Jew had been buried since 1929. Israeli government officials, eager not to further provoke Hebron Arabs, refused permission... On the day of the funeral, Israeli soldiers blocked the road to the Hebron cemetery. After more than an hour of waiting, Sarah Nachshon wearied of the impasse... Returning to her car, she cradled her dead son in her arms and began to walk past the military blockade... several soldiers, moved by a grieving mother's unyielding determination, volunteered to drive her... Following the burial, the community made efforts to clean up the cemetery. Prof. Ben Zion Tavger, a Russian-Jewish physicist and refusenik who moved to Hebron initiated the refurbishing efforts in the mid 1970s. In time, refurbished tombstones were installed bearing the names of original community members. Since the site has both attracted visitors from around Israel as well as being targeted by vandalism.

The cemetery contains four mass graves with the remains of 59 victims of the 1929 Hebron massacre. A corner of the cemetery contains the remains of several Torah scrolls and Jewish prayer books which were torn up and set alight on the eve of Yom Kippur on October 3, 1976, at the Cave of the Patriarchs by rioters; every year hundreds of members of the Chabad Lubavitch hasidic movement attend the anniversary of the passing of Menucha Rochel Slonim, a granddaughter of the founder of Chabad, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi and a matriarch of the Hebron Jewish community. After a visit to the cemetery, a festive meal and gathering is held attracting top rabbis from around the country. A small synagogue and learning center was established in a historic building atop the cemetery called the Menucha Rochel kollel. In 2016 a map was discovered, it was the tradition of the Hebron community not to engrave names on tombstones. Due to the expulsion of the community and subsequent vandalism of the cemetery, the exact identification of many plots were lost.

Israeli–Palestinian conflict in Hebron al-Kuwayt, Jāmi'at. Journal of Palestine Studies, Volume 33. Institute for Palestine Studies and Kuwait University. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Alon, Mati; the Unavoidable Surgery. Trafford Press. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Mandel, Morris. Israel: the story of a miracle. Jonathan David. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Sherute ha-hasbarah. Jordanian belligerency: a review of Jordan's policies towards the state of Israel. Israel Information Services. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Genesis 23:14-20 Photos of the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron Video of the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron from Vimeo Video of the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron via YouTube Auerbach, Jerold S. Hebron Jews: Memory and Conflict in the Land of Israel. ISBN 978-0-7425-6617-0 Hebrew Wikipedia article on the cemetery Schematic view of the old Hevron Cemetery


Sinantolan known as ginataang santol or gulay na santol, is a Filipino dish made with grated santol fruit rinds, siling haba, shrimp paste, onion and coconut cream. Meat or seafood are commonly added, a spicy version adds labuyo chilis, it originates from Southern Luzon from the Quezon and Bicol regions. It is a type of ginataan. Sinantolan means "done with santol", it is known as gulay na santol or gulayon na santol, ginataang santol, giniling na santol. Sinantolan is made by removing the seeds; the rind is washed and minced or grated into small pieces. The juices of the grated rind are squeezed out to minimize the sour flavor. Garlic and onion is sautéed in a pan for a few minutes along with the optional meat or seafood; the santol rind is added and cooked for a few minutes before coconut cream is poured into the pan and allowed to boil until cooked. It is spiced with bagoong alamang, siling haba chilis, salt and pepper to taste. For a spicier version, minced labuyo chilis may be added. Ginataang labong Ginataang langka Laing Sinampalukan Sinigang

Back in Time (Linux software)

Back In Time is a backup application for Linux. It has versions that integrate favorably in GNOME and KDE SC 4 and is available directly from the repositories of many Linux distributions. Released under the terms of the GNU General Public License, it is free software. Back In Time uses rsync as backend and has the characteristic feature of using hard links for files which are identical in snapshots at different times, thus using disk space just once for files that remained unchanged, it is possible to use several backup profiles, e.g. for backups on different hard disks and to create schedules. Symbolic links can be backed up, both absolute and relative ones, but hard links cannot be treated as such due to the used backup method. Back In Time supports encryption of backups and backup over SSH. Advantages of the hard link method are that it is easy to look at snapshots of the system at different times and easy to remove old snapshots compared to incremental backup methods which save difference information between consecutive backup times.

However, a drawback of Back In Time is that it does not allow for compression, requires file systems that support hard links on the backup location. There is a graphical interface written in Qt; the standard backup tool of Mac OS X, Time Machine, works on the same principles. Back In Time – A Simple backup tool for ubuntu Back In Time code hosting


The ThinkServer product line began with the TS100 from Lenovo. The server was developed under agreement with IBM, by which Lenovo would produce single-socket and dual-socket servers based on IBM's xSeries technology. An additional feature of the server design was a support package aimed at small businesses; the focus of this support package was to provide small businesses with software tools to ease the process of server management and reduce dependence on IT support. The tools developed for this support package included: EasyStartup – meant to simplify the initial server configuration EasyUpdate – for download and installation of hardware and firmware updates EasyManage – to monitor the performance of multiple servers from a single consoleLenovo's ThinkServer naming conventions reflect whether the server is a tower server or a rack server. First letter "T" is used to indicate tower servers, while "R" is used for rack servers, "S" is storage rack server. Secondary letter "S" indicates single socket, while "D" indicates dual-socket.

The ThinkServer family has been discontinued in 2019, the new family of Intel servers is named ThinkSystem. 1U 1U 2U 1U server. Processors: 2× Intel Xeon E5-2600 v3 series Memory: Up to 768 GB RDIMM\LV RDIMM DDR4 2U server. Processors: 2× Intel Xeon E5-2600 v3 series Memory: Up to 768 GB RDIMM\LV RDIMM DDR4 In September 2013, Lenovo announced the TS140 and the TS440 replacing the TS130 and TS430; the TS140 added USB 3.0 ports and an on-board 6GB SATA storage controller supporting RAID 0/1/10/5. The TS140 was made quieter, with Lenovo claiming as low as 26 db. Using four 3.5" HDDs, it can support up to 24TB of data storage. Detailed specifications of the server are as follows: Processor: Intel Xeon E3-1200 v3 series Intel Core i3 4000 series Intel Pentium G3200/G3400 series Intel Celeron G18 Chipset: Intel C226 RAM: up to 32GB DDR3 ECC UDIMM Graphics: Intel HD Graphics NVIDIA Quadro NVS 300 NVIDIA Quadro K600 Bays: Two 5.25" Two 3.5" Optical drive: DVD-ROM or DVD±RW Operating system: Windows Server R2 Windows Server 2012 Windows Small Business Server Manageability: ThinkServer EasyStartup, EasyUpdate, Power Planner, Diagnostics Intel Advanced Management Technology 9.0 with remote KVM Intel Standard Manageability tools Trusted Platform Module Unified Extensible Firmware Interface Weight: up to 28.66 lbs Dimensions: 6.88” x 16.96” x 14.76” Ports: Six USB 3.0, two USB 2.0, two DisplayPort, DB-15 VGA port, DB-9 serial port, RJ-45 GbE network port In November 2012, Lenovo's new Enterprise Product Group launched the TD330, featuring up to 192GB of memory and supporting up to 16 processor cores.

It is built around Xeon E5-2400 processors from Intel and is available in energy-saving models compliant with Energy Star standards. Lenovo launched the ThinkServer models TS130 and TS430 in June 2011; the TS130 was a ThinkServer model launched by Lenovo in 2011 for small businesses. This server was intended to replace the TS200v; the server was equipped with Windows Small Business Server 2011 Essentials along with Intel Active Management Technology 7.0. The TS130 was summarized by Andrew Jeffries, worldwide product manager for ThinkServer, as ”The TS130 offers a wonderful first-server solution to anyone that has a tiny IT staff or has no IT staff but needs a true server solution”. Detailed specifications of the server are as follows: Processor: Intel Xeon E3-1200 series Intel Core i3 Intel Pentium Intel Celeron RAM: up to 16GB ECC Chipset: Intel 206 series Bays: two 3.5" Operating system: Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Small Business Server 2011 Management: Intel Advanced Management Technology 7.0 with remote KVM Intel Standard Manageability Techpowerup, quoting Lenovo's press release, stated, "The all-new scalable ThinkServer TS430 sets a new standard in its class with options for an enormous 16 TB of hot swap storage capacity, powerful SAS RAID data protection and redundant power choices for peace of mind.

It suits demanding environments requiring high capacity, high performance and 24×7 uptime." The press release indicated that the TS430 was "rack-able" and offered features like hard disk drive access from the front of the server, as well as the ThinkServer Management Module with iKVM. The TS430 was announced in June 2011 by Lenovo with the following specifications: Processor: Up to Intel Xeon E3-1280 Up to Intel Core G850 RAM: up to 32GB ECC Storage: up to 16TB hot swap Weight: 25 kg Operating system: Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Small Business Server 2011 Novell SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11.1 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 VMWare ESX/ESXi 4.0, 4.1 Manageability: IMM on shared Ethernet port KVM with the ThinkServer Management Module IPMI 2.0 or SOL Trusted Platform Module Lenovo released ThinkServer TD200, TD200x, TS200v, TD230, RD220, RD230, RD240 in 2010. The TD200 server offered the following specifications: Processors: 2× Intel Xeon E5502 Chipset: Intel 5520 RAM: up to 96GB DDR3 SDRAM ECC Bays: Four front accessible simple swap 5.25" Four 3.5" The TD200x server offered higher specifications as compared to the TD200.

Detailed specifications of the server are as follows: Processors: 2× Intel Xeon E5530 Chipset: Intel 5520 RAM: up to 128GB DDR3 SDRAM EC

Free French Camel Corps

The Free French Camel Corps was a méhariste camel cavalry unit of the Free French forces, founded by among others Captain Edouard Dieffenbach, under command of General Charles de Gaulle during World War II. Co-founded in Djibouti by Alsatian First World War veteran Captain Edouard Dieffenbach as deputy commander, first set up as the Free French Camel Platoon, the unit was renamed the Free French Camel Corps, it was active from September 1941 to February 1942, with initial strength estimated to about 15-20 camels along with riders. Among the troops, apart from Edouard Dieffenbach, was Lieutenant Magendie, Adjutant Emile Cayre, Sergents Battaglini, Sergeant Carbuccia, Corporal Farner, Commander Griveau and about 14 other compatriots; the unit was stationed in areas equivalent to today's Somalia and Eritrea under occupation. The unit notably fought alongside the British Somaliland Camel Corps and saw action in East Africa and North Africa. Compagnons De La Liberté by fr:Aimé Vielzeuf