Richard Sapper was a German industrial designer based in Milan, Italy. He is considered as one of the most important designers of his generation, his products featuring a combination of technical innovation, simplicity of form and an element of wit and surprise, he received numerous international design awards, including 11 prestigious Compasso d'Oro awards and the Raymond Loewy Foundation's Lucky Strike award. His products are part of the permanent collections of many museums around the world, with over 15 designs represented at New York's Museum of Modern Art, as well as London's Victoria and Albert and Design Museums, he was born in Munich on 30 May 1932. He graduated from University of Munich. After beginning as a designer in the styling department at Mercedes-Benz, Sapper relocated to Milan in 1958, where he joined the offices of architect Gio Ponti and subsequently the design department of La Rinascente. In 1959, he partnered with Italian architect and designer Marco Zanuso, a collaboration that would last on and off for 18 years until 1977.
The pair were hired in 1959 as consultants to Brionvega, an Italian company trying to produce well-designed electronics that would compete with products manufactured in Japan and Germany. Together they designed a series of radios and other consumer electronics that became enduring icons. Amongst their more notable designs were the rounded and portable Doney 14, the first television to feature transistorized construction, the radio TS502, a rectangular box with hinges that upon opening reveals speakers and controls. Using the aesthetic of sculptural minimalism, they created the compact folding Grillo telephone for Siemens and Italtel in 1965; the Grillo was the first telephone featuring the flip-down mouthpiece, a precursor to the clamshell designs of today's mobile phones. In 1964, Sapper and Zanuso designed the lightweight K1340 stacking children's chair for Kartell, the first chair produced in plastic. Upon starting his own independent studio in 1959, Sapper designed the Static table clock for Lorenz, which won him the first Compasso d'Oro prize and is still in production today.
In 1972, Sapper designed the Tizio lamp for Artemide, one of the first desk lamps using halogen bulbs with low-voltage current conducting arms to eliminate the need for wires. The Tizio remains one of the best-selling lamps produced. Sapper continued to create design classics including the Sapper Office Chair series for Knoll in 1979, a series of stop watches for Heuer in 1976 and the Nena folding chair for B&B Italia in 1984. In 1978, Alessi commissioned Sapper with the first product in a long series to come, the stove-top espresso maker 9090, it was followed, amongst other products, by the two-note whistling water kettle Bollitore in 1984, the Bandung teapot in 1990, the Coban espresso machine in 1997, the cheese grater Todo in 2006 and the Cintura di Orione cookware series in 1986 and 2009, conceived with the collaboration of chefs such as Roger Verge and Michel Troisgros, Alain Chapel. In 1980, Sapper was appointed principal industrial design consultant at IBM and began designing numerous portable computers, including the first ThinkPad 700C in 1992, which broke with the company's tradition of pearl-grey machines with a simple and elegant black rectangular box.
This minimalistic box would reveal a surprise inside: a small red button amidst the keyboard which would serve to control the screen cursor. Sapper continued to oversee the ThinkPad brand as design consultant to Lenovo after it acquired the IBM PC Division in May 2005. Throughout his career, Sapper devoted great attention to transportation issues, he worked with Fiat on experimental cars on pneumatic bumper systems, with Pirelli on the development of pneumatic structures. In 1972, he formed with architect Gae Aulenti a study group for the development of new urban transportation systems, a theme which he pursued further for an exhibition at the XVI Triennale in Milan in 1979 and which included the design of a bus for Fiat that enabled passengers to stow their bicycles in a rack, his research culminated with the design of the Zoombike, a lightweight bicycle designed with aircraft technology to achieve the required strength and speed acceleration, which can fold as and as an umbrella and fit into a car trunk.
Sapper's roster of clients included Alessi, Artemide, B&B Italia, Heuer, IBM, Knoll International, Lorenz, Molteni Unifor, Pirelli. Sapper taught and lectured at Yale University, the Kunstakademie Stuttgart, the University of Beijing, the Royal College of Art in London, the Domus Academy in Milan, the University of Buenos Aires, the Hochschule fuer Angewandte Kunst in Vienna. Sapper was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in England and a Member of the Academy of Arts in Germany; the German Design Council awarded Sapper a lifetime achievement award for his design work in 2009 and he was bestowed an Honorary Doctor degree from the University of North Carolina in 2010. In 2012, Sapper received the Merit Cross of the Order of Merit from the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. Sapper died on 31 December 2015, at the age of 83. Jonathan Olivares, Richard Sapper, Phaidon Books, New York, London 2016 Michael Webb, Richard Sapper, Chronicle Books, San Francisco 2002 Uta Brandes, Richard Sapper: Tools for Life, Steidl Verlag, Goettingen 1993 Hans Höger, Tizio Light by Richard Sapper, Verlag form, Hamburg 1997 Siegfried Gronert, The 9090 Cafetiere by Richard Sapper, Verlag form, Hamburg 1998 Richard Sapper, Michael Horsham, The International Design Yearbook 1998, Laurence King, London 1998 RichardSapperDesign.com Richard Sapp
Gaetano Pesce is an Italian architect and a design pioneer of the 20th century. Mr. Pesce was born in La Spezia in 1939, he grew up in Padua and Florence. During his 50-year career, Mr. Pesce has worked as an architect, urban planner, industrial designer, his outlook is considered broad and humanistic, his work is characterized by an inventive use of color and materials, asserting connections between the individual and society, through art and design to reappraise mid-twentieth century modern life. Mr. Pesce studied architecture at the University of Venice, with such notable teachers as Carlo Scarpa and Ernesto Rogers. Between 1958 and 1963, Mr. Pesce participated in Gruppo N, an early collective concerned with programmed art patterned after the Bauhaus. Since the 1960s, Gaetano Pesce has been known to relate art to the design of interiors and architecture; the New York Times critic Herbert Muschamp described Mr. Pesce as "the architectural equivalent of a brainstorm." Pesce's well known work includes Organic Building in Osaka, Japan, a Landmark vertical garden building designed to concealing a complex, computer-controlled hydration system to sustain plant growth, the interior architecture of the Chiat/Day offices, an early workplace village modeled after urban life.
Among Mr. Pesce's architecture achievements are Les Halles ACIH and Parc de la Villette, France, a complex of forms shaped like a running child. Mr. Pesce's prototypical three-dimensional models and architectural drawings are held in the permanent museum collections of MoMA, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Cooper-Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum in New York City. 1980: Late Entries to the Chicago Tribune Tower Competition, II. 1983: Project for rehabilitation of the Lingotto, Italy,for the Fiat group 1984: la Maison des enfants au Parc de la Villette, France 1986: Hubin Apartment, Paris 1991: TBWA\Chiat\Day Offices, New York 1993: Organic Building, Japan 1994: Shuman Residence, New York 1994: Art Gallery. Knokke-le-Zoute, Belgium 1994: Bahia House, Brazil Since the 1960s, Mr. Pesce has researched the function and form of utilitarian and decorative objects, including furniture and shoes, from the perspective of human emotion and production. Mr. Pesce is known for innovative high-minded modern design with style.
Mr. Pesce has challenged accepted standards of abstraction and homogeneity. On the architect designer, critic Susan Slesin wrote, "For Gaetano Pesce, to be modern is to face the world squarely and use design as a means to comment on it. Mr. Pesce has expanded the established notions of Modernism through the creation functional and warm product design, he connects art and society to design through organic form, for production by B&B Italia, Vitra and fabric design, such as People, composed of 570 different figures, all of which incorporate ideas about variation and diversity in contemporary society. Pesce's iconic feminist armchair - a fulsome bulbous form and attached ball-shaped ottoman - alternately referred to as La Mamma, Big Mama, Up chair - continues to inspire interpretation nearly 50 years after its creation. According to curator and author of SuperDesign, Maria Cristina Didero, "Pesce wanted to produce something about the condition of women in the world; the chair can be read as the mother, the stool her child.
But it could be a ball and chain woman and the prison she was obliged to live in."Mr. Pesce is best known for his work with resin and casting techniques used to create objects, including vases, chairs and the two-dimensional reliefs that the designer calls “industrial skins.” Since 1987, he has infused ordinary materials with experimental additives, such as liquid plant resin, worked with foam and urethane, simplify the manufacturing processes and adapt limited industrial capabilities. Pesce credits the early influence of his student work with three venerable Murano glassmakers — Moretti and Venini — whose casting techniques for informing his label-defying works of sculpture, furniture and paintings. Pesce's own experimentation in glassmaking has led to inventive techniques and original results. Mr. Pesce has used urethane resin to create necklaces, bracelets and rings. For Mr. Pesce, the design and development of portable goods have always incorporated craft-specialization, history and the human need for connection.
Mr. Pesce's industrial design techniques such as diversified series production is a process by which he experiments with materials using a craft manufacturing sensibility applied to mass production methodology. On the production line, for example, factory workers vary proportions to produce a series of objects with a "one of a kind" quality. Socio-political messaging is found in Mr. Pesce's collections, such as "Nobody’s Perfect" by Zerodisegno, the 2010 series of irregularly shaped tables for Cassina, which together form the recognizable shape of a boot shape, commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Unification of Italy, celebrate human diversity and connection, as well as one-of-a-kind pieces like “America Table”, with a red-white-and-blue resin tabletop American flag supported on letters that spell “independence,” and “Verbal Abuse”, a tall, grided lamp that bends forward with attachable weights. Mr. Pesce's unconventional mixed-media industrial d
Modern furniture refers to furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present, influenced by modernism. Post-World War II ideals of cutting excess and practicality of materials in design influenced the aesthetic of the furniture, it was a tremendous departure from all furniture design. There was an opposition to the decorative arts, which included Art Nouveau and Victorian styles. Dark or gilded carved wood and richly patterned fabrics gave way to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal; the forms of furniture evolved from visually heavy to visually light. This shift from decorative to minimalist principles of design can be attributed to the introduction of new technology, changes in philosophy, the influences of the principles of architecture; as Philip Johnson, the founder of the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art articulates: "Today industrial design is functionally motivated and follows the same principles as modern architecture: machine-like simplicity, smoothness of surface, avoidance of ornament...
It is the most fundamental contrast between the two periods of design that in 1900 the Decorative Arts possessed..." With the machine aesthetic, modern furniture came to promote factory modules, which emphasized the time-managing, efficient ideals of the period. Modernist design was able to strip down decorative elements and focus on the design of the object in order to save time, money and labour; the goal of modern design was to capture timeless beauty in spare precision. Prior to the modernist design movement, there was an emphasis on furniture as an ornament; the length of time a piece took to create was a measure of its value and desirability. The origins of design can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution and the birth of mechanized production. With new resources and advancements, a new philosophy emerged, one that shifted the emphasis of objects being created for decorative purposes to being designs that promote functionality and production; the idea of accessible, mass-produced design, affordable to anyone was not only applied to industrial mechanics, but to the aesthetics of architecture and furniture.
This philosophy of practicality came to be called Functionalism. It played a large role in theories of modern design. Functionalism rejected the imitation of stylistic and historical forms and sought an establishment of functionality in a piece. Functionalist designers would consider the interaction of the design with its user and how many of the features, such as shape and size, would conform to the human posture. Western design whether architectural or design of furniture, had for millennia sought to convey an idea of lineage, a connection with tradition and history. However, the modern movement sought newness, technical innovation, the message that it conveyed spoke of the present and the future, rather than of what had gone before it; the modernist design seems to have evolved out of a combination of influences: technically innovative materials and new manufacturing methods. Following the Second Industrial Revolution, new philosophies and artists emerged from the De Stijl movement in the Netherlands, the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus school, both located in Germany.
The De Stijl movement, was founded in 1917 by Theo Van Doesburg in Amsterdam. The movement was based on the principles of promoting abstraction and universality by reducing excessive elements down to the essentials of form and colour. Dutch design has shown a preference for simple materials and construction, but De Stijl artists and designers strove to combine these elements to create a new visual culture. Characteristics of furniture from this movement include simplified geometry of vertical and horizontal compositions and pure primary colours and black and white, it was the rejection of the decorative excesses from Art Nouveau and promoted logicality through construction and function. Influential artists from this movement include Gerrit Rietveld, Piet Mondrian, Mies van der Rohe, who continued to evolve the ideas of modernist design. Founded in 1907 in Munich, the Deutscher Werkbund was an organization of artists and manufacturers that pushed to create a cultural utopia achieved through a design and new ideas in the early twentieth century.
They shared the Modern thought of "form follows function" as well as the "ethnically pure" design principles such as quality, material functionality, sustainability. The DWB played a key role in advocating these ideas to other German artists and designers, which inspired the development of many Modern design institutions. Among the most notable architects and designers from the DWB are: Hermann Muthesius, Peter Behrens, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the Bauhaus school, founded in 1919 in Weimar, Germany, by architect Walter Gropius, was an art school that combined all aspects of art. It was forced to move to Dessau, Germany, in 1925 due to political tensions Berlin, in 1932 until the doors of the school were closed from the pressure of the Nazi regime. With the change of location came a change of direction in the institution; the Bauhaus adopted an emphasis on production in Dessau, but maintained its intellectual concerns in design. Throughout the years, the goal of the institution was to combine intellectual, practical and aesthetic concerns through art and technology.
The Bauhaus promoted the unity of all areas of art and design: from typography to tableware, performance, furniture and architecture. Prominent artists and designers from the Bauhaus include: Marcel Breu
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Mario Bellini is an Italian architect and designer. He graduated from the Milan Polytechnic - Faculty of Architecture in 1959 and began working as an architect himself in the early 1960s, he is the winner among others of 8 Compasso d’Oro and prestigious architecture awards including the Medaglia d’Oro conferred on him by the President of the Italian Republic. Like many other Italian architects, his activities range from architecture and urban planning to product and furniture design, his career as a product and furniture designer began in 1963, from 1963 to 1991 he was chief design consultant for Olivetti. For many years he designed furnishing products and systems for B&B Italia and Cassina, TV sets for Brionvega, hi-fi systems and electric organs for Yamaha. For five years he worked as an automobile design consultant with Renault. In 1972 he was commissioned to design and build the prototype of the Kar-a-Sutra mobile environment for the exhibition “Italy: the New Domestic Landscape” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
He has designed for Fiat and Lancia, lamps for Artemide and Flos, office furniture for Vitra. Other firms for whom he has designed and/or continues to design products include Acerbis, Driade, Castilia, Kartell, Marcatrè, Meritalia and Poltrona Frau, his early international success grew during the first two decades in the design sector, reached its peak in 1987 with a personal retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art of New York. At the time the museum included 25 of his works in its Permanent Collection, including a remarkable set of Olivetti machines as well as the furniture for B&B and Cassina - such as the famous "Cab" chair - and the innovative office chairs designed for Vitra. MBA's headquarters of 1,500 square metres in Milan were designed by Mario Bellini himself in the early 1990s, today an average of 30 to 35 architects. In 1999, MBA obtained ISO 9001 quality certification. Since the ‘80s, he has been successful in the field of architecture in Europe, the United States and the Arab Emirates.
Projects built Museum of Islamic Arts at Louvre Museum, Paris, 2005-2012 Museum of the City of Bologna, Italy, 2004-2012 Urban redevelopment “Verona Forum”, Italy, 2004–2011 Radical refurbishment of the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt, Germany, 2007–2011 National Gallery of Victoria extension and redevelopment, Australia, 1996–2003 Essen International Fair Extension, Germany, 1998–2001 Natuzzi Americas Headquarters, High Point, North Carolina, USA, 1996–1998 Arsoa Co./Cosmetics- Headquarters, Japan, 1996–1998 New fair district of the Milan Trade Fair, 1987–1997 Risonare Vivre Club Complex, Japan, 1989–1992 Tokyo Design Center, Japan, 1988–1992 Yokohama Business Park, Japan, 1987–1991 Villa Erba Exhibition and Congress Centre, Cernobbio, 1986–1990 Thermoelectric power plant of Cassano d’Adda-Office building, 1985–1990Projects under construction Milan Convention Centre, Europe’s largest convention centre, 2008 Architectural project of a large Scientific-Technological Park at Erzelli Hill, Italy, 2005 Extension and redevelopment of the Pinacoteca di Brera Milan, 2009 New Cultural Centre of Turin, 2001 Among the best architectural creations New Museum of the city of Berlin, Germany, 2008 Sheikh Zayed National Museum International Competition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2007 European Patent Office, L’Aja, Holland, 2004 Cittanova 2000, Italy, 2003 Redevelopment of the City Centre of Tian Jin, China, 2003 Banca CR Firenze-New H.
Q. Italy, 2003 New International Trade Fair of Milan – Rho/Pero, Milan, 2002 Multifunctional Complex “MAB. Zeil Project”, Germany, 2002 Stolitza Towers, Moscow, 1996 Dubai Creek Complex, United Arab Emirates, 1994 Goshikidai Marine Resort, Japan, 1993 Avid art lover and collector, he has been responsible for the exhibition design of many art exhibitions, among which: • "The Treasure of St. Marco in Venice", Grand Palais and the major museums around the world, 1984–87 • "Italian Art in the 20th Century", Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1989 • "The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo; the Representation of Architecture", Palazzo Grassi, Venice in Paris and Berlin, 1994–95 • "The Triumphs of Baroque. Architecture in Europe 1600-1750", Stupinigi Hunting Palace, Turin. A designer at the Court of Queen Victoria", Milan, 2001 • “Annisettanta. Il decennio lungo del secolo breve”, Triennale, 2007–2008 • “Magnificenza e Progetto” Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2008–2009 • In 1987, the Museum of Modern Art in New York organised the exhibition “Mario Bellini: designer”, the first great retrospective on a living artist • In 1996, the Royal Institute of British Architects held an exhibition of Bellini’s work as an architect • In 2000, the Municipal Gallery of Contemporary Art of Trento, Italy held a personal show “Mario Bellini: a path between architecture and cars” • In December 2003, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne reopened with a major exhibition on his work.
Fiell, Charlotte & Peter. Industrial Design A-Z. London: Taschen. Bellini Studios website
Ettore Sottsass was an Italian architect and designer during the 20th century. His body of work included furniture, glass, home objects and office machine design, as well as many buildings and interiors. Sottsass was born on September 14, 1917, in Innsbruck and grew up in Turin, where his father named Ettore Sottsass, was an architect; the elder Sottsass belonged to the modernist architecture group Movimento Italiano per l'Architectura Razionale, led by Giuseppe Pagano. The younger Sottsass was educated at the Politecnico di Torino in Turin and graduated in 1939 with a degree in architecture, he served in the Italian military, in the Repubblica Sociale Italiana, spent some of World War II in a prison and in a labor camp in Yugoslavia. After returning home, Ettore Sottsass worked as an architect with his father on new modernist versions of buildings that were destroyed during the war. In 1947, living in Milan, he set up his own architectural and industrial design studio, where he began to create work in a variety of different media: ceramic, sculpture, photography, jewelry and interior design.
In 1949 Sottsass married Fernanda Pivano, a writer, journalist and critic. In 1956, Sottsass began working in the office of George Nelson, he and Pivano traveled while working for Nelson, returned to Italy after a few months. In 1956, Sottsass was commissioned by the American entrepreneur Irving Richards on an exhibition of his ceramics. Back in Italy in 1957, Sottsass joined Poltronova, a semi-industrial producer of contemporary furniture, as an artistic consultant. Much of the furniture he worked on there influenced the design he would create with Memphis Milano. In 1958, Sottsass was hired by Adriano Olivetti as a design consultant for Olivetti, to design electronic devices and develop the first Italian mainframe computer, the Elea 9003 for which he was awarded the Compasso d'Oro in 1959, he designed office equipment and furniture. There Sottsass made his name as a designer who, through colour and styling, managed to bring office equipment into the realm of popular culture, his first typewriters, the Tekne 3 and the Praxis 48, were characterized by their sobriety and their angularity.
With Perry A. King, Sottsass created the Valentine in 1969, considered today as a milestone in 20th century Design. Light, which become a fashion accessoryWhile continuing to design for Olivetti in the 1960s, Sottsass developed a range of objects which were expressions of his personal experiences traveling in the United States and India; these objects included large altar-like ceramic sculptures and his "Superboxes", radical sculptural gestures presented within a context of consumer product, as conceptual statements. Covered in bold and colorful, simulated custom laminates, they were precursors to Memphis, a movement which came more than a decade later. Around this time, Sottsass said: "I didn’t want to do any more consumerist products, because it was clear that the consumerist attitude was quite dangerous." As a result, his work from the late 1960s to the 1970s was defined by experimental collaborations with younger designers such as Superstudio and Archizoom Associati, association with the Radical movement, culminating in the foundation of Memphis at the turn of the decade.
In 1970s he designed the modular office equipment Synthesis 45. Sottsass and Fernanda Pivano divorced in 1970, in 1976 Sottsass married Barbara Radice, an art critic and journalist; when Roberto Olivetti succeeded as head of the company, he named Sottsass artistic director and gave him a high salary, but Sottsass refused. Instead he created the Studio Olivetti independent of Olivetti and became the most creative international centre of design associating research with creation and industrial strategy, his concern that his creativity would have been stifled by corporate work is documented in his 1973 essay "When I was a Very Small Boy". In 1968, the Royal College of Art in London granted Sottsass an honorary doctorate. With the rise of new groups the handmade appeared as the new game for experimentation, a lot of these new groups playing in this new/old path to renew creation. In October 1980, Sottsass was confronted with two proposals, one from Renzo Brugola, a dear old friend and carpenter, telling him his will "to make something together like in the good old times,” and the other one from Mario and Brunella Godani, owners of the Design Gallery Milano, who asked him to create "new furniture" for their gallery.
Ettore Sottsass founded the Memphis Group in Milan on December 11, 1980, after the Bob Dylan song "Stuck inside of Mobile with the Memphis blues again" played during the group's inaugural meeting. The group was active from 1981 to 1988; as the Memphis movement in the 1980s attracted attention worldwide for its energy and flamboyance, Ettore Sottsass began assembling a major design consultancy, which he named Sottsass Associati. Sottsass Associati was established in 1980 and gave the possibility to build architecture on a substantial scale as well as to design for large international industries. Besides Ettore Sottsass, the others founding members were Aldo Cibic, Marco Marabelli, Matteo Thun and Marco Zanini. Johanna Grawunder, Marco Susani and Mike Ryan will join the firm. In 1985, Sottsass left Memphis to focus on the Associati. Sottsass Associati an architectural practice designed elaborate stores and showrooms for Esprit, identities for Alessi, interiors, consumer electronics in Japan and furniture of all kinds.
The studio was based on the cultural guidanc
Compasso d'Oro is the name of an industrial design award originated in Italy in 1954 by the La Rinascente company from an original idea of Gio Ponti and Alberto Rosselli. From 1964 it has been hosted by Associazione per il Disegno Industriale, it is the most recognized award in its field. The prize aims to acknowledge and promote quality in the field of industrial designs made in Italy and is awarded by ADI; the Compasso d′Oro was set up in 1954, now it is the highest honor in the industrial designing circle in Italy, as famous as the first grade international awards like the Red Dot Award. It was the first award of its kind in Europe and soon took on an international dimension and relevance, multiplying the occasions on which the exhibitions of award-winning objects were held in Europe, the United States and Japan; the Castiglioni brothers contributed to establish the Compasso d'Oro awards. Enzo Mari was president of the ADI from 1976 to 1979. At present the management department of the Compasso d'Oro is Italy Industrial Designing Association, it is the members of the International Industrial Designing Committee and the European Designing Bureau.
Since its inception 300 designs have been honored the Award, covering a wide range of products such as racing bikes, portable sewing machines, sofas, clothes hangers, clocks, desk lamps, electric fans and coffee machines. Some of the awarded designs are exposed in Milan, in the Collection of the Premio Compasso d'Oro ADI. On 22 April 2004, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism – through its Superintendency for Lombardy – declared the collection of "exceptional artistic and historical interest", thus making it part of the national cultural heritage; some of the winning products 1956-1960. Photo by Paolo Monti The award is given as a Compass, the one invented by Adalbert Goeringer in 1893 to measure the Golden Section. Industrial design List of industrial designers The official web page of the Associazione per il Disegno Industriale Charlotte Fiell. Industrial Design A-Z. London: Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8228-5057-2