Stygge Krumpen was a Danish clergyman and bureaucrat, the secretary of king Christian II of Denmark and the last catholic bishop of the Diocese of Børglum from 1533 to 1536, having been coadjutor bishop since 1519. He was the brother of Danish marshal Otte Krumpen. With them, the Krumpen family died out. Stygge Krumpen was born the son of Jørgen Krumpen of Anne Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz, he was the brother of marshal Otte Krumpen. In 1505, he started attending the University of Rostock, took his Master's degree before 1513. In 1514, he was associated with Tranebjerg church. In 1515 he was named secretary of king Christian II of Denmark, in 1518 he was promised the first priesthood available in Jutland, he was named coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of Børglum in 1519 alongside his uncle, bishop Niels Stygge, was the effective rule of the abbey. He had the provost of Børglum Abbey expelled and his rights transferred to Niels Stygge, against the will of the Holy See. Krumpen incurred the wrath of Christian II's administrator of Aalborghus Castle, opposed Christian II's right to goods from salvaged shipwrecks, quarrelled with the Diocese of Viborg over the prerogative over Læsø.
He was active in the uprising against Christian II in 1522-23. Under new king Frederick I of Denmark, Krumpen was credited for Sæby attaining market town rights in 1524, was named Niels Stygge's successor as provost in 1525, succeeding him in 1533. Krumpen opposed the Reformation in Denmark, urged Johann Eck to preach in Denmark. While at Børglum, he sought to enhance his own land holdings in numerous ways, some of them unscrupulous. Krumpen caused public scandal as he was living in sin with his relative Elsebeth Gyldenstjerne, despite the protestations of her husband Bonde Due Munk of Voergaard Castle in Vendsyssel, he accompanied Prince Christian on a trip to Norway in 1529, but was otherwise not a close advisor to the crown. He opposed the ascension of Prince Christian as king in 1533, though he formally accepted him at the Election of Christian III in 1534, Krumpen remained critical of Christian III. During the subsequent Count's Feud civil war between the Protestant Christian III and the catholic Christian II, Krumpen could not defend his holdings against the peasant uprising of Skipper Clement.
After Christian III won the Count's Feud in 1536, all catholic bishops were jailed. Krumpen was imprisoned at Sønderborg Castle during the same time as Christian II, he spent his last years facing a number of legal trials regarding his conduct as a bishop. He was released in 1542 with support from his brother, after swearing allegiance to Christian III, he wielded no further political influence. He was buried in the family plot at Mariager Abbey. "Stygge Krumpen", 1936 fictional novel by Thit Jensen "Stygge Krumpen - biskop og adelsmand", 2008 historical biography by Gert Jensen
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres long and 50 centimetres tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, Harold, Earl of Wessex King of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings. It is thought to date within a few years after the battle, it tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans, but is now agreed to have been made in England. According to Sylvette Lemagnen, conservator of the tapestry, in her 2005 book La Tapisserie de Bayeux: The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque.... Its survival intact over nine centuries is little short of miraculous... Its exceptional length, the harmony and freshness of its colours, its exquisite workmanship, the genius of its guiding spirit combine to make it endlessly fascinating; the cloth consists of some seventy scenes, many with Latin tituli, embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns. It is that it was commissioned by Bishop Odo, William's half-brother, made in England—not Bayeux—in the 1070s.
In 1729 the hanging was rediscovered by scholars at a time when it was being displayed annually in Bayeux Cathedral. The tapestry is now exhibited at the Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, France; the designs on the Bayeux Tapestry are embroidered rather than woven, so that it is not technically a tapestry. It has always been referred to as a tapestry until recent years when the name "Bayeux Embroidery" has gained ground among certain art historians, it can be seen as a rare example of secular Romanesque art. Tapestries adorned both churches and wealthy houses in Medieval Western Europe, though at 0.5 by 68.38 metres the Bayeux Tapestry is exceptionally large. Only the figures and decoration are embroidered, on a background left plain, which shows the subject clearly and was necessary to cover large areas. On 18 January 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that the Bayeux Tapestry would be loaned to Britain for public display, it is expected to be exhibited at the British Museum in London, but not before 2020.
It will be the first time. The earliest known written reference to the tapestry is a 1476 inventory of Bayeux Cathedral, but its origins have been the subject of much speculation and controversy. French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conqueror's wife, her ladies-in-waiting. Indeed, in France, it is known as "La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde". However, scholarly analysis in the 20th century concluded it was commissioned by William's half-brother, Bishop Odo, after the Conquest, became Earl of Kent and, when William was absent in Normandy, regent of England; the reasons for the Odo commission theory include: 1) three of the bishop's followers mentioned in the Domesday Book appear on the tapestry. Assuming Odo commissioned the tapestry, it was designed and constructed in England by Anglo-Saxon artists. Howard B. Clarke has proposed that the designer of the tapestry was Scolland, the abbot of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury, because of his previous position as head of the scriptorium at Mont Saint-Michel, his travels to Trajan's Column, his connections to Wadard and Vital, two individuals identified in the tapestry.
The actual physical work of stitching was most undertaken by female needleworkers. Anglo-Saxon needlework of the more detailed type known as Opus Anglicanum was famous across Europe, it was commissioned for display in the hall of his palace and bequeathed to the cathedral he built, following the pattern of the documented but lost hanging of Byrhtnoth. Alternative theories exist. Carola Hicks has suggested it could have been commissioned by Edith of Wessex, widow of Edward the Confessor and sister of Harold. Wolfgang Grape has challenged the consensus that the embroidery is Anglo-Saxon, distinguishing between Anglo-Saxon and other Northern European techniques. George Beech suggests the tapestry was executed at the Abbey of Saint-Florent de Saumur in the Loire Valley, says the detailed depiction of the Breton campaign argues for additional sources in France. Andrew Bridgeford has suggested that the tapestry was of English design and encoded with secret messages meant to undermine Norman rule. In common with other embroidered hangings of the early medieval period, this piece is conventionally referred to as a "tapestry", although it is not a true tapestry in which the design is woven into the cloth.
The Bayeux tapestry is embroidered in crewel on a tabby-woven linen ground 68.38 metres long and 0.5 metres wide and using two methods of stitching: outline or stem stitch for lettering and the
Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Spain, the United States, Canada and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic. A more recent classification based on mutual intelligibility separates modern spoken Danish and Swedish as "mainland Scandinavian", while Icelandic and Faroese are classified as "insular Scandinavian".
Until the 16th century, Danish was a continuum of dialects spoken from Schleswig to Scania with no standard variety or spelling conventions. With the Protestant Reformation and the introduction of printing, a standard language was developed, based on the educated Copenhagen dialect, it spread through use in the education system and administration, though German and Latin continued to be the most important written languages well into the 17th century. Following the loss of territory to Germany and Sweden, a nationalist movement adopted the language as a token of Danish identity, the language experienced a strong surge in use and popularity, with major works of literature produced in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, traditional Danish dialects have all but disappeared, though regional variants of the standard language exist; the main differences in language are between generations, with youth language being innovative. Danish has a large vowel inventory comprising 27 phonemically distinctive vowels, its prosody is characterized by the distinctive phenomenon stød, a kind of laryngeal phonation type.
Due to the many pronunciation differences that set apart Danish from its neighboring languages the vowels, difficult prosody and "weakly" pronounced consonants, it is sometimes considered to be a difficult language to learn and understand, some evidence shows that small children are slower to acquire the phonological distinctions of Danish. The grammar is moderately inflective with strong and weak inflections. Nouns and demonstrative pronouns distinguish neutral gender. Like English, Danish only has remnants of a former case system in the pronouns. Unlike English, it has lost all person marking on verbs, its syntax is V2 word order, with the finite verb always occupying the second slot in the sentence. Danish is a Germanic language of the North Germanic branch. Other names for this group are the Scandinavian languages. Along with Swedish, Danish descends from the Eastern dialects of the Old Norse language. Scandinavian languages are considered a dialect continuum, where no sharp dividing lines are seen between the different vernacular languages.
Like Norwegian and Swedish, Danish was influenced by Low German in the Middle Ages, has been influenced by English since the turn of the 20th century. Danish itself can be divided into three main dialect areas: West Danish, Insular Danish, East Danish. Under the view that Scandinavian is a dialect continuum, East Danish can be considered intermediary between Danish and Swedish, while Scanian can be considered a Swedified East Danish dialect, Bornholmsk is its closest relative. Danish is mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish. Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can understand the others well, though studies have shown that speakers of Norwegian understand both Danish and Swedish far better than Swedes or Danes understand each other. Both Swedes and Danes understand Norwegian better than they understand each other's languages; the reason Norwegian occupies a middle position in terms of intelligibility is because of its shared border with Sweden resulting in a similarity in pronunciation, combined with the long tradition of having Danish as a written language which has led to similarities in vocabulary.
Among younger Danes, Copenhageners are worse at understanding Swedish than Danes from the provinces, in general, younger Danes are not as good at understanding the neighboring languages as are Norwegian and Swedish youths. The Danish philologist Johannes Brøndum-Nielsen divided the history of Danish into a period from 800 AD to 1525 to be "Old Danish", which he subdivided into "Runic Danish", Early Middle Danish and Late Middle Danish. By the eighth century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had undergone some changes and evolved into Old Norse; this language was called the "Danish tongue", or "Norse language". Norse was written in the runic alphabet, first with the elder futhark and from the 9th century with the younger futhark. From the seventh century, the common Norse language began to undergo changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, resulting in the appearance of two dialect areas, Old West Norse and Old East Norse. Most of the changes separating East Norse from West Norse started as innovatio
A letter bomb called parcel bomb, mail bomb, package bomb, note bomb, message bomb, gift bomb, present bomb, delivery bomb, surprise bomb, postal bomb, or post bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, designed with the intention to injure or kill the recipient when opened. They have been used in Israeli assassinations and in terrorist attacks such as those of the Unabomber; some countries have agencies whose duties include the interdiction of letter bombs and the investigation of letter bombings. The letter bomb may have been in use for nearly as long as the common postal service has been in existence, as far back as 1764. Letter bombs are designed to explode on opening, with the intention of injuring or killing the recipient. A related threat is mail containing unidentified powders or chemicals, as in the 2001 anthrax attacks. Letter-bombs, along with anti-personnel mines, are typical examples of subject-matter excluded from patentability under the European Patent Convention, because the publication or exploitation of such inventions are contrary to the "ordre public" and/or morality.
What might be the first recorded case of a device broadly similar to a modern parcel bomb featured in the 18th Century affair known as the Bandbox Plot. On November 4, 1712 a bandbox was sent to Earl of Oxford, the British Lord Treasurer, it contained a number of loaded and cocked pistols, to whose triggers was attached a thread - which would have made the pistols fire the moment the box was opened. The plot was foiled by the perspicacity of Jonathan Swift, who happened to be visiting the Earl of Oxford. Swift, perceiving the thread, cut the thread, thus disarming the device; the attack was laid at the door of the opposition Whig party and threw enormous popular sympathy behind Harley. The precise perpetrators were never apprehended. One of the world's first mail bombs is mentioned in the 18th century diary of Danish official and historian Bolle Willum Luxdorph, his diary consists of concise references to news from Denmark and abroad. In the entry for January 19, 1764 he writes the following: Colonel Poulsen residing at Børglum Abbey was sent by mail a box.
When he opens it, therein is to be found gunpowder and a firelock which sets fire unto it, so he became injured. The entry for February 15 same year says: Colonel Poulsen receives a letter in German, that soon the dose will be increased, it is referring to the dose of gunpowder in the box. The perpetrator was never found. In a reference Luxdorph has found a mention of a similar bomb being used in 1764, but in Savona in Italy. June 1889: Edward White an artist at Madame Tussauds, was alleged to have sent a parcel bomb to John Theodore Tussaud after being dismissed. August 20, 1904: A Swedish man named Martin Ekenberg sent a mail bomb to businessman Karl Fredrik Lundin in Stockholm, it was a box loaded with explosives. 1915: Vice President of the United States Thomas R. Marshall was the target of an assassination attempt by letter bomb. 1946: Several British high officials, including Sir Stafford Cripps, Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden received letter bombs sent by the extreme Zionist Stern Gang. 1947: Several letter bombs were sent to President Harry Truman in the White House.
They were intercepted by White House mail room workers, who were on alert because of the letter bombs to British officials. These were claimed by the Stern Gang. August 30, 1958: A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, failed to kill King Sihanouk of Cambodia. 1961: The Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner received a letter bomb that caused the loss of an eye. In 1980 another letter bomb cost him the fingers of his left hand. Two Damascus postal workers were killed; the senders are unknown but some suspect the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. November 27, 1962: A parcel sent to rocket scientist Wolfgang Pilz exploded in his office in Egypt when opened, injuring his secretary. Another parcel sent to the Heliopolis rocket factory killed five Egyptian workers. 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s: Several terrorist organizations in Argentina such as Montoneros and ERP included letter bombs into their weaponry. December 28, 1977: In Malta, Karen Grech, age 15, was killed when she opened a letterbomb addressed to her father Edwin Grech.
On the same day, another bomb was sent to Labour MP Dr. Paul Chetcuti Caruana, but it did not detonate. Late 1970s to the early 1990s: Theodore Kaczynski, the "UNAbomber", killed three and injured 23 in a series of mail bombings in the United States. August 17, 1982: Ruth First, a South African communist anti-apartheid activist was killed by a parcel bomb mailed by the South African government to her home in Mozambique. August 1985: A woman in Rotorua, New Zealand, Michele Sticovich, was killed and a close friend of hers injured after she opened a parcel addressed to her containing a number of sticks of gelignite. Mrs Sticovich's estranged husband, David Sticovich, was arrested and pleaded guilty to her murder. October 19, 1986: Dele Giwa, a Nigerian journalist and editor of the Newswatch magazine was killed with a mail bomb, claimed to be sent by Nigeria's former dictator, Gen. Ibrahim Babangida; the general has never admitted complicity. December 16, 1989: Robert Smith Vance, a U. S. federal judge, was killed upon opening a letter bomb in the kitchen of his home in Birmingham, with his wife, Helen injured.
Walter Leroy Moody, Jr was convicted of killing both V
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom