Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimid Caliphate in 1171. Three years he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din. For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, their domains encompassed Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Crusader states including the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s. After Saladin's death in 1193, his sons contested control of the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil became the paramount sultan in 1200. All of the Ayyubid sultans of Egypt were his descendants.

In the 1230s, the emirs of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and the Ayyubid realm remained divided until Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored its unity by conquering most of Syria, except Aleppo, by 1247. By local Muslim dynasties had driven out the Ayyubids from Yemen, the Hejaz and parts of Mesopotamia. After his death in 1249, as-Salih Ayyub was succeeded in Egypt by al-Mu'azzam Turanshah. However, the latter was soon overthrown by his Mamluk generals who had repelled a Crusader invasion of the Nile Delta; this ended Ayyubid power in Egypt. In 1260, the Mongols conquered the Ayyubids' remaining territories soon after; the Mamluks, who expelled the Mongols, maintained the Ayyubid principality of Hama until deposing its last ruler in 1341. During their short tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled, the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world; this period was marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas in their major cities.

See List of Ayyubid Rulers. The progenitor of the Ayyubid dynasty, Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi, belonged to the Kurdish Rawadiya tribe, itself a branch of the Hadhabani confederation. Ayyub's ancestors settled in northern Armenia; the Rawadiya were the dominant Kurdish group in the Dvin district, forming part of the political-military elite of the town. Circumstances became unfavorable in Dvin when Turkish generals seized the town from its Kurdish prince. Shadhi left with Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, his friend Mujahid ad-Din Bihruz—the military governor of northern Mesopotamia under the Seljuks—welcomed him and appointed him governor of Tikrit. After Shadhi's death, Ayyub succeeded him in governance of the city with the assistance of his brother Shirkuh. Together they managed the affairs of the city well, gaining them popularity from the local inhabitants. In the meantime, Imad ad-Din Zangi, the ruler of Mosul, was defeated by the Abbasids under Caliph al-Mustarshid and Bihruz. In his bid to escape the battlefield to Mosul via Tikrit, Zangi took shelter with Ayyub and sought his assistance in this task.

Ayyub complied and provided Zangi and his companions boats to cross the Tigris River and safely reach Mosul. As a consequence for assisting Zangi, the Abbasid authorities sought punitive measures against Ayyub. In a separate incident, Shirkuh killed a close confidant of Bihruz on charges that he had sexually assaulted a woman in Tikrit; the Abbasid court issued arrest warrants for both Ayyub and Shirkuh, but before the brothers could be arrested, they departed Tikrit for Mosul in 1138. When they arrived in Mosul, Zangi provided them with all the facilities they needed and he recruited the two brothers into his service. Ayyub was made commander of Shirkuh entered the service of Zangi's son, Nur ad-Din. According to historian Abdul Ali, it was under the care and patronage of Zangi that the Ayyubid family rose to prominence. In 1164, Nur al-Din dispatched Shirkuh to lead an expeditionary force to prevent the Crusaders from establishing a strong presence in an anarchic Egypt. Shirkuh enlisted Saladin, as an officer under his command.

They drove out Dirgham, the vizier of Egypt, reinstated his predecessor Shawar. After being reinstated, Shawar ordered Shirkuh to withdraw his forces from Egypt, but Shirkuh refused, claiming it was Nur al-Din's will that he remain. Over the course of several years and Saladin defeated the combined forces of the Crusaders and Shawar's troops, first at Bilbais at a site near Giza, in Alexandria, where Saladin would stay to protect while Shirkuh pursued Crusader forces in Lower Egypt. Shawar died in 1169 and Shirkuh became vizier, but he too died that year. After Shirkuh's death, Saladin was appointed vizier by the Fatimid caliph al-Adid because there was "no one weaker or younger" than Saladin, "not one of the emirs obeyed him or served him", according to medieval Muslim chronicler Ibn al-Athir. Saladin soon found himself more independent than before in his career, much to the dismay of Nur al-Din who attempted to influence events in Egypt, he permitted Saladin's elder brother, Turan-Shah, to supervise Saladin in a bid to cause dissension within the Ayyubid family and thus undermining its position in Egypt.

Nur al-Din satisfied Saladin's request. Ho

Johann Friedrich Böttger

Johann Friedrich Böttger was a German alchemist. Böttger was died in Dresden, he is credited with being the first European to discover the secret of the creation of hard-paste porcelain in 1708, but it has been claimed that English manufacturers or Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus produced porcelain first. The Meissen factory, established 1710, was the first to produce porcelain in Europe in large quantities and since the recipe was kept a trade secret by Böttger for his company, experiments continued elsewhere throughout Europe. Around 1700, as an 18-year-old apprentice chemist with the pharmacist Zorn in Berlin - Böttger an alchemist in pursuit of the philosopher's stone, locked himself away to discover in private the Alltinktur or Goldmachertinktur, an alchemist's secret substance with which any disease could be cured and base metals converted into gold, as was much en vogue at the time, his activities did not stay secret for long and soon he was regarded as an adept in alchemy. When King Frederick I of Prussia learned of this, he requested that Böttger be taken into protective custody.

Böttger was detained and taken back to Dresden. The monarch of Saxony Augustus II of Poland, but, always short of money, demanded that Böttger produce the so-called Goldmachertinktur in order to convert base metals into gold. Imprisoned in a dungeon, Böttger toiled away many a year, at many a noxious concoction, attempting to produce the'gold making tincture' and, therefore, to regain his freedom. In 1704, impatient with no progress, the monarch ordered scientist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus to oversee the young goldmaker. At first Böttger had no interest in von Tschirnhaus' own experiments, but with no results of his own and by fearing for his life, by September 1707 he started cooperating, he did not wish to be involved with porcelain, which he thought was von Tschirnhaus' business, but ordered by the monarch and thinking the deciphering of porcelain's secrets his only option left to both satisfy the monarch's greed and save his own neck, he began cooperating in earnest. By involving Böttger in his experiments, von Tschirnhaus spared him the fate that overtook many former alchemist adventurers.

In December 1707 the king went to the new laboratory, furnished for von Tschirnhaus in what is today Brühlsche Terrasse in order to examine the progress on their experiments. Under von Tschirnhaus' supervision and with the assistance of miners and metal workers from Freiberg, experiments with different clays continued. Substantial progress was achieved in 1708 when two shipments of minerals proved to be suitable: a sample of fine, pure white clay - kaolin from Schneeberg and alabaster as flux material. After years of experimentation, two more critical ingredients - China Stone and Quartz were found; when all are blended and heated to at least 1300 degrees celsius produced the desired results. August the Strong appointed von Tschirnhaus to Privy Council and director of a manufacture, still to be set up, he decreed "that von Tschirnhausen was to be paid off 2561 Thaler". Von Tschirnhaus asked to earn this title; when von Tschirnhaus died on 11 October 1708, the project came to a halt. The origins of porcelain date back to 200 BC.

One thousand years the production of translucent porcelain succeeded in China, Chinese porcelain became known in Europe through trade, arousing admiration and envy, but its composition and method of manufacture were a mystery. Porcelain was valued as equal to silver and gold and indeed was referred to as white gold; until 20 March 1709, when Melchior Steinbrück arrived in Dresden, the porcelain works were suspended. Steinbrück was the tutor of von Tschirnhaus' family and now was in charge of administering the estate. Among others he got hold of the formula to make porcelain. On 20 March 1709 Steinbrück signed the list of assets before a notary and met Böttger, who on 28 March 1709 notified the king about the invention of porcelain. Böttger became head of the first porcelain manufacture in Europe. His/ discovery of porcelain forever transformed the fortunes of the West. In 1719 the arcanist Samuel Stölzel escaped from Meissen to Vienna and betrayed the secret of porcelain production, he claimed that not Böttger had discovered porcelain.

In 1719 the secretary general of the manufacture in Meißen, Caspar Bussius reported: "that the invention of porcelain is not due to Böttger but von Tschirnhaus and that Böttger received the written'science' from Steinbrück". In a report from 1731, Peter Mohrenthal wrote: "All of Saxony will remember von Tschirnhaus and his fame will persist forever, as long as the porcelain factory in Meissen is unique besides the Chinese one... Since Mr Tschirnhaus is the first who luckily found the secret to porcelain while the reputed baron Böttger worked out the details... Because death disrupted all endeavours of Mr. von Tschirnhaus, which the world can not pay for with gold." In the late 17th century Chinese Yixing clay teapots, made of special Yixing clay, were imported to Europe along with China tea. They had long been popular in China; the unfamiliar material inspired attempts to imitate it, one Delftware manufacturer announced in 1678 that he was making "red teapots", of which no examples are known to survi

1593 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1593. Ongoing – London theaters remain closed for the whole year due to the previous year's outbreak of bubonic plague. In the summer, Edward Alleyn and other actors make a provincial tour; some performances are made in the winter. Lord Strange's Men act three times in January a play called Titus – Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. After April – William Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis becomes his first published work, printed from his own manuscript. In his lifetime it will be his most reprinted work: at least nine times. May 5 – "Dutch church libel" bills posted in London threaten Protestant refugees from France and the Netherlands, alluding to Christopher Marlowe's plays. May 12 – The English dramatist Thomas Kyd is arrested over the "Dutch church libel". "Atheist" literature found in his home is claimed to be Marlowe's. May 18 – A warrant for the arrest of Christopher Marlowe is issued. On May 20 he presents himself to the Privy Council.

May 29 – The Welsh-born Protestant John Penry is executed for involvement in the Marprelate Controversy. May 30 – Christopher Marlowe is stabbed to death by a speculator, Ingram Frizer, in a dispute over a bill at a lodging house in Deptford kept by the widow Eleanor Bull. Bible of Kralice, first complete translation of Bible into Czech Fray Juan de PlasenciaDoctrina Christiana, first book published in the Philippines, in Spanish and Tagalog John Eliot – Ortho-epia Gallica Claudius Hollyband – A Dictionarie French and English Richard Hooker – Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Politie Antonio PossevinoBibliotheca selecta Daniel CramerPlagium Thomas Kyd – The Raigne of King Edward the Third George Peele – Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First Barnabe Barnes – Parthenophil and Parthenophone Anthony Chute – Beauty Dishonoured, written under the title of Shore's wife Michael Drayton Idea: The Shepherd's Garland The Legend of Piers Gaveston William Shakespeare – Venus and Adonis Thomas Watson – The Tears of Fancie, or Love Disdained April 3 – George Herbert, Welsh-born poet May 20 – Salomo Glassius, German theologian Unknown date – Robert Creighton, Scottish classicist and bishop Approximate year – Aodh Buidhe Mac an Bhaird, Irish poet and hagiographer February 6 – Jacques Amyot, French translator May 30 – Christopher Marlowe, English dramatist and poet August 19 – Antonio Veneziano, Italian poet writing in Sicilian Unknown date – Jeong Cheol, Korean poet and statesman