Tonkin (French protectorate)
Tonkin, or Bắc Kỳ, was a French protectorate encompassing modern Northern Vietnam. After helping to unify Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty, the French Navy began its heavy presence in the Mekong Delta and colonised the southern third of Vietnam including Saigon in 1867. Central Vietnam became the French protectorate of Annam and French influence in the Indochina Peninsula strengthened. During the Sino-French War, the northernmost part of Vietnam, Tonkin was invaded by the French. After the Treaty of Tientsin, all of Vietnam was governed by the French. During the French colonial administration, Vietnam was administratively divided into three different territories: Tonkin and the colony of Cochinchina; these territories were arbitrary in their geographic extent as the vast majority of the Vietnamese regarded their country as a single land and minor resistance to French rule continued over the next 70 years to achieve an independent state. Annam and Tonkin were a single entity, the Résidence supérieure of Annam-Tonkin.
On June 3, 1886, the Nguyễn Emperor Đồng Khánh delegated all of his powers in Tonkin to a Kinh luoc su, who acted under French supervision. On May 9, 1889, the Résidence supérieure of Annam-Tonkin was abolished, with Annam and Tonkin being separated in two Résidences supérieures, each subordinated to the Governor-General of French Indochina. On July 26, 1897, Governor-General Paul Doumer had Emperor Thành Thái abolish the post of Kinh luoc su; the Nguyễn dynasty still nominally reigned over Tonkin, it was now de facto under direct French rule. During French rule, Hanoi was made capital of Tonkin and, of the whole French Indochina. Cities in Tonkin saw significant infrastructure and economic development under the French, such as the development of the port of Haiphong and construction of the Trans-Indochinois Railway linking Hanoi to Saigon. Under French economic plans, mines yielding gold and tin as well as the farming of rice and tea powered Tonkin's economy; the imports included rice, iron goods, wine and cotton goods.
Industrialization led to the opening of factories producing textiles and China for export throughout the French Empire. French cultural influence on Tonkin was significant as French became the primary language of education, government and media and heavy Catholic missionary activity resulted in 10% of the population identifying as Catholic by the 1940s. Prominent buildings in Hanoi were constructed during the period of French rule, such as the Hanoi Opera House and the Hanoi University of Technology. By 1940, the total population of Annam was estimated at around 8 million. Tonkin was a component of French Indochina, it was a de facto French colony despite being a protectorate on paper. The British Naval Intelligence Division wrote during World War II that "at first the native political organization was maintained, but in 1897 the office of the viceroy, representing the king of Annam in Tonkin, was abolished, since other changes have further weakened the influence of the native government." Tonkin was administered by a French resident similar to those in Annam and Cambodia, but he had much greater authority because of the absence of any indigenous administration.
A conseil du protectorat composed of important officials and representatives from the chambers of agriculture and commerce, assisted the resident in performing his duties. There was an advisory council made up of Vietnamese. Tonkin was made up of 23 provinces, subdivided into phu or huyen and communes. Local administration was in the hands of Vietnamese mandarins, although they were appointed by the resident rather than the emperor as in Annam; the smallest unit of administration, the commune, was overseen by two councils: the toc bieu, the mandarin-dominated ky muc with the authority to veto decisions of the toc bieu. Hanoi and Haiphong had municipal councils appointed by the governor-general of Indochina. French colonial administration lasted until March 1945, during Japanese occupation. Although French administration was allowed during Japanese occupation as a puppet government, Japan took full control of Vietnam in March 1945 under the Empire of Vietnam and Tonkin became the site of the Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during this period.
At the end of the war, the north of Vietnam saw a sphere of influence by China while the south was occupied by the British for French forces to regroup and regain control. Harry Truman at the Potsdam Conference, stated an intention to hand the region back to French rule, a sharp contrast to Franklin D. Roosevelt's strong opposition to colonialism and commitment to support the Viet Minh. However, after the Japanese withdrew from Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Ba Đình Square. Hanoi was reoccupied by the French and conflict between the Viet Minh and France broke out into the First Indochina War; as the French sought to establish a coherent government in Vietnam as an alternative to Ho Chi Minh, Tonkin was merged in 1948 into the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, replaced the next year by the State of Vietnam, following the reunification with Cochinchina. After the French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Western Tonkin in 1954, the Communist state of North Vietnam was formed, consisting of Tonkin and northern Annam.
Đàng Trong List of administrators of the French protectorate of Tonkin List of French possessions and colonies Vietnamese people Media related to Tonkin at Wikimedia Commons
Imperial City, Huế
The Imperial City is a walled enclosure within the citadel of the city of Huế, the former imperial capital of Vietnam. In June 1789 Nguyễn Ánh ascended the throne of a unified Vietnam and proclaimed himself Emperor Gia Long with Hue, the ancestral seat of the Nguyen Lords as the capital. Geomancers were consulted as to the propitious location site for the new city and construction began in 1804. Thousands of workers were ordered to build the walled citadel and ringing moat, measuring some 10 kilometers long; the original earthwork was reinforced and faced with brick and stone resulting in 2 meters thick ramparts. The citadel was oriented to face the Huong River to the southeast; this differs from Beijing's Forbidden City in. Rather than concentric rings, centered on the Emperor's palace, the imperial residence itself is offset toward the southeast side of the citadel, nearer the river. A second set of tall walls and a second moat was constructed around this Imperial City, within which many edifices were added in a series of gated courtyards, gardens and palaces.
The entire complex was the seat of power until the imposition of the French protectorate in the 1880s. Thereafter it existed to carry on symbolic traditions until the monarchy was ousted in 1945. At the time, the Purple Forbidden City had many hundreds of rooms. Once vacated it suffered from neglect, termite ravages, inclement weather including a number of cyclones. Nonetheless the Imperial City was an impressive sight. Most destructive were man-made crises as evidenced in the bullet holes still visible from the military conflicts of the 20th century. Major losses occurred in 1947; the French led counter-attack laid siege and the six-week ensuing battle destroyed many of the major structures. The core of the city including the Imperial Palace was burned; the Citadel came under fire again in the early morning hours of January 31, 1968, as part of the Tet Offensive a Division-sized force of People's Army of Vietnam and Viet Cong soldiers launched a coordinated attack on Huế seizing most of the city.
During the initial phases of the Battle of Huế, due to Huế's religious and cultural status, US troops were ordered not to bomb or shell the city, for fear of destroying the historic structures. Viet Cong troops occupied some portions of the citadel while South Vietnamese troops occupied others; the city was made a UNESCO site in 1993. The buildings that still remain are being preserved; the latest, so far largest, restoration project is planned to conclude in 2015. The grounds of the Imperial City are protected by fortified ramparts 2 kilometers by 2 kilometers, ringed by a moat; the water in the moat is routed from the Perfume River through a series of sluice gates. This enclosure is the citadel. Inside the citadel is the Imperial City, with a perimeter wall some 2.5 kilometers in length. Within the Imperial City is the Purple Forbidden City, a term identical to the Forbidden City in Beijing. Access to the innermost enclosure was restricted to the imperial family. Cửa Đông Nam called cửa Thượng Tứ Cửa Chính Đông called cửa Đông Ba Cửa Đông Bắc called cửa Trài or cửa Mang Cá nhỏ Cửa Chính Bắc known as cửa Hậu or cửa Mang Cá lớn Cửa Tây Cửa Thể Nhân, popularly called cửa Ngăn Cửa Ngọ Môn Cửa Hòa Bình Cửa Chương Đức Cửa Hiển Nhơn Điện Thái Hòa Điện Phụng Tiên Cung Trường Sanh Cung Diên Thọ Triệu Miếu Thái Miếu Hưng Miếu Thế Miếu Điện Phụng Tiên Hiển Lâm Các Đại Cung môn Tả vu, Hữu vu Điện Cần Chánh Điện Võ Hiển Điện Văn Minh Điện Trinh Minh Điện Quang Minh Điện Càn Thành Điện Khôn Thái Viện Thuận Huy Viện Dưỡng Tâm Ngự Tiền Văn phòng Lục Viện Điện Minh Thận Vườn Ngự Uyển Lầu Kiến Trung Thái Bình Lâu The Imperial City is open to the general public for viewing, however expect to pay a donation of around $7 USD per person to the Hue Monuments Conservation Centre.
Monuments Conservation Centre 5182931945 Imperial City, Huế on OpenStreetMap
French Indochina known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin and Cochinchina with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan in 1898; the capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces. In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949.
On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end. French–Vietnamese relations started during the early 17th century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. Around this time, Vietnam had only just begun its "Push to the South"—"Nam Tiến", the occupation of the Mekong Delta, a territory being part of the Khmer Empire and to a lesser extent, the kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in 1471. European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century, as the remarkably successful work of the Jesuit missionaries continued. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn. Pigneau died in Vietnam but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh; the French colonial empire was involved in Vietnam in the 19th century.
For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montigny's mission having failed, Genouilly's mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries, his orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith. In September 1858, fourteen French gunships, 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops provided by the Spanish attacked the port of Tourane, causing significant damage and occupying the city. After a few months, Rigault had to leave the city due to supply illnesses. Sailing south, de Genouilly captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859. On 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859, with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam, but refrain from territorial gains.
French policy four years saw a reversal, with the French continuing to accumulate territory. In 1862, France obtained concessions from Emperor Tự Đức, ceding three treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, all of Cochinchina, the latter being formally declared a French territory in 1864. In 1867 the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which became part of Thailand.. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War. French Indochina was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia; the federation lasted until 21 July 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against France. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain sufficient concessio
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China, was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam. Formally called Cochinchina, it was renamed in 1946 as Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina, a controversial decision which helped trigger the First Indochina War. In 1948, the autonomous republic, whose legal status had never been formalized, was renamed as the Provisional Government of South Vietnam, it was reunited with the rest of Vietnam in 1949. In Vietnamese, Cochinchina was called Nam Kỳ although the independentists preferred to use the term Nam Bộ. For a series of complex reasons, the French government of Napoleon III, with the help of Spanish troops arriving from the colonial Philippines in the Spanish East Indies, invaded the southern part of Vietnam known in the West as Cochinchina. In September 1858, France occupied Đà Nẵng. On February 18, 1859, they conquered Saigon and three southern Vietnamese provinces: Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường.
The southernmost part of Vietnam, until called Lower Cochinchina by the French, became a colony known as Cochinchina. In 1867, the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1864 all the French territories in southern Vietnam were declared to be the new French colony of Cochinchina, which would be governed by Admiral Marie Jules Dupré from 1871 to 1874. In 1887, it became part of the Union of French Indochina. Unlike the protectorates of Annam protectorate and Tonkin protectorate, Cochinchina was ruled directly by the French, both de jure and de facto, was represented by a deputy in the National assembly. Together with Tonkin, it was one of the economic centers of French Indochina. Fifty-one Vietnamese rebels were executed following the 1916 Cochinchina uprising. In 1933, the Spratly Islands were annexed to French Cochinchina. In July 1941, Japanese troops were based in French Cochinchina. After the Japanese surrendered in August 1945, Cochinchina was returned to French rule.
In 1945, Cochinchina was ruled directly by the Japanese after they had taken over from the French in March. In August, it was incorporated into the Empire of Vietnam; that month, the Japanese surrendered to the Việt Minh during the August Revolution. On September 2, 1945 Việt Minh established Democratic Republic of Vietnam with territory of Annam and Cochinchina; the independentists held the general election on January 6, 1946 in order to establish the first National Assembly in Vietnam. The elections were organized in all areas of Vietnam including Cochinchina, but the southern colony was by back under the control of the French. On June 1, 1946, whilst the Viet Minh leadership was in France for negotiations, southern autonomists proclaimed a government of Cochinchina, at the initiative of High Commissioner d'Argenlieu and in violation of the March 6 Ho–Sainteny agreement; the colony was proclaimed an "Autonomous Republic". War between France and the Viet Minh followed. Nguyễn Văn Thinh, the first head of its government, died in an apparent suicide in November of the same year.
He was succeeded by a member of the caodaist sect. In 1947, Nguyễn Văn Xuân replaced Lê and renamed the "Provisional Government of the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina" as the "Provisional Government of South Vietnam", overtly stating his aim to reunite the whole country; the next year, the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was proclaimed with the merger of Annam and Tonkin: Xuân became its Prime minister and left office in Cochichina, where he was replaced by Trần Văn Hữu. Xuân and the French had agreed to reunite Vietnam, but Cochinchina posed a problem because of its ill-defined legal status; the reunification was opposed by the French colonists, who were still influential in the Cochinchinese council, by Southern Vietnamese autonomists: they delayed the process of reunification by arguing that Cochinchina was still a colony - as its new status as a Republic had never been ratified by the French National Assembly - and that any territorial change therefore required the approval of the French parliament.
Xuân issued a by-law reuniting Cochinchina with the rest of Vietnam, but it was overruled by the Cochinchinese council. Cochinchina remained separated from the rest of Vietnam for over a year, while former Emperor Bảo Đại - whom the French wanted to bring back to power as a political alternative to Ho Chi Minh - refused to return to Vietnam and take office as head of state until the country was reunited. On March 14, 1949, the French National Assembly voted a law permitting the creation of a Territorial Assembly of Cochinchina; this new Cochinchinese parliament was elected on April 10, 1949, with the Vietnamese representatives becoming a majority. On April 23, the Territorial Assembly approved the merger of the Provisional Government of South Vietnam with the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam; the decision was in turn approved by the French National Assembly on May 20, the merger was effective on June 4. The State of Vietnam could be proclaimed, with Bảo Đại as head of state. Protectorate of Annam Protectorate of Tonkin French Indochina List of French possessions and colonies List of administrators of the French colony of Cochinchina State of Vietnam Encyclopedia of Asian History, Volume 4 1988.
Charles Scribner's New York. Vietnam - A Long History by Nguyễn Khắc Viện. Hanoi, Thế Giới Publishers ArtHanoi Vietnamese money in historical context WorldS
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Passy Cemetery is a cemetery in Passy, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. The current cemetery replaced the old cemetery, closed in 1802. In the early 19th century, on the orders of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, all the cemeteries in Paris were replaced by several large new ones outside the precincts of the capital. Montmartre Cemetery was built in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Passy Cemetery was a addition, but has its origins in the same edict; the current entrance was built in 1934. The retaining wall of the cemetery is adorned with a bas relief commemorating the soldiers who fell in World War I. Opened in 1820 in the expensive residential and commercial districts of the Right Bank near the Champs-Élysées, by 1874 the small Passy Cemetery had become the aristocratic necropolis of Paris, it is the only cemetery in Paris to have a heated waiting-room. Sheltered by a bower of chestnut trees, the cemetery is in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower.
The cemetery was once the home of a statue by Dunikowski titled The Soul Escaping the Body. It was on top of the ceremonial grave of Antoni Cierplikowski; the statue was known by many but was removed when the grave was cleared in 2004. It is known as a small but well visited cemetery. Among its more famous residents are: Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of Vietnam Jean-Louis Barrault and director. American newspaper publisher, sportsman Tristan Bernard and novelist Henri Bernstein, actor Princess Brasova, wife of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov George, Count Brasov, son of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov and Princess Brasova Emmanuel de Las Cases, historian Dieudonné Costes, pioneering aviator, as is his flight companion Maurice Bellonte Emmanuelle de Dampierre, first wife of Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia Marcel Dassault, founder of Dassault Aviation Claude Debussy, composer Maxime Dethomas, artist Farideh Diba, mother of the former queen of Iran, Farah Diba Ghislaine Dommanget, Princess of Monaco Michel Droit, member of the Académie française Henry Farman, champion cyclist and aviator Edgar Faure and World War II resistance fighter Gabriel Fauré, composer Fernandel, comedy actor Maurice Gamelin, supreme commander of French armed forces 1939–1940 Maurice Genevoix, novelist Rosemonde Gérard and playwright Virgil Gheorghiu, novelist Jean Giraudoux, playwright and statesman Hubert de Givenchy, fashion designer Anna Gould, daughter of financier Jay Gould Arlette Gueudet, widow of industrialist Robert Gueudet Antonio Guzmán Blanco, Venezuelan politician and president Gabriel Hanotaux and historian Paul Hervieu and novelist Gholam Hossein Jahanshahi, Iranian statesman Jacques Ibert, composer Paul Landowski and sculptor Hector Lefuel, architect of significant portions of the Louvre Joseph Florimond Loubat, antiquarian and philanthropist Georges Mandel, French Resistance during World War II Édouard Manet and impressionist painter André Messager and conductor Alexandre Millerand, President of France Octave Mirbeau, art critic, novelist Berthe Morisot, impressionist painter Togrul Narimanbekov, Azerbaijani painter Joseph O'Kelly, Henri O'Kelly sr. and Henri O'Kelly jr.
Franco-Irish composers and musicians Leila Pahlavi, Princess Leila of Iran, daughter of the last Shah of Iran and Farah Diba Gabrielle Réjane, actress Madeleine Renaud, actress. The street in which it is situated is named for a Free French pilot, Squadron Leader Jacques-Henri Schlœsing, who flew with the wartime RAF until killed in action, the day that Paris was liberated; the cemetery is behind the Trocadéro. Passy Cemetery on the