SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Azurite

Azurite is a soft, deep-blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. During the early 19th century, it was known as chessylite, after the type locality at Chessy-les-Mines near Lyon, France; the mineral, a carbonate with the chemical formula Cu322, has been known since ancient times, was mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History under the Greek name kuanos and the Latin name caeruleum. Since antiquity, azurite's exceptionally deep and clear blue has been associated with low-humidity desert and winter skies; the modern English name of the mineral reflects this association, since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward, an area known for its deposits of another deep-blue stone, lapis lazuli. Azurite is one of the other being bright green malachite. Simple copper carbonate is not known to exist in nature. Azurite has the formula Cu322, with the copper cations linked to two different anions and hydroxide. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into a saturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight.

Azurite crystals are monoclinic. Large crystals are dark blue prismatic. Azurite specimens can be massive to nodular, they are stalactitic in form. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Azurite is soft, with a Mohs hardness of only 3.5 to 4. The specific gravity of azurite is 3.77 to 3.89. Azurite is destroyed by losing carbon dioxide and water to form black, copper oxide powder. Characteristic of a carbonate, specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid; the optical properties of minerals such as azurite and malachite are characteristic of copper. Many coordination complexes of copper exhibit similar colors; as explained within the context of ligand field theory, the colors result from low energy d-d transitions associated with the d9 metal center. Azurite is unstable in open air compared to malachite, is pseudomorphically replaced by malachite; this weathering process involves the replacement of some of the carbon dioxide units with water, changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu322 + H2O → 3 Cu22 + CO2From the above equation, the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air.

Azurite is incompatible with aquatic media, such as saltwater aquariums. Azurite is unstable in air, however it was used as a blue pigment in antiquity. Azurite is occurring in Sinai and the Eastern Desert of Egypt, it was reported by F. C. J. Spurrell in the following examples. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground, its basic content of copper carbonate, it gave a wide range of blues, it has been known as mountain blue or Armenian stone, in addition it was known as Azurro Della Magna. When mixed with oil it turns green; when mixed with egg yolk it turns green-grey. It is known by the names blue bice and blue verditer, though verditer refers to a pigment made by chemical process. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli, a term applied to many blue pigments; as chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves, azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters.

Lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages, whereas azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. Sizable deposits were found near France, it was mined in the silver mines located there. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue, a more expensive but more stable blue pigment, as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. Ultramarine withstands heat. However, gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. Azurite is used as beads and as jewelry, as an ornamental stone. However, its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. Heating destroys azurite so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature; the intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. However, bright light and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen, collectors should use a cool, sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting.

While not a major ore of copper itself, the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. It is found in association with the chemically similar malachite, producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green, indicative of the presence of copper ores; the use of azurite and malachite as copper ore indicators led indirectly to the name of the element nickel in the English language. Nickeline, a principal ore of nickel, known as niccolite, weathers at the surface into a green mineral that resembles malachite; this resemblance resulted in occasional

Tracked in the Snow Country

Tracked in the Snow Country is a 1925 American silent drama film directed by Herman C. Raymaker, written by Edward J. Meagher and Herman C. Raymaker, starring Rin Tin Tin, June Marlowe, David Butler, Mitchell Lewis, Charles Sellon and Princess Lea, it was released by Warner Bros. on July 13, 1925. Rin Tin Tin as Rin Tin Tin June Marlowe as Joan Hardy David Butler as Terry Moulton Mitchell Lewis as Jules Renault Charles Sellon as Silent Hardy Princess Lea as Wah-Wah According to Warner Bros records the film earned $278,000 domestically and $44,000 foreign; the film exists in a print held by Stockholm. Tracked in the Snow Country on IMDb

Jamar Newsome

Jamar Newsome is an American football wide receiver who played for the Dallas Cowboys in the NFL. He was signed by the Jaguars as an undrafted free agent in 2011, he played college football at Central Florida. After going undrafted in the 2011 NFL Draft, Newsome was signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars. After starting the first two games of the season, Newsome was waived by the Jaguars, he was signed to the teams' practice squad the following day. On November 2, 2011, Newsome was signed to the Pittsburgh Steelers practice squad and was released on December 1, 2011. On December 4, 2011, Newsome was signed to the Chiefs' practice squad. On November 24, 2012, Newsome was signed to the Chiefs active roster. Newsome played in six games and started two regular-season games for the Chiefs, catching five passes for 73 yards. On September 17, 2013, Newsome was signed to the Cowboys' practice squad; the Cowboys released him during the 2014 preseason. Jamar is a member of the Lambda Omega chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi at the University of Central Florida.

Newsome graduated from UCF with a bachelor's degree in criminal justice. Newsome maintains a master's degree in public administration with a specialization in criminal justice from Indiana Wesleyan University. UCF Knights football bio Jacksonville Jaguars bio Kansas City Chiefs bio