Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and known as Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing jurisdiction, constituting the western portion of the larger Kashmir region, the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, between India and China since 1962. The territory shares a border with Gilgit-Baltistan, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir". Azad Kashmir is one-sixth of the size of Gilgit-Baltistan; the territory borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west. To the east, Azad Kashmir is separated from the Indian administered Kashmir by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. Azad Kashmir has a total area of 13,297 square kilometres, a total population of 4,045,366 as per the 2017 Census; the territory has a parliamentary form of government modelled after the Westminster system, with its capital located at Muzaffarabad.
The President is the constitutional head of state, while the Prime Minister, supported by a Council of Ministers, is the chief executive. The unicameral Azad Kashmir Legislative Assembly elects both President; the state has its own Supreme Court and a High Court, while the Government of Pakistan's Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan serves as a link with Azad Kashmir's government, although Azad Kashmir is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan. An earthquake in 2005 killed 100,000 people and left another three million people displaced, with widespread devastation. Since with help from the Government of Pakistan and foreign donors, reconstruction of infrastructure is underway. Azad Kashmir's economy depends on agriculture, services and remittances sent by members of the British Mirpuri community. Nearly 87% of the households own farms in Azad Kashmir, while the region has a literacy rate of 72% and has the highest school enrollment in Pakistan; the northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir encompasses the lower area of the Himalayas, including Jamgarh Peak.
However, Hari Parbat peak in Neelum Valley is the highest peak in the state. The region receives rainfall in the summer. Muzaffarabad and Pattan are among the wettest areas of Pakistan. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad. During the summer season, monsoon floods of the rivers Jhelum and Leepa are common due to extreme rains and snow melting. At the time of the Partition of India in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left with the options of joining India or Pakistan or remaining independent. Hari Singh, the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, wanted his state to remain independent. Muslims in Western Jammu province and the Frontier Districts Province had wanted to join Pakistan. In Spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja broke out in Poonch, an area bordering the Rawalpindi division of West Punjab. Maharaja's administration is said to have started levying punitive taxes on the peasantry which provoked a local revolt and the administration resorted to brutal suppression.
The area's population, swelled by demobilised soldiers following World War II, rebelled against the Maharaja's forces and gained control of the entire district. Following this victory, the pro-Pakistan chieftains of the western districts of Muzaffarabad and Mirpur proclaimed a provisional Azad Jammu and Kashmir government in Rawalpindi on October 3, 1947. Ghulam Nabi Gilkar, under the assumed name "Mr. Anwar," issued a proclamation in the name of the provisional government in Muzaffarabad. However, this government fizzled out with the arrest of Anwar in Srinagar. On October 24, a second provisional government of Azad Kashmir was established at Palandri under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim Khan. On October 21, several thousand Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province poured into Jammu and Kashmir to liberate it from the Maharaja's rule, they were equipped with modern arms. The Maharaja's crumbling forces were unable to withstand the onslaught; the raiders captured the towns of Muzaffarabad and Baramulla, the latter 20 miles northwest of the state capital Srinagar.
On October 24, the Maharaja requested military assistance from India, which responded that it was unable to help him unless he acceded to India. Accordingly, on October 26, 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh signed an Instrument of Accession, handing over control of defence, external affairs and communications to the Government of India in return for military aid. Indian troops were airlifted into Srinagar. Pakistan intervened subsequently. Fighting ensued between the Indian and Pakistani armies, with the two areas of control more or less stabilised around what is now known as the "Line of Control". India approached the United Nations, asking it to resolve the dispute, resolutions were passed in favour of the holding of a plebiscite with regard to Kashmir's future. However, no such plebiscite has been held on either side, since there was a precondition which required the withdrawal of the Pakistani Army along with the non-state elements and the subsequent partial withdrawal of the Indian Army. From the parts of Kashmir under their respective control – a withdrawal that never took place.
In 1949, a formal cease-fire line separating the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of
Ian Agol is an American mathematician who deals with the topology of three-dimensional manifolds. Agol obtained his Ph. D. in 1998 from the University of California, San Diego with Michael Freedman. He is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley and a former professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. In 2004, Agol proved a conjecture of Albert Marden, it states that a hyperbolic 3-manifold with finitely generated fundamental group is homeomorphic to the interior of a compact 3-manifold. The conjecture was independently proven by Danny Calegari and David Gabai, implies the Ahlfors measure conjecture. In 2012 he announced a proof of the Haken conjecture, published a year later; the conjecture states. Agol and Gabai received the 2009 Clay Research Award for their proof of the Marden tameness conjecture. In 2005, Agol was a Guggenheim Fellow. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. In 2013, Agol was awarded the Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry, along with Daniel Wise.
In 2015, he was awarded the 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics, "for spectacular contributions to low dimensional topology and geometric group theory, including work on the solutions of the tameness Haken and virtual fibering conjectures."In 2016 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. His twin brother, Eric Agol, is an astronomy professor at the University of Washington in Seattle. Ian Agol publications indexed by Google Scholar
Dempsey was a female American Pit Bull Terrier, the subject of a high-profile challenge to the British Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. She was lived in London. While being walked one evening in April 1992, muzzled and kept on a lead in accordance with the law, she began acting sick and her muzzle was removed to allow her to vomit. Two passing police officers noted the unmuzzled dog and charged the caretaker under the Dangerous Dogs Act. Three months at Ealing Magistrates' Court, Dempsey was ordered to be euthanised for failing to be muzzled in a public place. Appeals took three years before the Crown Court, the High Court and the House of Lords, during which time the media covered the story, not least Auberon Waugh in his Way of the World column in The Daily Telegraph. Animal rights activist Brigitte Bardot offered the dog sanctuary at her home in France, to avoid British law; the case was dismissed in November 1995 on a legal technicality, as it emerged that Dempsey's owner, not involved in the original incident, was unaware that the court hearing was taking place.
Tracey Jackson is an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer. She has published two books and has written several feature-length screenplays, including the romantic comedy films The Other End of the Line and Confessions of a Shopaholic. Jackson created the 1990 Fox TV series Babes, she blogs on her personal website and for websites including The Huffington Post and wowOwow, is married to Glenn Horowitz, a bookseller in New York. Between a Rock and a Hot Place: Why Fifty Is Not the New Thirty Gratitude and Trust: Six Affirmations That Will Change Your Life Heartburn Babes The Guru The Other End of the Line Confessions of a Shopaholic Lucky Ducks traceyjacksononline.com, Jackson's official website Tracey Jackson on IMDb Works by or about Tracey Jackson in libraries
Sir George Sondes, 1st Earl of Feversham KB was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1626 and 1676 and was created a peer and member of the House of Lords. Sondes was born at Lees Court, in the parish of Sheldwich, near Faversham in Kent, the son of Sir Richard Sondes of Throwley and his wife Susan Montagu, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu of Boughton House, he was educated at Queens' College, where he entered in 1615, where his tutor was John Preston. He entered the Middle Temple in 1619. Sondes was created a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Charles I on 2 February 1626. In 1626 he was elected Member of Parliament for Higham Ferrers, he was re-elected MP for Higham Ferrers in 1628 and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years. He was High Sheriff of Kent for 1636-37. On the outbreak of the First English Civil War he was named a deputy lieutenant for Kent, was on the royalist committee for the county in 1643.
As a result, he suffered in his estate, was imprisoned from 1645, first in Upnor Castle and in the Tower of London. He was released from the Tower in May 1650, but not discharged until 25 June following, after compounding for his estate by a payment of £3,350. On his release, he began rebuilding Lees Court from the plans of Inigo Jones. Whilst both were youths, one of Sondes' sons killed another in 1655. Freeman, the youngest murdered his elder brother George whilst he was asleep in his bed. Freeman was taken to Maidstone to be tried before the Assizes, he was executed for the crime at Pennendenheath a fortnight after the crime. The body was laid to rest in the church of Bersted. Sondes's was blamed for moral remissness, he had failed to continue the endowment of Throwley free school as purposed by his father, had improperly executed the will of his father-in-law, Sir Ralph Freeman, had mismanaged his sons' education. Sir George answered the charges in a'Plaine Narrative to the World, of all Passages upon the Death of his Two Sonnes'.
At the English Restoration in 1660, Sondes was again made deputy lieutenant of Kent. In 1661, he was elected MP for Ashburton in the Cavalier Parliament, he sat for that constituency until 1676, when he was created Earl of Feversham, Viscount Sondes, Baron of Throwley. Feversham died at Lees Court, without male issue, at the age of about 77. Thomas Southouse dedicated his Monasticon Favershamiense to Sondes in 1671. Feversham was twice married: first, in 1632, to Jane Freeman and heiress of Ralph Freeman of Aspenden, Lord Mayor of London in 1633–4 and his wife Jane Crouch, by whom he had three sons: Freeman, who died an infant, a second Freeman, he married, secondly, on 25 February 1656, at St Paul's, Covent Garden, Mary Villiers, daughter of Sir William Villiers, of Brooksby. By his second wife he had two daughters: Mary, baptised in Sheldwich church on 15 March 1657 and Catherine, baptised on 20 April 1658. On 7 August 1655, the younger son, aged eighteen or nineteen actuated by jealousy, killed his elder brother George, while he asleep in an upper room in Lees Court, by a blow on the back of the head with a cleaver.
The murderer, who at once told his father of his crime, was taken to Maidstone next day and arraigned at Maidstone assize on 9 August. He pleaded guilty, was sentenced to death, was hanged at Maidstone on 21 August; the fratricide proved a theme for the pulpit: Robert Boreman at once issued'A Mirrour of Mercy and Judgment, or an exact true narrative of the Life and Death of Freeman Sonds, Esq.' 1655. There followed from other pens'The Devils Reign upon Earth, being a Relation of several sad and bloudy Murthers committed that of Sir George Sonds his son upon his own brother....' London, 1655. Sondes was succeeded in his titles by special remainder by his son-in-law, Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham, who had married his daughter, Lady Mary Sondes, on 9 March 1676, his other daughter, Lady Catherine Sondes, married Lewis Watson on 17 July 1677. Watson became Baron Rockingham in 1689, upon the death of the second Earl of Feversham, was created Baron Throwley, Viscount Sondes of Lees Court, Earl of Rockingham.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Sondes, George". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
"Ik Junoon" is a song by composer trio Shankar Ehsaan Loy for the film Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara. The song was performed by Clinton Cerejo, Vishal Dadlani and Alyssa Mendonsa while the lyrics was penned by Javed Akhtar. S-E-L were asked to compose an Ambient house song by director Zoya Akhtar, they gave it pop twist to it, so that it fits the situation well. The Vocoder was used for getting the robotic voice effect; the song is all about losing yourself in the moment. The promo of the songs was released on 27 May 2011; the La Tomatina festival of Spain was re-created for the shoot of the song. It was shot in Buñol, Spain. 16 tons of tomatoes were used for the shoot and they were flown in from Portugal. The import of tomatoes itself cost the producers about ₹ 1 crore; the song features Abhay Deol, Farhan Akhtar, Katrina Kaif and Ariadna Cabrol. The actors had to clean themselves up with hot water after every shot, they all were so sick of tomatoes after the shoot, that they couldn't eat any dish containing tomatoes for weeks.
Bollywood Hungama described the song as, "full of'masti','maza' and energy through visuals with the sound being subtle." The Rediff review remarked, "a sublime rhythm and minimalist ambience to work up a state of ecstasy, irresistible". The song was an instant hit and rocked the music charts, as it entered the Radio Mirchi Top 20 list of the week at #1 and regained and maintained its #1 spot in third week, after dropping to #2 in the second week; the song made its entry in the Planet Bollywood charts at #6 and climbed two spots to #4 in one week. At the BBC Asian Charts, the song leaped to # 7 in 6 weeks. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara Señorita Zindagi Milegi Na Dobara Official Site^ https://www.saavn.com/s/song/hindi/Zindagi-Na-Milegi-Dobara/Ik-Junoon-Paint-It-Red/By8iBD9gQUQ Saavn, Ik Junoon