The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of central Mexico those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec culture was organized into city-states, some of which joined to form alliances, political confederations, or empires; the Aztec Empire was a confederation of three city-states established in 1427: Tenochtitlan, city-state of the Mexica or Tenochca. Although the term Aztecs is narrowly restricted to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, it is broadly used to refer to Nahua polities or peoples of central Mexico in the prehispanic era, as well as the Spanish colonial era; the definitions of Aztec and Aztecs have long been the topic of scholarly discussion since German scientist Alexander von Humboldt established its common usage in the early nineteenth century. Most ethnic groups of central Mexico in the post-classic period shared basic cultural traits of Mesoamerica, so many of the traits that characterize Aztec culture cannot be said to be exclusive to the Aztecs.
For the same reason, the notion of "Aztec civilization" is best understood as a particular horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. The culture of central Mexico includes maize cultivation, the social division between nobility and commoners, a pantheon, the calendric system of a xiuhpohualli of 365 days intercalated with a tonalpohualli of 260 days. Particular to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan was the patron God Huitzilopochtli, twin pyramids, the ceramic ware known as Aztec I to IV. From the 13th century, the Valley of Mexico was the heart of dense population and the rise of city-states; the Mexica were late-comers to the Valley of Mexico, founded the city-state of Tenochtitlan on unpromising islets in Lake Texcoco becoming the dominant power of the Aztec Triple Alliance or Aztec Empire. It was a tributary empire that expanded its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica in the late post-classic period, it originated in 1427 as an alliance between the city-states Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan.
Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan were relegated to junior partnership in the alliance, with Tenochtitlan the dominant power. The empire extended its reach by a combination of trade and military conquest, it was never a true territorial empire controlling a territory by large military garrisons in conquered provinces, but rather dominated its client city-states by installing friendly rulers in conquered territories, by constructing marriage alliances between the ruling dynasties, by extending an imperial ideology to its client city-states. Client city-states paid tribute to the Aztec emperor, the Huey Tlatoani, in an economic strategy limiting communication and trade between outlying polities, making them dependent on the imperial center for the acquisition of luxury goods; the political clout of the empire reached far south into Mesoamerica conquering polities as far south as Chiapas and Guatemala and spanning Mesoamerica from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. The empire reached its maximal extent in 1519, just prior to the arrival of a small group of Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés.
Cortés allied with city-states opposed to the Mexica the Nahuatl-speaking Tlaxcalteca as well as other central Mexican polities, including Texcoco, its former ally in the Triple Alliance. After the fall of Tenochtitlan on 13 August 1521 and the capture of the emperor Cuauhtemoc, the Spanish founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. From there they proceeded with the process of conquest and incorporation of Mesoamerican peoples into the Spanish Empire. With the destruction of the superstructure of the Aztec Empire in 1521, the Spanish utilized the city-states on which the Aztec Empire had been built, to rule the indigenous populations via their local nobles; those nobles pledged loyalty to the Spanish crown and converted, at least nominally, to Christianity, in return were recognized as nobles by the Spanish crown. Nobles acted as intermediaries to convey tribute and mobilize labor for their new overlords, facilitating the establishment of Spanish colonial rule. Aztec culture and history is known through archaeological evidence found in excavations such as that of the renowned Templo Mayor in Mexico City.
Important for knowledge of post-conquest Nahuas was the training of indigenous scribes to write alphabetic texts in Nahuatl for local purposes under Spanish colonial rule. At its height, Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments; the Nahuatl words and mean "people from Aztlan," a mythical place of origin for several ethnic groups in central Mexico. The term was not used as an endonym by Aztecs themselves, but it is f
Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo is a 2005 American sex comedy film and a sequel to the 1999 film Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo, from Happy Madison Productions. Rob Schneider returns in the role of male prostitute Deuce Bigalow who visits his former pimp T. J. in Amsterdam, finds himself looking for a murderer, killing the greatest "man-whores" of Europe. Unlike Male Gigolo, distributed by Disney's Touchstone Pictures brand, European Gigolo was released by Sony Pictures Releasing through to Columbia Pictures; the film was panned by critics and was nominated for Worst Picture at the 26th Golden Raspberry Awards, while Schneider won Worst Actor. It grossed $45 million on a $22 million budget Gigolos in Europe are being terrorized by a serial killer. In Malibu, Deuce Bigalow's wife Kate has died from a shark attack, Deuce is invited by his former pimp T. J. Hicks to Amsterdam. Deuce goes to take his mind off of Kate. After T. J. shows Deuce his boat, or "float crib," the pair go to a coffee shop where they get high and bump into Heinz Hummer, a German gigolo.
After leaving the coffee shop, Deuce finds Hummer dead in an alley, but thinks he is stoned and takes the dead gigolo to T. J.'s float crib. J. gets back, he realizes that Hummer is dead. T. J. plans to dump the body, but skeptical of Hummer's reputation of being well-endowed, unzips his pants and examines his genitalia and is caught by a tour boat. Upon his release from the police station, Deuce finds T. J. at a restaurant and recalls. Deuce says it was a woman, so they both figure it was a she-john, a former client of the murdered gigolo. T. J. convinces Deuce to find the killer by becoming a gigolo again, visiting the former clients and "rooting" out the killer. They attend a meeting of the Royal Order of European Man Whores, but fail to procure a list of the clients. Deuce and T. J. visit the first client on the list. While Deuce distracts the woman, T. J. breaks into her residence and finds a brand of lipstick which might be the kind found on all the victims. After leaving, Deuce shows him the lipstick.
Gaspar throws the lipstick in the trash, mentioning that the lipstick found on the victims "is a rare one: Lavender Love #66". As Gaspar enters the police station, his niece, approaches him and gives him his lunch. Eva slaps herself three times. Deuce helps her pick up the things she dropped, Eva explains to Deuce that she has obsessive-compulsive disorder. Deuce sees that she has a painting of a fish, so they go to the Amsterdam aquarium together. Deuce continues to investigate different women from Antoine's book. Deuce rides with Gaspar to the Man-Whore Awards Ceremony under the guise of protecting the man-whores. Gaspar tells him that he was once a man-whore hopeful. While Gaspar was observing a demonstration on how to perform a certain sex act, one of his classmates offered to let him use his penis-enlargement pump; when the demonstration ended, Gaspar was horrified. Gaspar was so angry and shocked that he continued to pump until his penis exploded, causing the other men to laugh at him, he blames man-whores for the loss of his fiancée and his penis, plans to kill them all at their awards ceremony.
At the ceremony, Deuce evacuates the building and gets into a sword fight with Gaspar, during which he mentions the other romantic ways of pleasing a woman. Gaspar beats Deuce, but before he can detonate the bomb, a woman with a penis for a nose and the woman with the tracheotomy distract Gaspar. Deuce knocks out Gaspar with a trophy taking the bomb detonator. For his bravery, Deuce is given the Golden Boner award, he shares a passionate kiss with Eva, accidentally sets off the bomb when the statue's penis bumps the detonator button. Deuce and Eva leave the scene; the following day and Eva come to pick up T. J., released from jail, tells them that he is entering a brand new prostitution market: gay man-whoring. In an epilogue: T. J. becomes a rapper. Deuce and Eva got married with Eva being pregnant. Gaspar is gang raped in prison, Kate's prosthetic leg is turned into a bong by a woman without a leg; the film includes cameos by comedic actor Adam Sandler and actress Elisabetta Canalis. Wes Takahashi, former animator and visual effects supervisor for Industrial Light & Magic, makes a cameo appearance as a news reporter.
Eddie Griffin verified in an interview that "a old stuffed cat" was used during the cat scene. Disney rejected the sequel as inappropriate because they wanted the film rated PG-13; the orphan sequel found a new home at Sony. Disney retains 5% of the box office gross. To promote the film Sony held a "Man-Whore of the Year" contest with Maxim magazine in Las Vegas; the film grossed $9,626,287 on its opening weekend, ranking at #5 behind Four Brothers, The Skeleton Key, The Dukes of Hazzard, Wedding Crashers. The film's opening weekend was lower than the first film's $12 million on its opening weekend; the movie closed its run with a gross of $22,400,154 in North America and $22,709,407 internationally for a total of $45,109,561. This was lower than the first film's final gross of $65,538,755 in North America and a worldwide total of $92,938,755. On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 9% based on reviews from 100 critics, with an average rating of 2.82 out of 10. The site's consensus states: "A witless follow-up to the surprise 1999 hit, Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo is raunchy, politically incorrect, not funny."
University station is a station on the Metrorail rapid transit system at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida. This station, opened to service May 20, 1984, is located along Ponce de Leon Boulevard at the intersection of South Dixie Highway and Mariposa Court; the stop provides particular convenience to UM students and resident physicians traveling between the Coral Gables campus, the medical campus at the UM/Jackson Memorial Medical Center at Civic Center station in the Civic Center Health District, direct access to Downtown Miami and Miami International Airport. Media related to University at Wikimedia Commons MDT – Metrorail Stations Station from Google Maps Street View