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Azerbaijanis or Azeris are a Turkic people living in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Turkish people and predominantly Shia Muslims, they comprise the largest ethnic group in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran and Georgia. The world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran, followed by the Republic of Azerbaijan, they speak the Azerbaijani language. The Azerbaijanis of Iran are believed to be descended from various groups, including Mannaeans, an ancient people who lived in the territory of present-day northwestern Iran to the south of Lake Urmia at around the 10th to 7th centuries BC, spoke a dialect related to Hurrian, the Medes, an ancient Iranian ethnic group which, under the rule of King Cyaxares, established the Median Empire and came to dominate the region; the Median Empire is believed to have conquered and assimilated the Mannaeans by the 6th century BC.

Historical research suggests that the Old Azeri language, belonging to the Northwestern branch of the Iranian languages and believed to have descended from the language of the Medes gained currency and was spoken in the said region for many centuries. The Azerbaijanis of the Republic of Azerbaijan are believed to be descended from the inhabitants of Caucasian Albania, an ancient country located in the eastern Caucasus region, various Iranian peoples which settled the region. There is evidence that, despite repeated invasions and migrations, the aboriginal Caucasian population may have been culturally and linguistically assimilated, first by Iranian peoples, such as the Persians, by the Oghuz Turks. Considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians, including their language, early conversion to Christianity, relations with the Armenians and Georgians, under whose strong religious and cultural influence the Caucasian Albanians came in the coming centuries. Many academics believe that the Udi language, belonging to the Northeast Caucasian languages and still spoken in Azerbaijan, is a remnant of the Caucasian Albanians' language.

Following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1813 and 1828, the territories of the Sublime State of Iran in the Caucasus were ceded to the Russian Empire, the treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 finalized the borders between Russia and Qajar Iran. The formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 established the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan; the Azerbaijani language is related to Turkish, Gagauz and Crimean Tatar, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages. Certain lexical and grammatical differences formed within the Azerbaijani language as spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Iran, after nearly two centuries of separation between the communities speaking the language. Additionally, the Turkish and Azerbaijani languages are mutually intelligible to a high enough degree that their speakers can have simple conversation without prior knowledge of the other, which prompted some Turkic linguists to classify their relationship as a Western Oghuz dialect continuum.

Azerbaijan is believed to be named after Atropates, a Persian satrap who ruled in Atropatene circa 321 BC. The name Atropates is the Hellenistic form of Aturpat which means'guardian of fire'. Present-day name Azerbaijan is the Arabicized form of Azarbaigān; the latter is derived from Ādurbādagān, itself from Āturpātakān meaning'the land associated with Aturpat'. The modern ethnonym "Azerbaijani" or "Azeri" refers to the Turkic peoples of Iranian Azerbaijan and Republic of Azerbaijan, they called themselves or were referred to by others as Muslims, Turkmens, Persians, or Ajams –, to say that religious identification prevailed over ethnic identification. When the Southern Caucasus became part of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the Russian authorities, who traditionally referred to all Turkic people as Tatars, defined Tatars living in the Transcaucasus region as Caucasian or Aderbeijanskie Tatars in order to distinguish them from other Turkic groups; the Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, written in the 1890s referred to Tatars in Azerbaijan as Aderbeijans, but noted that the term had not been adopted.

This ethnonym was used by Joseph Deniker: grouping coincide with the somatological grouping: thus the Aderbeijani of the Caucasus and Persia, who speak a Turkic language, have the same physical type as the Hadjemi-Persians, who speak an Iranian tongue. In Azerbaijani language publications, the expression "Azerbaijani nation" referring to those who were known as Tatars of the Caucasus first appeared in the newspaper Kashkul in 1880. Ancient residents of the area spoke Old Azeri from the Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. In the 11th century AD with Seljukid conquests, Oghuz Turkic tribes started moving across the Iranian Plateau into the

Giggs Hill Green

Giggs Hill Green is a triangular park in Thames Ditton bordered on one side by the Portsmouth Road which has, since 1833, contained as a major part of it, the village's cricket green. Part of the waste with a high subsoil of clay and flint belonging to the manor of Kingston, the 8 acres of Giggs Hill Green were purchased in 1901 for £250 by Esher and Dittons Urban District Council; the mystery of Giggs Hill Green is. The Green has had several different spellings over the centuries. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was known as'Le Gighill','Gyghyll', the'lane called Gyghill' and'Giggehill'. In Middle English,'gigge' means a whirling thing, so a maypole was implied. Horace Walpole, resident in Twickenham, wrote of the dangers of the Portsmouth Road in 1784: But here is a worse calamity. By'Mrs Walsingham', Walpole was referring to the mother of Hon. Charlotte Boyle Walsingham who constructed her mansion farmhouse, Boyle Farm, turned into The Home of Compassion at the far end of the village centre by the Thames.

Portsmouth Road and the surrounding commons were notoriously dangerous. There was the serious risk of both highwaymen. Tom Waters, Jerry Abershawe, Evan Evans, William Hawke and Thomas Banks were all hanged in the 17th/18th centuries for banditry on the Portsmouth Road. William IV was on the throne; the year was 1833, a Ditton side played against the gentleman of Richmond and Brentford. The result was never recorded nor the names of the players who took part, but the beer was only two pence a pint. At this time the club operated from the local inn, ` The Angel'; the club prospered and by 1877 began to look to travel further afield in search of opponents. A coach and horses was hired to take a team to play Englefield Green with an entertainer on board for the journey. Cash was in short supply, one match was brought to an abrupt end when the ball was hit under the front of a passing steamroller. Having had his window broken by the ball, the owner of Dorset Lodge, which overlooks the Green, offered the Club one pound for every ball hit there from that moment on.

Between 1879 and 1920 a number of Surrey and England players learnt their cricket on the Green. A week of matches never failed to attract the attention of the village. Despite the limited changing facilities at'The Angel', the club prospered, with a team of principally local players. Many of the Surrey County players have held a benefit match on the green against the local side. Two local roads are named after Thames Ditton and England cricketers: Maurice Read and Tom Hayward; the club was one of the few to carry on during the war, helped by the continuity. In more recent times, with the generous help of the Milk Marketing Board a new pavilion was built in 1977, rebuilt in 2004 and the club has gone from strength to strength. On its cricket green three teams play one on Sunday. A cricket week is still held every year and for the last two years the Club has toured the West Country. On Sunday mornings the Colts from 9 to 16 years of age play matches against neighbouring clubs. Giggs Hill Green Conservation Area map Thames Ditton Cricket Club website

Kanuty Rusiecki

Kanuty Rusiecki was a Polish and Lithuanian painter. He authored the first Polish romantic theory of painting. Rusiecki was born in Stebėkiai, near Vadokliai, Russian Empire into an impoverished noble Lithuanian family, his father was a magistrate. He is said to have displayed his artistic talent at an early age. In 1816, he began his studies at the University of Vilnius, he studied law and mathematics, but followed his true interests and, in 1818, switched to the study of art, under the tutelage of Jan Rustem and Kazimierz Jelski. During his stay at the University, he was a member of the Philomaths, a secret society of Polish students. With letters of recommendation and his father's financial support, he went to Paris and enrolled at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts from 1821 to 1822, studying with Guillaume Guillon-Lethière, he spent a year at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, where he worked with Vincenzo Camuccini and attended the sculpture workshop of Bertel Thorvaldsen. He was one of the founders of the Polish artistic colony in Rome.

He served as the informal leader of the Polish-Lithuanian art community there and presented an exhibition of Polish Romantic painters. Between studies, he toured extensively, painting landscapes throughout Italy. Beginning in 1831, he gave private drawing lessons in Vilnius. Three years he became a Professor at the "Wileński Instytut Szlachecki" and taught there until his death. In 1856, he joined with Wincenty Dmochowski and Kazimierz Jelski in an effort to create an independent art school, he painted altar pictures and restored frescoes in many small churches throughout Lithuania, as well as at the Vilnius Cathedral. He died in Vilnius. Most of his canvases were in private collections that have been dispersed and are now difficult to trace. Although numerous, all but a few of his known paintings are those that were left in his studio at the time of his death, they were preserved by his son Bolesław Rusiecki, a painter, bequeathed to various museums in Poland and what is now Belarus. "Italija Lietuvos dailininkų gyvenime" by Marius Vyšniauskas Belarus: Official website: "Kanuty Rusiecki’s works to go on display at Mir Castle"

Governor Pascual railway station

Governor Pascual railway station is a railway station of the Philippine National Railways. It is located and situated adjacent to Governor Pascual Avenue, Barangay Acacia in Malabon, Metro Manila; the station is named after the adjacent Acacia village, where the old station once stood. Presently, it is named after the road, which is, in turn, named after Governor Wenceslao Pascual, the administrator of Malabon then-municipality of Rizal when it was split from Navotas; the old station was demolished during clearing operations in 2007 for the ill-fated and renegotiated Northrail. In 2018, after consultations with the Malabon City LGU, DOTr and PNR intended to restore the at-grade railway station here, despite no longer being a designated stop in the elevated Northrail system, it is the most recent expansion of the Caloocan-FTI line beyond Caloocan, the first time in 2 decades that there has been rail activity. In September 2018, PNR engineers commenced the exploration of the site of the old Acacia railway station, drafted plans to rebuild the dismantled rail lines there and set a target to reopen the service and station before the end of 2018.

A ceremony was held to mark the commencement of the restoration of services. Soon after, railroad tracks were laid down along with ballasts, it required the restoration of Samson Road railroad crossing, done on November 23, 2018, which enables the PNR to serve Malabon City once again. Services to Governor Pascual resumed on December 2018, after two decades of hiatus; the rails that cover the radius of this station was dismantled and replaced with standard gauge tracks, which have been dismantled for the NLEX Segment 10.1. Construction materials related to the NLEX Segment have been moved to make way for the restoration of the at-grade rails; the railroad crossing along Governor Pascual Road is pending restoration, as it was dismantled too during the clearing operations and eventual road reblocking. Governor Pascual is lined with establishments. Further to the west is Robinsons Town Mall Malabon, heading to Navotas, while to the east, Malabon City Zoo is located, leading back to Monumento in Caloocan City


CHIP-FM is a bilingual community radio station that operates at 101.9 FM in Fort-Coulonge, Quebec. The station serves Renfrew County in Ontario; the station is a member of the Association des radiodiffuseurs communautaires du Québec. On March 20, 1980, La Radio du Pontiac Inc. received approval from the CRTC to operate a new community FM radio station at Fort-Coulonge with rebroadcast transmitters at Chapeau and Rapide-des-Joachims. The station was launched in 1981 at 101.5 FM. On June 1981, La Radio du Pontiac Inc. was authorized to change frequencies for CHIP-FM's rebroadcast transmitters, CHIP-FM-1 to 94.5 MHz in Chapeau and CHIP-FM-2 to 107.5 MHz in Rapide-des-Joachims. In January 1987, CHIP-FM informed the CRTC that the transmitter at Rapide-des-Joachims had never been implemented and that it did not wish to seek renewal for this rebroadcaster. On February 25, 1994, the licence for CHIP-FM-1 Chapeau was revoked at the owner's request. CHIP-FM has been owned by La Radio du Pontiac Inc. since its launch in the early 1980s.

On April 10, 2015, La Radio du Pontiac, Torres Media Ottawa—owner of Ottawa-based blues station CIDG-FM, both filed requests with the CRTC for CHIP-FM and CIDG-FM to swap frequencies, with CIDG-FM moving to 101.7 and CHIP-FM moving to 101.9. Torres stated that the move would allow CIDG to broadcast at a higher power, with coverage comparable to competing stations in the Ottawa-Gatineau market; this was not possible under the 101.9 frequency due to a requirement to protect stations in neighbouring markets on the same frequency. It was noted that this move would not have a negative impact on CHIP's coverage, that Torres planned to provide La Radio du Pontiac with additional funding to hire staff and promote the station as compensation for the move; the CRTC approved the applications on December 22, 2015. On August 30, 2016, at 1:40 pm EDT, CHIP-FM moved to 101.9. CHIP FM CHIP-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CHIP-FM

St Mary's Church, Eastwell

St Mary's Church consists of the ruins of a former Anglican parish church, located in the grounds of Eastwell Park in the hamlet of Eastwell, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building, is a Scheduled monument; the ruins have been in the care of the Friends of Friendless Churches charity since they took over the freehold on 20 March 1980. In 1951 the roof of the nave collapsed, the remaining shell of the church was demolished in 1956, leaving only the footings, the tower, the 19th-century mortuary chapel. All that now remains are the tower and the wall of the south aisle, dating from the 15th century, a mortuary chapel from the 19th century; the ruins of the tower and aisle wall are constructed in plaster with stone quoins. The tower is supported by three-stage buttresses and it has a doorway with a string course above. In the tower is a two-light Perpendicular window; the bell openings date from the 18th century and they have two lights.

The summit of the tower is battlemented. On the lower stage of the tower is a mutilated consecration cross in knapped flint; the blocked arch to the former nave has octagonal piers. In the aisle wall are two two-light windows; the chapel is constructed in chalk with a tiled roof. It has lancet windows and its interior is vaulted. In the former chancel of the church is a memorial to Richard Plantagenet, rumoured to have been the son of Richard III; the internal fittings and monuments have all been removed and most of the latter are in the care of the Victoria and Albert Museum. These include monuments to his wife Katherine. George Finch-Hatton, 11th Earl of Winchilsea, his second wife Lady Elizabeth Georgiana as well as his only son George William Finch-Hatton, Viscount Maidstone are buried in a simple grave in the overgrown part of the church cemetery