click links in text for more info


Béhanzin is considered the eleventh King of Dahomey, modern-day Benin. Upon taking the throne, he changed his name from Kondo, he succeeded his father and ruled from 1889 to 1894. Béhanzin was Abomey's last independent ruler established through traditional power structures, he led the national resistance during the Dahomey War. His symbols are the shark, the egg, a captive hanging from a flagpole. But, his most famous symbol is the smoking pipe; this is because he claimed that there wasn't a minute in his life when he was a baby, that he was not smoking. Béhanzin was seen by his people as courageous, he saw that the Europeans were encroaching on his kingdom, as a result attempted a foreign policy of isolating the Europeans and rebuffing them. As prince just before Glele's death, Béhanzin declined to meet French envoy Jean Bayol, claiming conflicts in his schedule due to ritual and ceremonial obligations; as a result, Bayol returned to Cotonou to prepare to go to war against Béhanzin, named king upon Glele's death.

Seeing the preparations, the Dahomeans attacked Bayol's forces outside Cotonou in 1890. Béhanzin's forces were forced to withdraw. Béhanzin returned to Bayol to France for a time; the peace lasted two years. Both sides continued to buy arms in preparation for another battle. In 1892, the soldiers of Abomey attacked villages near Grand Popo and Porto-Novo in an effort to reassert the older boundaries of Dahomey; this was seen as an act of war by the French. Bayol, by now named Colonial Governor by the French, declared war on Béhanzin; the French war machine justified the aggression by characterizing the Dahomeans as savages in need of civilizing, pointing to the human sacrifice at the annual customs and at a king's death, to the continued practice of slavery, as evidence of this savagery. Some of this propaganda still exists today: in the Musee de l'Homme in the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, there is a large print, again illustrating the alleged savagery of the Dahomeans, of a battle in the war against Dahomey where a Mino killed a French officer by ripping out his throat with her sharpened teeth.

The story is somewhat more complex, since the traditional accounts of the event handed down in Benin have the Amazon as a trusted wife of Béhanzin who had sworn to avenge members of the royal family, executed by Béhanzin for treachery after divulging battle plans in return for bribes from French agents. Further, the French officer at issue was the head of French military intelligence who committed the'savage' act of corrupting family members to betray their own. Through superior intelligence gathering, superior weaponry, subversion by some members of the royal family, corrupted by bribes, a campaign of psychological warfare that included cutting down most of the sacred trees in the Oueme and Zou, an unexpected attack strategy, the French succeeded in defeating Dahomey, one of the last traditional African kingdoms to succumb to European colonization. Instead of attacking Abomey directly by marching straight north from Calavi just north of Cotonou, French General Alfred Dodds attacked from Porto-Novo, moving up the Oueme valley until he was within striking distance of Abomey, via Cove and Bohicon.

The French were victorious, in 1894, Béhanzin surrendered his person to Dodds, without signing any instrument of national surrender or treaty. He lived out the remainder of his life in exile in Algeria. After his death, his remains were returned to Abomey. Béhanzin was succeeded by Agoli-agbo, his distant relative and one-time Army Chief of Staff, the only potential ruler which the French were willing to instate. Scramble for Africa

Solon Township, Leelanau County, Michigan

Solon Township is a civil township of Leelanau County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,542 at the 2000 census. Cedar is a small unincorporated community at 44°50′52″N 85°47′45″W at the corners of sections five, six and eight, it was founded in 1885 by lumberman Benjamin Boughey. He named it Cedar City; the depot on the Manistee and North-Eastern Railroad continued to be known as Cedar City, long after the post office named Cedar was established on August 15, 1893. The Cedar post office, with ZIP code 49621, serves most of Solon Township as well as a large part of Centerville Township to the north, smaller portions of Cleveland Township to the northwest, Kasson Township to the west, Elmwood Township to the east. In 1905, the Cedar State Bank was begun, which survived the Great Depression in 1933, but was closed in the decade; the bank building was used for the offices of the Leelanau Telephone Company. Each year in July, Cedar is host to the annual Cedar Polka Festival, which began in 1975.

Fouch is a small unincorporated community on the south end of Lake Leelanau at 44°50′02″N 85°43′16″W. It is named after John R. Fouch, who settled there in 1866. In 1893, he built a hotel for fishermen, when the Manistee and North-Eastern Railroad was built, the station on his land was named for him, he became the first postmaster on March 3, 1893. The office closed on November 13, 1895 and was restored as a summer post office on May 20, 1905 and operated until 1908. After Fouch's death, Daniel Perrin acquired the land in 1927 and developed a summer colony known as Perrin's Landing. Fouch Hill, now the site of Timberlee Hills, is just south of Fouch. Solon is a small unincorporated community at 44°48′34″N 85°45′40″W on the Cedar Run Creek between sections 21 and 22 in the central part of the township, it was first settled in the 1860s and named for Solon, from where many of the settlers had migrated. A post office operated from February 3, 1870 until June 15, 1909; the city of Traverse City is to the east and the Traverse City post office with ZIP code 49684 serves portions of southern and eastern Solon Township.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 29.7 square miles, of which 26.6 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. This climatic region has large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Solon Township has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,542 people, 595 households, 464 families residing in the township. The population density was 57.9 per square mile. There were 738 housing units at an average density of 27.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 97.21% White, 0.13% African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.45% of the population. There were 595 households out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.0% were non-families.

18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 2.95. In the township the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $47,448, the median income for a family was $53,571. Males had a median income of $37,045 versus $25,481 for females; the per capita income for the township was $22,987. About 2.2% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. Clarke Historical Library, Michigan University, Bibliography for Leelanau County Solon Township Website Cedar, Michigan - Business Listings and Polka Festival Information

Josie Sadler

Josie Sadler was for twenty years a leading American stage comedienne known for her "Dutch" dialect routines and heavy-set appearance. She made several early phonograph recordings for the major companies of the time, made several silent films for Vitagraph, she retired from show business to operate her deceased husband's electrical research business. Josie Sadler was born as Josephine Rauscher in New York City in 1871, her father was German, her mother was French. Sadler was discovered at age 9 by Tony Pastor, after Pastor received parental acquiescence, she appeared in Pastor's production Nursery Rhymes; this engagement lasted for about 4 months. She was educated in the United States, in Germany, ending her education at age 15, she joined the Broadway production of Erminie. Next she worked as a chorus girl in traveling productions of La Madelon, her superior work came to the attention of manager John Russel and she was rewarded with a bit part in Natural Gas. Her next appearance was in the February through June 1890 production of The City Directory at the Bijou Theatre in New York, in the role of an elevator operator named "John Smith".

Sadler appeared in 2 more John Russel productions, Easy Street and Miss McGinty, before engaging with Henry Dixey for revivals of the shows Patience and The Mascot. Her German education helped make her one of the prominent "German dialect" comediennes of her day; this combined with her girth made her one of the best known stage comediennes of any type. In August 1897 she appeared in the William Harris production Good Mr. Best, where she played the role of "Gretchen Slowe", which proved to be one of her favorite characters, her next role was not "Dutch", but as a cockney named Jemima in Monte Carlo at the Herald Square Theatre. In February 1899 she was back at the Bijou for Brown's in Town as "Frida Von Hollenbeck", but this production was a failure, she went to the Webber & Fields' Theater for the part of the sister in Catharine, to great success. Most of the cast, including Sadler, moved on to the production of Hurly Burly, she is credited with originating the "Dutch Girl" role on stage, in her performance in the 1899 play Prince Pro Tem.

Here she not only starred alongside Fred Lennox in the role of "Wild Rosie of Yucatan," but wrote and performed the hit song of the play, "Oh, If I Could Only get a Decent Sleep." Subsequently and Lennox married and Sadler took a bit of time away from performing in order to travel with her new husband while he starred in Princess Bonnie. September 1899 saw her as "Tryphena Shoolz" in the production A Million Dollars. Following this, she appeared in the Reginald De Koven play Broadway to Tokio, where she again sang "Oh, If I Could Only get a Decent Sleep". Next was a role in the play The Supper Club at the New York Roof Garden, she was again at the New York Theater for The Hall of Fame. She starred in The Silver Slipper in 1902; the biggest success of her stage career came in the vehicle Peggy from Paris. In this play she performed as Peggy's "Dutch Maid" and had a featured song in which she described her son, a bassoon player. In 1908 she headlined with Charles A. Bigelow in the play A Waltz Dream, where she played the role of "Fifi", a bass drummer.

It was this year. The same year she appeared as "Miss Tiny Daly" in the play The Mimic World, which ran for 100 performances at the Moorish Casino Theatre and the Grand Opera House, her next theatrical appointment was in Lew Fields' The Jolly Bachelors, followed by, at the Globe Theatre, The Bachelor Belles, which ran for 32 performances through November and December 1910. She was next alongside Eddie Foy and Lillian Lorraine in Over the River, she appeared in a play entitled Will O' Th' Wisp for the Summer 1911 season at Chicago's Studebaker Theater and was among the featured performers of the 1912 Ziegfeld Follies. Sadler joined Vitagraph in March 1913, her first appearance on film was shown May 1913, in support of Norma Talmadge's Oracles. In 1914 she made a series of five comedy films for Vitagraph which co-starred Billy Quirk, entitled "Josie Comedies"; the films were not successful, the "Josie" series did not continue. After two years at Vitagraph, Sadler moved to the World Film Corporation and appeared in the feature film What Happened to Jones? in 1915.

She continued appearing as "Alma" in the 1916 production The Blue Envelope. At this point she went on the vaudeville circuit with her sketch "Moving Pictures" based on her movie-acting experience. Sadler retired from show business in 1918 in order to run her husband's electrical research business, subsequent to his death, she was now known as Josephine S. Geddes. Although she was uneducated in business or in electrical science, she did the bookkeeping and ran the daily operations with the assistance of her son, William Geddes; the career transition was reported to be successful, she credited her show-business background with giving her the ability to judge people's characters and with instilling her with resourcefulness and perseverance. She gave credit to her husband's business friends and her employees who assisted her. Sadler credited herself with using her sense of humor to improve the mood of the workplace, she died in 1927. Sadler's hobbies included cooking, she was known to try new recipes of her own invention on her fellow actors.

She prized her collection of autographed photos gathered from her fellow actors. She was married at least twice, had one son, William Geddes, who followed her both on the stage and into the electrical business. Sadler's r

2010 Golden Awards

The 2010 Golden Awards was an awards ceremony held in Malaysia. It is the inaugural ceremony and was held at the Putrajaya International Convention Centre in Putrajaya; the list of nominees was published in July and the ceremony took place in September. The show was hosted by Singaporean host and actor Bryan Wong. A special episode called "Golden Awards Prelude" featuring the nominees from each category was aired on ntv7 during the weeks leading up to the ceremony. Guest presenters and performers include Quan Yi Fong, Wu Jiahui, Nicholas Teo, Fish Leong, Jamii Szmadzinski, Sam Lee, Aarif Rahman and Godfrey Gao; the Iron Lady Goodnight DJ Romantic Delicacies Age of Glory Love 18 Steve Yap 叶良财 - Welcome Home, My Love Chen Huen Phuei 曾宏辉 - Goodnight DJ Wee Kheng Ming 黄启铭 - The Thin Line Melvin Sia 谢佳见 - Romantic Delicacies Zzen Zhang 章缜翔 - The Thin Line Aenie Wong 王淑君 - The Iron Lady Debbie Goh 吴天瑜 - Age of Glory Apple Hong 洪乙心 - Love is All Around Yeo Yann Yann 杨雁雁 - The Iron Lady Jesseca Liu 刘芷绚 - Romantic Delicacies Alvin Wong 王骏 - Exclusive Ernest Chong 张顺源 - Exclusive Frederick Lee 李洺中 - Age of Glory Jordan Voon 温绍平 - The Iron Lady William San 辛伟廉 - Lion.

Hearts Seck Fook Yee 释福如 - The Iron Lady 梁书造 - My Kampong Days 林亦廷 - My Kampong Days Jane Ng 黃明慧 - The Thin Line Stella Chung 钟晓玉 - The Thin Line Hishiko 吴佩其 - The Iron Lady Yise Loo 罗忆诗 - Goodnight DJ Tracy Lee 李美玲 - The Thin Line Jamie 朱健美 - Love is Not Blind Henley Hii 许亮宇 - Step of Dance The Iron Lady Fallen Angel Age of Glory Love 18 Exclusive Deal or No Deal Malaysia 一掷千金 Double Triple Or Nothing 贰叁零之役 Double Triple Or Nothing – Kids Project Superstar Malaysia 绝对SuperStar 3 Ultimate Power Group 终极天团 Cheryl Lee 李欣怡 - Project Superstar Malaysia 3 Double Triple Or Nothing Owen Yap 叶剑锋 - Deal Or No Deal Chen Huen Phuei 曾宏辉 Steve Yap 叶良财 Zzen Zhang 章缜翔 Wee Kheng Ming 黄启铭 Huang Zhiqiang 黄志强 Melvin Sia 谢佳见 Shaun Chen 陈泓宇 Foo Chee Kin 傅志坚 Monday Kang 江伟翰 Jeffrey Cheng 庄惟翔 Henley Hii 许亮宇 Yeo Yann Yann 杨雁雁 Jesseca Liu 刘芷绚 Debbie Goh 吴天瑜 Aenie Wong 王淑君 Apple Hong 洪乙心 Ong Ai Leng 王爱玲 Cai Peixuan 蔡佩璇 Yise Loo 罗忆诗 Hishiko 吴姵琪 Angie 萧佩莹 Tracy Lee 李美玲 Mayjune Tan 陈美君 Emily Lim 林佩琪 Jamie 朱健美 The Iron Lady Gary Yap 叶俊岑 Lai Meng 黎明 Golden Awards 2010 - Pictures on "Nominees".

Sin Chew Daily. 2 June 2010

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act

The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 became a United States federal law 99-645 on November 10, 1986. Prior to the Act the purchase of wetlands by the Federal Government had been prohibited; the Act allocated funds from the Land and Water Conservation Fund for the purchase of wetlands by the Secretary of Interior, head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Act instituted a National Wetlands Priority Conservation Plan, to be established and set up by the Secretary. Included in this plan was a requirement for all States to include wetlands as part of their Comprehensive Outdoors Recreation plan; the plan transferred the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund amounts which were to be equal to the import duties on arms and ammunition. The main purpose of the Act was to ensure a follow through on international obligations and fulfillment of these obligations on the various past and future migratory bird treaties, it promoted the conservation of wetlands so the benefits they provide could be maintained.

An extension of the Wetlands Loan Act of 1961, established and approved on October 4, 1961 was provided by the Act. Under this extension wetlands loan advances would be forgiven and it extend the appropriation through September 30, 1988. A requirement was outlined in the Act which instructed the Secretary to report to the United States Congress on all losses of wetlands; the Secretary was to investigate these losses and outline his findings in these reports to provide information as to whether or not federal programs and/or policies contributed to any of the wetland losses. Other responsibilities tasked to the Secretary were to complete the mapping of all the wetlands in the contiguous United States and those in the non-contiguous portions of the U. S. by September 30, 1990. This was to be done in conjunction with inventorying all of the National Wetlands which were to be completed eight years on September 30, 1998 with continuation at ten-year intervals thereafter. Updates were to be provided to previous reports to help update and improve the “Status and Trends of Wetlands and Deep-water Habitat in the Coterminous United States, 1950’s to 1970’s” from September 1982.

Included within the Act were several provisions to establish entrance fees to all National Wildlife Refuges and to establish the Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge in Louisiana. Funds collected from these entrance fees were to be split, with 70% going to the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund and 30% to the maintenance and operation of the refuges; the cost of Federal Duck Stamps were increased from $7.50 to $15.00, this was to be phased in through 1991. The sale of Federal Duck Stamps to raise money for the conservation of migratory birds was established in 1929 by the Migratory Bird Conservation Act. Amendments to the Act allowed the establishment of Demonstration Fee programs; these fee programs established entrance and recreational use fees that allowed refuges and area agencies that participated in the programs to retain 80% of all fees collected. This of course superseded the 70/30 fee allocation, first set up by the Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986; the amendments were added to the Act through the Interior Appropriation Act Sec. 315 FY 1996, as amended by P.

L. 104-28, P. L. 105-18, P. L. 105-83. Subchapter I of the Act known as 16 U. S. C § 3901 - 3902 outlines the findings and definitions of the Act. Congress found that wetlands played a pivotal role in not only the economics of the Nation but the health, safety and well-being of the citizens as well. Wetlands provided major contributions to our food supply, water supply/quality, flood control, fish and plant resources. Federal protection of wetlands for migratory birds was a major finding, in order to uphold the Nations commitment to the migratory bird treaties with other nations like Canada, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, several other countries in the Western Hemisphere protection was needed to ensure migratory bird populations stayed at a sustainable level as wetlands are the major sources for breeding and migration. With obligations to other countries and a clearer understanding of how important wetlands are to the well-being of society and to the overall health of the ecosystem the major purpose of the Act was the promotion and conservation of the Nations wetlands.

This would ensure that no further damage would be done and the benefits that wetlands provide would be maintained. This would be done with the assistance of Federal and State programs. Subchapter II of the Act 16 U. S. C § 3911 – 3912 outlined the sale of admission permits at refuges and the transfers to the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund; the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 for the most part provided the funds for the purchase of wetlands, but in order to sustain the operation and maintenance cost of refuges supplementary revenues were needed. Section 3911 of Subchapter II granted the Secretary of the Interior the power to charge admission fees at National Wildlife Refuges as well as the sales of Golden Eagle and Golden Age Passports. Amounts collected from the sale of admission permits and fees collected at refuges were to be divided at a 70/30 split; the Secretary had 30% available for financing the cost of collection and operation of the refuges, the upkeep of all the refuges in the National Wildlife System while 70% was to be deposited into the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund, established under section 718d of the title.

Section 3912 of Subchapter II stated that amounts equal to the total amount of all import duties collected on arms and ammuniti

We the Animals (film)

We the Animals is a 2018 American coming-of-age drama film, directed by Jeremiah Zagar and written by Zagar and Dan Kitrosser, based on the novel of the same name by Justin Torres. The film marks Zagar's first narrative feature film; the film stars Evan Rosado, Raúl Castillo, Sheila Vand, Isaiah Kristian, Josiah Gabriel. It was released on August 17, 2018, by The Orchard. Jonah grows up with rambunctious brothers in a working class mixed-race family in upstate New York, he must contend with both his volatile father and his emerging sexuality; the film includes colored pencil animated sequences. The cinematographer, Zak Mulligan, said "there was a lot of effort to create feeling of intimacy" and noted that much of the film was shot at child's-eye-height; the actors who played the brothers and parents lived together during production so they would feel like a real family. The director, Jeremiah Zagar, involved the novel's author Justin Torres throughout the process, saying Torres "was on the set, he read every draft of the script...

He was in the editing room". The film was dedicated to the memory of Tim Hetherington. Evan Rosado as Jonah Raúl Castillo as Paps Sheila Vand as Ma Isaiah Kristian as Manny Josiah Gabriel as Joel Giovanni Pacciarelli as Dustin Moe Isaac as Dustin's Grandpa Michael Pemberton as Foreman George Mickey Anthony as Clerk Kevin Amelia Campbell as Woman in Van Tom Malley as Old Man Terry Holland as Televangelist Voice Critics compared the film to Moonlight and Tree of Life and variously called it impressionistic, intimate and evocative. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 91% based on 74 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Dreamlike and haunting, We the Animals approaches the coming-of-age odyssey with a uniquely documentarian eye." On Metacritic, which assigns a rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 83 out of 100, based on 25 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". The film won the Sundance NEXT Innovator Award and was nominated for five 2019 Independent Spirit Awards.

Official website We the Animals on IMDb We the Animals at Metacritic We the Animals at Rotten Tomatoes