The Pampas are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than 750,000 km2 and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba. The vast plains are a natural region, interrupted only by the low Ventana and Tandil hills, near Bahía Blanca and Tandil, with a height of 1,300 m and 500 m, respectively; the climate is temperate, with precipitation of 600 to 1,200 mm, more or less evenly distributed through the year, making the soils appropriate for agriculture. The area is one of the distinct physiography provinces of the larger Paraná-Paraguay Plain division; the climate of the Pampas is temperate giving away to a more subtropical climate in the north and to a semiarid climate on the western fringes. Summer temperatures are more uniform than winter temperatures ranging from 28 to 33 °C during the day. However, most cities in the Pampas have high temperatures that push 38 °C, as occurs when a warm, northerly wind blows from southern Brazil. Autumn arrives in March, peaks in April and May.
In April, highs range from 20 to 25 °C and lows from 9 to 13 °C. The first frosts arrive in mid-April in the south, in late May or early June in the north. Winters are mild, but cold waves still occur. Normal temperatures range from 12 to 19 °C during the day, from 1 to 6 °C at night. With strong northerly winds, days of over 25 °C can be recorded everywhere, during cold waves, high temperatures can be only 6 °C. Frost occurs everywhere in the Pampas, but it is much more frequent in the southwest than around the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Temperatures under −5 °C can occur everywhere, but values of −10 °C or lower are confined to the south and west. Snow never falls in the northernmost third and is rare and light elsewhere, except for exceptional events in which depths have reached 30 cm. Springs are variable. Violent storms are more common as well as wide temperature variations: days of 35 °C can give way to nights of under 5 °C or frost, all within only a few days. Precipitation ranges from 1,200 mm in the northeast, to about 500 mm in the southern and western edges.
In the west, it is seasonal, with some places recording averages of 120 mm monthly in the summer, only 20 millimetres monthly in the winter. The eastern areas have small peaks in the fall and in the spring, with rainy summers and winters that are only drier. However, where summer rain falls as short, heavy storms, winter rain falls as cold drizzle and so the amount of rainy days is constant. Intense thunderstorms are common in the spring and summer, it has among the most frequent lightning and highest convective cloud tops in the world; the severe thunderstorms produce intense hailstorms, both floods and flash floods, as well as the most active tornado region outside the central and southeastern US. Herbivores of the pampas are the pampas deer, gray brocket, dwarf mara, plains viscacha, Brazilian guinea pig, southern mountain cavy and coypu; the biggest predator of the region is the puma followed by the maned wolf, pampas fox, geoffroy's cat, lesser grison as well as the omnivorous white-eared opossum and molinas hog-nosed skunk.
Bird species of the pampas are ruddy-headed goose, pampas meadowlark, hudsonian godwit, maguari stork, white-faced ibis, white-winged coot, southern screamer, dot-winged crake, curve-billed reedhaunter, burrowing owl and the rhea. Frequent wildfires ensure that only small plants such as grasses flourish, trees are less common; the dominant vegetation types are grassy prairie and grass steppe in which numerous species of the grass genus Stipa are conspicuous. "Pampas grass" is an iconic species of the Pampas. Vegetation includes perennial grasses and herbs. Different strata of grasses occur because of gradients of water availability; the World Wildlife Fund divides the Pampas into three distinct ecoregions. The Uruguayan Savanna lies east of the Parana River, includes all of Uruguay, most of Entre Ríos and Corrientes provinces in Argentina, the southern portion of Brazil's state of Rio Grande do Sul; the Humid Pampas include eastern Buenos Aires Province, southern Entre Ríos Province. The Semiarid Pampas includes western Buenos Aires Province and adjacent portions of Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Pampa provinces.
The Pampas are bounded by the drier Argentine espinal grasslands, which form a semicircle around the north and south of the Humid Pampas. Winters are cool to mild and summers are warm and humid. Rainfall is uniform throughout the year, but is a little heavier during the summer. Annual rainfall is heaviest near the coast and decreases further inland. Rain during the late spring and summer arrives in the form of brief heavy showers and thunderstorms. More general rainfall occurs the remainder of the year as cold fronts and storm systems move through. Although cold spells during the winter send nighttime temperatures below freezing, snow is quite rare. In most winters, a few light snowfalls occur over inland areas. Central Argentina boasts a successful agricultural business, with crops grown on the Pampas south and west of Buenos Aires. Much of the area is used for
Districts of Peru
The districts of Peru are the third-level country subdivisions of Peru. They are subdivisions of the provinces, which in turn are subdivisions of the larger regions or departments. There are 1,838 districts in total. A 1982 law requires a minimum of residents in an area for a new district to be established: 3,500 if it is located in the rainforest, 4,000 in the Andes highlands and 10,000 in the coastal area. In the dry Andean area, many districts have less than 3,500 inhabitants due to low population density in the area. In some cases, their populations have decreased in comparison to the days. Districts that are located at high altitudes tend to be scarcely populated; these districts are large in area, have few available land for use. Many basic government services do not reach all residents of these districts due to their difficult geography. Many lack financial means to govern their whole jurisdictions and they have high emigration rates. A similar pattern can be observed in many districts located in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest.
Once important settlements created during the era of colonization, they nowadays do not offer much space for agriculture. Deeper into the jungle, the districts of the'selva alta' have higher populations living on geographically large districts. Districts located outside the colonized area have low populations that are composed of Native Amazonian tribes. All over the country, many districts have higher populations than the minimum required by law; this is true of the colonized areas of the rainforest, the northern Andes as well as in the southern Andes from Huancayo to the shores of Lake Titicaca, the historical heartland of the Peruvian highlands. These districts are old and tend to be smaller in area with high population densities since prehispanic times. Districts in the Chala tend to be mid-sized except in low-density areas such as the Sechura Desert and part of the Southern coast, but all of them feature large populations due to emigration from other regions of the country that turned the Peruvian coast into the country's main economic powerhouse.
Districts with a population of more than 10 000 inhabitants should ideally be subdivided if they are large in area, as is the case in part of the Amazon rainforest. Colonization happens and boundaries of districts are not modified, except in large urban areas; this is less of a problem in the coast. However, reaching to large populations remain a problem in this area; this is a list of the top twenty Peruvian districts by population, population density and elevation. Source: INEI Source: INEI Source: INEI Source: INEI Regions of Peru Provinces of Peru Administrative divisions of Peru
The Wari were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000. Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km north-east of the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru; this city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of modern Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta, a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca. However, there is still a debate whether the Wari dominated the Central Coast or the polities on the Central Coast were commercial states capable of interacting with the Wari people without being politically dominated by them. Early on, the Wari expanded their territory to include the ancient oracle center of Pachacamac, though it seems to have remained autonomous; the Wari became dominant in much of the territory of the earlier Moche and Chimu cultures.
The reason for this expansion has been debated. As a result of centuries of drought, the Wari culture began to deteriorate around 800 AD. Archeologists have determined that the city of Wari was depopulated by 1000 AD, although it continued to be occupied by a small number of descendant groups. Buildings in Wari and in other government centers had doorways that were deliberately blocked up, as if the Wari intended to return, someday when the rains returned. By the time this happened, the Wari had faded from history. In the meantime, the dwindling residents of the Wari cities ceased all major construction. Archaeological evidence shows significant levels of interpersonal violence, suggesting that warfare and raiding increased amongst rival groups upon the collapse of the Wari state structure. With the collapse of the Wari, the Late Intermediate Period is said to begin. Little is known about the details of the Wari administrative structure, as they did not appear to use a form of written record, but the emphasis on homogeneous administrative architecture and evidence for significant social stratification suggests a complex sociopolitical hierarchy.
The discovery in early 2013 of an undisturbed royal tomb, El Castillo de Huarmey, offers new insight into the social and political influence of the Wari during this period. The variety and extent of the burial items accompanying the three royal women indicate a culture with significant material wealth and the power to dominate a significant part of northern coastal Peru for many decades. Another example of burials helping to establish social stractifications is in the city of Conchopata where the remains of more than 200 individuals have been found; this city is located about 10 km from the capital city. Earlier it was believed that this was a city of potters, they show that there were servants, middle-class and perhaps low kings or governors. During its expansion period, the Wari state established architecturally distinctive administrative centers in many of its provinces; these centres are different from the architecture of Tiwanaku, believed to have been a more federalized state by some scholars.
Wari architecture had large stone enclosures with no windows and just a few entries, the sites had no central place for people to gather for ritual gatherings. While the Tiwanaku had a more open architectural plan that could accommodate multiple people at once. Using these administrative centers, the Wari influenced the surrounding countryside. Scholars were able to look at the Inca's to reconstruct some of the architecture of the Wari. Along the Inca highway system several Wari provincial sites were found, suggesting that the Wari used a similar road network, they created new fields with terraced field technology, which the Inca's drew inspiration from. The Wari are known for their textiles, which were well-preserved in desert burials; the standardization of textile motifs serves as artistic evidence of state control over elite art production in the Wari state. Surviving textiles include tapestries and tunics for high-ranking officials. There are between six and nine miles of thread in each tunic, they feature abstracted versions of typical Andean artistic motifs, such as the Staff God.
It is possible that these abstract designs served "a mysterious or esoteric code to keep out uninitiated foreign subjects" and that the geometric distortions made the wearer's chest appear larger to reflect their high rank. The Wari produced sophisticated metalwork and ceramics, with similar designs to the textiles; the most common metals used were silver and copper, though gold Wari artifacts survive. The most common metal objects were qiru, jewelry, mummy bundle masks, mantle pins, sheet figures who demonstrate how the tunics were worn. Ceramics were polychrome and depicted food and animals. Conchopata appears to have been the ceramic center of Wari culture given the high quantities of pottery tools, firing rooms, pit kilns and ceramic molds. There is evidence, sometimes accompanying human sacrifice. Wari Empire Willkawayin Tiwanaku Tiwanaku empire Middle Horizon Pocra culture Chuqi Pukyu Collier, Simon et al.. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America and the Caribbean. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-41322-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Wendell C. Bennett, Excavat
The Peruvian Paso or Peruvian Horse is a breed of light saddle horse known for its smooth ride. It is distinguished by a four-beat, lateral gait called the paso llano; this breed is protected by the Peruvian government through Decree number 25919 of Peru enacted on November 28, 1992, has been declared a Cultural Heritage of the Nation by the National Institute of Culture. Due to the isolation suffered for about 400 years and the selection made by their breeders, this breed is particular in their body proportions and an ambling gait or "paso llano", characteristic, it is typical of the northern Peruvian regions of the country. Trujillo city is considered the "Cradle of typical Peruvian Paso Horse." Smooth-gaited horses known as Palfreys, existed in the Middle Ages, the Jennet in particular was noted for its ambling gaits. Peruvian Pasos trace their ancestry to these ambling Jennets. Horses arrived in South America during the Spanish Conquest, beginning with the arrival of Pizarro in 1531. Foundation bloodstock came from Spain, Jamaica and other areas of Central America.
Importations increased after 1542. This became the Viceroyalty of Peru, an important center of Spain's New World colonies in the eighteenth century. Don Pedro Venturo Zapata was a major breeder of the Paso horse in his "Hacienda Higuereta y Anexos - Negociacion Vinicola Pedro Venturo S. A." from 1925 to 1952. Once in Peru, they were used for transportation and breeding stock. In the north of Peru, the vast size of sugar and cotton plantations meant that overseers needed to travel long distances taking days to cross the plantation. In the south of Peru, the arid deserts that separated settlements required strong horses. In both cases, smooth-gaited horses with good endurance were required. On the other hand, Peru did not develop a livestock-based economy, thus did not need to breed for the speed or agility characteristic of stock horses. Over time, Peruvian breeders kept the bloodlines clean and selectively bred for gait and temperament, they wanted hardy animals that were comfortable to ride and easy to control.
Over four centuries, their dedication to breeding only the best gaited bloodstock resulted in the modern Peruvian Paso. A decline in the use of the Peruvian Paso horse was seen in the southern part of Peru in the early 1900s, following the building of major highways that allowed motor travel to replace the use of the horse. Many of the major breeders in the area gave their best horses away to peasants living in the nearby quebradas, it was in one of these quebradas that breeder Gustavo de la Borda found the horse, to become the most important modern sire in the breed, Sol de Oro. The Peruvian Paso continued to flourish in the northern regions because it was still needed for transportation on the haciendas; this changed with the harsh Agrarian Reforms instituted by the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado in the late 1960s that had a devastating effect on the Peruvian Paso horse within Peru. Major breeding operations were broken up and breeding stock was lost; because interest in the Peruvian Paso horse was growing in the United States and Central America at the same time, many of the finest Peruvian Paso horses were exported, leading to a period where it appeared the Peruvian Paso horse would fade in its homeland.
The past thirty years have seen a resurgence in the Peruvian Paso horse's fortune in Peru. The annual National Show in Lima is a major event in Peruvian cultural life; the Peruvian Paso has been declared a Patrimonio Cultural of Peru in an attempt to shore up the breed within the country. There are now laws in place. Peruvian Paso horses are noted internationally for comfortable ride; as of 2003, there are 25,000 horses worldwide, used for pleasure riding, horse shows and endurance riding. The horse is medium-sized standing between 14.1 to 15.2 hands tall, with an elegant yet powerful build. The Peruvian horse has a deep chest, heavy neck and body with substance without any trace of being hound gutted in the flank area. A low set, quiet tail, clamped between the buttocks is a vital quality. Stallions have a broader chest and larger neck than mares, are known for their quality temperament; the coat color can be varied. Solid colors and dark skin are considered the most desirable; the mane and forelock are lustrous and abundant.
White markings are acceptable on face. Instead of a trot, the Peruvian Paso performs an ambling four beat gait between the walk and the canter, it is a lateral gait, in that it has four equal beats and is performed laterally — left hind, left fore, right hind, right fore. The Peruvian Paso performs two variations of the four-beat gait; the first, the paso llano, is isochronous, meaning that there are four equal beats in a 1-2-3-4 rhythm. This is the preferred gait; the second gait, the sobreandando, is faster. Instead of four equal beats, the lateral beats are closer together in a 1-2, 3-4 rhythm, with the pause between the forefoot of one side to the rear of the other side is longer; this characteristic gait was utilized for the purpose of covering long distances over a short period of time without tiring the horse or rider. The gait does not require extensive training. Purebred P
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Running of the bulls
The running of the bulls is an event that involves running in front of a small group of cattle six but sometimes ten or more, that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town's streets as part of a summertime festival. Particular breeds of cattle may be favored, such as the toro bravo in Spain often used in post-run bullfighting, Camargue cattle in Occitan France, which are not fought. Actual bulls are used in such events; the most famous bull-run – what a capitalized "the Running of the Bulls" most refers to in English – is the encierro held in Pamplona during the nine-day festival of Sanfermines in honour of Saint Fermin. It has become a major global tourism event, today different from the traditional, local festival. More traditional summer bull-runs are held in other places such as towns and villages across Spain and Portugal, in some cities in Mexico, in the Occitan region of southern France. Bull-running was also practiced in rural England, most famously at Stamford until 1837.
The origin of this event comes from the need to transport the bulls from the fields outside the city, where they were bred, to the bullring, where they would be killed in the evening. During this "run", youngsters would jump among them to show off their bravado. In Pamplona and other places, the six bulls in the event are still those that will feature in the afternoon bullfight of the same day. Spanish tradition holds. While transporting cattle in order to sell them at the market, men would try to speed the process by hurrying their cattle using tactics of fear and excitement. After years of this practice, the transportation and hurrying began to turn into a competition, as young adults would attempt to race in front of the bulls and make it safely to their pens without being overtaken; when the popularity of this practice increased and was noticed more and more by the expanding population of Spanish cities, a tradition was created and stands to this day. The Pamplona encierro is the most popular in Spain and has been broadcast live by RTVE, the public Spanish national television channel, for over 30 years.
It is the highest profile event of the San Fermín festival, held every year from 6–14 July. The first bull running is on 7 July, followed by one on each of the following mornings of the festival, beginning every day at 8 am. Among the rules to take part in the event are that participants must be at least 18 years old, run in the same direction as the bulls, not incite the bulls, not be under the influence of alcohol. In Pamplona, a set of wooden fences is erected to direct the bulls along the route and to block off side streets. A double wooden fence is used in those areas where there is enough space, while in other parts the buildings of the street act as barriers; the gaps in the barricades are wide enough for a human to slip through but narrow enough to block a bull. The fence is composed of three thousand separate pieces of wood; some parts of the fence remain in place for the duration of the fiesta, while others are placed and removed each morning. Spectators can only stand behind the second fence, whereas the space between the two fences is reserved for security and medical personnel and to participants who need cover during the event.
The encierro begins with runners singing a benediction. It is sung each time being sung both in Spanish and Basque; the benediction is a prayer given at a statue of Saint Fermin, patron of the festival and the city, to ask the saint's protection and can be translated into English as "We ask Saint Fermin, as our Patron, to guide us through the encierro and give us his blessing". The singers finish by shouting "¡Viva San Fermín! and Gora San Fermin!. Most runners dress in the traditional clothing of the festival which consists of a white shirt and trousers with a red waistband and neckerchief; some of them hold the day's newspaper rolled to draw the bulls' attention from them if necessary. A first rocket is set off at 8 a.m. to alert the runners. A second rocket signals; the third and fourth rockets are signals that all of the herd has entered the bullring and its corral marking the end of the event. The average duration between the first rocket and the end of the encierro is two minutes, 30 seconds.
The encierro is composed of the six bulls to be fought in the afternoon, six steers that run in herd with the bulls, three more steers that follow the herd to encourage any reluctant bulls to continue along the route. The function of the steers, who run the route daily, is to guide the bulls to the bullring; the average speed of the herd is 24 km/h. The length of the run is 875 meters, it goes through four streets of the old part of the city via the Town Hall Square and the short section "Telefónica" just before entering into the bullring through its callejón. The fastest part of the route is up Santo Domingo and across the Town Hall Square, but the bulls became separated at the entrance to Estafeta Street as they slowed down. One or more would slip going into the turn at Estafeta, resulting in the installation of anti-slip surfacing, now most of the bulls negotiate the turn onto Estafeta and are ahead of the steers. Thi
Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa, claimed the lands for Spain. Francisco Pizarro was born in Cáceres, Spain in modern-day Extremadura, Spain, he was the illegitimate son of infantry colonel Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca González, a woman of poor means. His date of birth is uncertain, but it is believed to be sometime in the 1470s 1474. Little attention was paid to his education and he grew up illiterate, his father was a colonel of infantry who served in Navarre and in the Italian campaigns under Córdoba. His mother married late in life and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, at the conquest of Peru with his half-brother from its inception. Through his father, Francisco was a second cousin, once removed, of Hernán Cortés. On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Gulf of Urabá in Tierra Firme. Pizarro became a participant in Ojeda's failed colony, commanding the remnants until he abandoned it with the survivors.
He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso in 1513. On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Urabá, he sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso and, in 1513, accompanied Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific.. The following year, Pedro Arias Dávila became the newly appointed governor of Castilla de Oro and succeeded Balboa. During the next five years, Pizarro became a close associate of Dávila and the governor assigned him a repartimiento of natives and cattle; when Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to arrest him and bring him to stand trial. Balboa was beheaded in January 1519. For his loyalty to Dávila, Pizarro was rewarded with the positions of mayor and magistrate of the recently founded Panama City from 1519 to 1523. Reports of Peru's riches and Cortés's success in Mexico tantalized Pizarro, he undertook two expeditions to conquer the Incan Empire in 1524 and in 1526.
Both failed as a result of bad weather and lack of provisions. Pedro de los Ríos, the Governor of Panama, made an effort to recall Pizarro, but the conquistador resisted and remained in the south. In April 1528, he found the natives rich with precious metals; this discovery gave Pizarro the motivation to plan a third expedition to conquer the area. He returned to Panama to make arrangements, but the Governor refused to grant permission for the project. Pizarro returned to Spain to appeal directly to King Charles I, his plea was successful and he received not only a license for the proposed expedition, but authority over any lands conquered during the venture. He was joined by family and friends and the expedition left Panama in 1530; when hostile natives along the coast threatened the expedition, Pizarro moved inland and founded the first Spanish settlement in Peru, San Miguel de Piura. Atahualpa refused to tolerate a Spanish presence in his lands, but was captured by Pizarro during the Battle of Cajamarca on 16 November 1532.
A ransom for the emperor's release was demanded and Atahualpa filled a room with gold, but Pizarro charged him with various crimes and executed him on 26 July 1533, overriding his associates who thought he was overstepping his authority. The same year, Pizarro completed his conquest of Peru. In January 1535, Pizarro founded the city of a project he considered his greatest achievement. Quarrels between Pizarro and his longtime comrade-in-arms Diego Almagro culminated in the Battle of Las Salinas. Almagro was captured and executed and, on 26 June 1541, his embittered son, Diego de Almagro "el mozo", assassinated Pizarro in Lima; the conquistador of Peru was laid to rest in the Lima Cathedral. The first attempt to explore western South America was undertaken in 1522 by Pascual de Andagoya; the native South Americans he encountered told him about a gold-rich territory called Virú, on a river called Pirú. These reports were relayed by the Spanish-Inca mestizo writer Garcilaso de la Vega in Comentarios Reales de los Incas.
Andagoya established contact with several Native American curacas, some of whom he claimed were sorcerers and witches. Having reached as far as the San Juan River Andagoya fell ill and returned to Panama, he spread the news and stories about "Pirú" – a great land to the south rich with gold. These revelations, along with the accounts for Cortés' success in Mexico, caught the attention of Pizarro, prompting a series of expeditions to the south. In 1524, while still in Panama, Pizarro formed a partnership with a priest, Hernando de Luque and a soldier, Diego de Almagro, to explore and conquer the South. Pizarro and Luque explicitly renewed their compact, agreeing to conquer and divide among themselves the empire they hoped to vanquish. While their accord was oral, they dubbed their enterprise the Empresa del Levante and determined that Pizarro would command the expedition, Almagro would provide military and food supplies and Luque would be in charge of finances and additional provisions. In November 1524, the first of three expeditions left Panama for the conquest of Peru with about 80 men and 40 horses.
Juan de Salcedo was the standard bearer, Nicolás de Ribera was the treasurer and Juan Carvallo was the inspector. Diego de Almagro was left behind because he was to recruit men