Tramecourt is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. Tramecourt is located 16 miles east of Montreuil-sur-Mer on the D71 road and on the other side of the battlefield of Agincourt from the village and fortification of Azincourt, after which the battle was named; the church of St. Léonard, dating from the sixteenth century The eighteenth-century chateau. A commemorative memorial precedes its cross-driveways; the chateau is noted for its facades and courtyard. Other items worthy of note are the remains of the old castle and farm buildings, a dovecote, the horse-trough, located in the courtyard of farm, the walled vegetable garden, an ancient farm cart and the woodland park. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Tramecourt on the Quid website
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century. Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had displaced those of Dutch.
Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis English, Boulonnais and Artois, this last part of the Spanish Netherlands; some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. Pas-de-Calais was the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, the North Sea, it shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel. Its principal towns are, on the coast, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, in Artois, Lens, Liévin and Saint-Omer.
The principal rivers are the following: Authie Canche Ternoise Liane Sensée Scarpe Deûle Lys Aa The economy of the department was long dependent on mining the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified; the inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens. Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin; the remaining population is concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite populated, with many villages and small towns. Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded after both world wars.
However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population. In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. There are two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO on the western part of the department, Université d'Artois on the eastern part. Cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department Battle of Vimy Ridge 7 Valleys Pas de Calais A whole wiki about the Pas-de-Calais Prefecture website General Council website Official Tourist website Short regional tourism guide Coats of arms of the municipalities in Pas-de-Calais
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Azincourt is an historical novel written by Bernard Cornwell. The book relates the events leading to the Battle of Agincourt, through its protagonist Nicholas Hook. In the United States, it was published under the title Agincourt. Nicholas Hook, a forester and archer, feuds with Tom and Robert Perrill and their biological father, the priest Father Martin, he is compelled to participate in the burning of a community of Lollard heretics. One of them, an archer himself, asks Hook to protect Sarah after he is gone, but Father Martin decides to take the girl for himself, in an unsuccessful attempt to shield her, Hook attacks the priest. Hook is held for trial and anticipated execution. Father Martin and Tom Perrill rape and murder the girl, Hook's guilt at failing to save her haunts him throughout the story. In the epilogue Hook, Melisande and Father Christopher go to a church in London during the celebration, here Hook and Melisande offer the priest at this church a bag of coins taken from the deceased Sir/Father Martin and a gold chain taken from a deceased French warrior as a donation with the assurance that the priest will hold a mass each day for the deceased Sarah.
Hook joins an expedition to Soissons, in Burgundy, as a mercenary archer. Burgundy and France are in bitter conflict and the French attack, win sack the town, torture and kill the English archers as well as the loyal French citizens which shocks Europe. Hook manages to conceal himself in a house and save a local nun, from rape. Hook believes he is guided in their escape by the voices of Saints Crispin and Crispinian, the patron saints of Soissons. Melisande becomes Hook's lover, he discovers she is the bastard child of the powerful French Lord Ghillebert, seigneur de Lanferelle. By returning alive from Soissons, reporting the treachery of the English knight Sir Roger Pallaire, who conspired with the French and sacrificed his own archers, Hook earns good stead with his new lord, Sir John Cornewaille, with King Henry V. Hook returns to France serving under Cornewaille with the royal army to win Henry the crown of France; the campaign starts horrendously with the siege of the port of Harfleur. The town's capture takes too many weeks, disease decimates Henry's army.
During a failed attack, Hook kills Robert Perrill by thrusting a crossbow bolt through the man's eye. During the siege Hook meets the seigneur de Lanferelle, who disapproves of Hook's relationship with his daughter and claiming that he does indeed care for his illegitimate child vows to kill Hook and return Melisande to the nunnery. Sometime Hook and Melisande are formally married. Henry, against the advice of his vassal lords decides to march his ragged army to Calais along the coast of France as a demonstration of his sovereignty; the Hook - Perrill feud reignites during the march as Tom Perrill frames Hook's brother Michael for stealing a religious pyx. Henry hangs Michael in public for the crime. To reach Calais, the English army must cross the River Somme, but the far larger French army blocks the fords and the two opposing armies meet at Azincourt, on the day of Ss. Crispin and Crispinian. Torrential rain soaks the newly ploughed land, turning it into a treacherous morass for the French knights in full plate armour.
There are natural obstacles on both sides. The battle takes place on a slope going to the English. Before the battle Henry under the guise of'John Swan' speaks with the men, Hook realises that it is indeed the king after noticing his distinctive scar and tells'John Swan' that the king claims to be a religious man but is a sinner for killing an innocent man, Michael.'John Swan' seems affected by this and tells Hook the king will pray for Michael every day, which comforts Hook. The French foolishly allow the English to advance within range of the English longbows; the English are ordered by Henry to hammer sharpened stakes into the ground, forming an impenetrable wall to repel the cavalry and Tom Perrill agree to end their feud until the battle is over believing they will both be killed by the French anyway. The archers launch volleys; the first attack is driven back by the English as they step back, behind the stakes and the French horses either bolt in terror or are impaled upon the deadly spikes.
During the mayhem, Father Martin attempts to rape Melisande. Melisande kills Martin using her crossbow; the battle is portrayed from the opposite side via the seigneur de Lanferelle who hopes to capture valuable prisoners including his rival and Hook's lord Cornwaille. The English repel the second attack through a combination of their remaining arrows and the surprising skill of the archers in hand-to-hand combat; the French decline to launch a third attack and retire, leaving thousands of French dead, many French lords in captivity. Hook takes Lanferelle prisoner, Lanferelle kills Tom Perrill as Hook had vowed to his friend and mentor Father Christopher that he wouldn't kill Perrill; the English claim a famous victory, Hook returns to England with Melisande and his prisoner the seigneur de Lanferelle who now accepts and approves of Hook. Hook now a wealthy man after being promoted to command Cornwaille's archers as well the ransom from his prisoner, pays a priest to say prayers for the girl he couldn't save.
The book was released on 1 October 2008 in the United Kingdom. The worldwide publication was in January 2009; as of 2009 screenwriter Michael Hirst was said to be writing a screenplay based on the novel, with filming scheduled to begin in 2010
Charles VI of France
Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422, the fourth from the House of Valois. Charles VI was only 11; the government was entrusted to his four uncles, the dukes of Burgundy, Berry and Bourbon. Although the royal age of majority was fixed at 14, the dukes maintained their grip on Charles until he took power at the age of 21. During the rule of his uncles, the financial resources of the kingdom, painstakingly built up by his father, Charles V, were squandered for the personal profit of the dukes, whose interests were divergent or opposed; as royal funds drained, new taxes had to be raised. In 1388 Charles VI brought back to power his father's former advisers. Political and economic conditions in the kingdom improved and Charles earned the epithet "the Beloved", but in August 1392 en route to Brittany with his army in the forest of Le Mans, Charles went mad and slew four knights and killed his brother, Louis I, Duke of Orléans. From on, Charles' bouts of insanity became more frequent and of longer duration.
During these attacks, he had delusions, believing he was made of glass or denying he had a wife and children. He could attack servants or run until exhaustion, wailing that he was threatened by his enemies. Between crises, there were intervals of months during which Charles was sane. However, unable to concentrate or make decisions, political power was exercised by his relatives and other leading French nobles, whose rivalries and disputes would cause much chaos and conflict in France. A fierce struggle for power developed between the king's brother, Louis of Orléans, cousin, John of Burgundy; when John instigated the murder of Louis in 1407, the conflict degenerated into a civil war between John's supporters – the Burgundians – and opponents – the Armagnacs. Both sides offered large parts of France to the English in exchange for their support. John of Burgundy himself was assassinated, with Charles VI's son and namesake, being involved. In retaliation, John's son, Philip of Burgundy, led Charles VI to sign the infamous Treaty of Troyes, which disinherited his offspring and recognized King Henry V of England as his legitimate successor on the throne of France.
When Charles VI died, the succession was claimed both by the King of England and by the disinherited younger Charles, who found the Valois cause in a desperate situation. Charles was born in Paris, in the royal residence of the Hôtel Saint-Pol, on 3 December 1368, the son of the king of France Charles V, of the House of Valois, of Joan of Bourbon; as heir to the French throne, his older brothers having died before he was born, Charles had the title Dauphin of France. At his father's death on 16 September 1380, he inherited the throne of France, his coronation took place on 4 November 1380, at Reims Cathedral. Although the royal age of majority was 14, Charles did not terminate the regency and take personal rule until 1388. Charles VI was only 11 years old. Although Charles was entitled to rule from the age of 14, the dukes maintained their grip on power until Charles terminated the regency at the age of 21. During his minority, France was ruled as regents; the regents were Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Louis I, Duke of Anjou, John, Duke of Berry - all brothers of Charles V - along with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, Charles VI's maternal uncle.
Philip took the dominant role during the regency. Louis of Anjou was fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382, dying in 1384. During the rule of his uncles, the financial resources of the kingdom, painstakingly built up by his father Charles V the Wise, were squandered for the personal profit of the dukes, whose interests were divergent or opposing. During that time, the power of the royal administration was strengthened and taxes re-established; the latter policy represented a reversal of the deathbed decision of the king's father Charles V to repeal taxes, led to tax revolts, known as the Harelle. Increased tax revenues were needed to support the self-serving policies of the king's uncles, whose interests were in conflict with those of the crown and with each other; the Battle of Roosebeke, for example, brilliantly won by the royal troops, was prosecuted for the benefit of Philip of Burgundy. The treasury surplus accumulated by Charles V was squandered. Charles VI brought the regency to an end in 1388.
He restored to power the highly-competent advisors of Charles V, known as the Marmousets, who ushered in a new period of high esteem for the crown. Charles VI was referred to as Charles the Beloved by his subjects, he married Isabeau of Bavaria on 17 July 1385, when he was 17 and she was 14. Isabeau had 12 children. Isabeau's first child, named Charles, was born in 1386, was Dauphin of Viennois, but survived only 3 months, her second child, was born on 14 June 1388, but died in 1390. Her third child, was
Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. The population of the town itself is 5,368, the population of the canton is 14,939; the county of Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise referred to as just Saint-Pol, was a stronghold of the Counts of Flanders and was established as a county in the late 9th century. When the county passed out of the family of the Flemish counts, it remained subject to the Count of Flanders as his vassals until 1180, it became subject to France Artois France again until it ceased to exist as a county and was annexed to France in 1702. Saint-Pol was first controlled by the Flemish counts by the family known as Campdavaine from early in the 11th century. In 1205 the county passed to the seigneurs of Châtillon through marriage, remained with this dynasty until 1360 when it passed to the Luxembourg dynasty. Around 1487 the county passed to the Capetian-Bourbon-Vendôme dynasty through marriage to the Longueville-Neuchâtel dynasty from around 1563.
In 1702 it came under direct rule of France. In the Middle Ages, several of the Counts of Saint-Pol were active in the Crusades. On 7 November 1920, the remains of four unidentifiable, fallen British soldiers disintered from the battlefields at Aisne, the Somme and Ypres were brought to the town's chapel. There, Brigadier-General Louis John Wyatt of the North Staffordshire Regiment, aided by Lieutenant-Colonel EAS Gell, selected one to be carried to Westminster Abbey to be re-buried in the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior; the remaining three bodies were removed and reburied in the military cemetery at Wyatt's headquarters at St Pol. Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise was the birthplace of Marie de St Pol, foundress of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise was the birthplace of Pierre Repp and actor. Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise was the birthplace of Martial Joseph Armand Herman, a politician of the French Revolution, temporary French Foreign Minister. Nicolas Aubriot, footballer Counts of Saint-Pol Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file