The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
The D-segment is the third largest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "large cars". It is equivalent to the Euro NCAP "large family car" size class, the present-day definition of the mid-size car category used in North America. Compact executive cars are part of the D-segment size category. Most D-segment cars are wagons. Pricing and specification of D-segment cars can vary from basic low-cost transport to more luxurious and expensive models. Sales of D-segment cars represent 8% of the market; the five highest selling D-segment cars in Europe are the Volkswagen Passat, Mercedes-Benz C-Class, Audi A4/S4/RS4, BMW 3-series and Škoda Superb. Note: this list includes cars from these decades which carried a different nameplate or numeric designation to the modern day equivalent, in some cases there is no modern day direct equivalent Austin/Morris 1800 Fiat 124 Fiat 125 Ford Cortina Hillman Hunter Peugeot 404 Peugeot 504 Renault 16 Renault 12 Alfa Romeo Alfetta Audi 80 Fiat 131/Mirafiori Honda Accord Lancia Beta Leyland Princess Opel Ascona Peugeot 305 Renault 18 Toyota Carina Vauxhall Cavalier Volkswagen K70 Volkswagen Passat Volvo 200 Series Alfa Romeo 75 Austin Montego Citroen BX Fiat Croma Fiat Tempra Ford Sierra Hyundai Stellar Mercedes-Benz 190E Nissan Stanza Opel Vectra/Vauxhall Cavalier Peugeot 405 Renault 21 Volvo 440/460 Alfa Romeo 155 Alfa Romeo 156 Citroen Xantia Fiat Marea Hyundai Lantra Kia Clarus Lancia Lybra Nissan Primera Opel/Vauxhall Vectra Peugeot 406 Renault Laguna Rover 600 Series Toyota Avensis Alfa Romeo 159 Citroen C5 Hyundai Elantra Peugeot 407 Seat Exeo Car classifications Mid-size car
The Toyota Yaris is a subcompact car sold by Toyota since 1999, replacing the Starlet and Tercel. Toyota has used the "Yaris" name on export versions of various Japanese-market models, with some markets receiving the same vehicles under the Toyota Echo name through 2005. Most Yaris sedan models marketed in North America from 2015 and Yaris hatchback marketed in the United States from 2019 are based on the Mazda2 and produced for Toyota by Mazda; the name "Yaris" is derived from "Charis", the singular form of Charites, the Greek goddesses of charm and beauty. For the fourth generation model, the "Yaris" name will be used worldwide, including Japan. First generation models were marketed between 1999 and 2005 under the "Yaris" and "Echo" names depending on the market. Hatchback and sedan body variants were offered. Hatchback: versions derive from the Japanese-market Toyota Vitz. Coupe and sedan: versions derive from the Japanese-market Toyota Platz. Second generation models have been marketed since 2005 under the "Yaris" name worldwide.
Hatchback and sedan body styles were offered. The hatchback version was discontinued in late 2013 for Asian markets. Hatchback: versions derive from the Japanese-market Toyota Vitz. Sedan: versions derive from the Japanese-market Toyota Belta. Third generation models have been marketed since 2011 under the "Yaris" name worldwide. Available only as a hatchback, a sedan body style arrived in 2013, but it has not been offered in all countries. Hatchback: European, South African, most North American versions derive from the Japanese-market Toyota Vitz, introduced in early 2011. Most Asian versions from 2013, some Latin American and Caribbean models from 2014 and from early 2018, South African models from early 2018 derive from the Asian-market Toyota Yaris. Sedan: Most Asian versions, Latin American and Caribbean models derive from the Asian-market Toyota Vios, introduced in 2013; some Asian versions from 2017 and most Latin American and Caribbean models from early 2018 derive from the Toyota Yaris.
Third generation hatchback Third generation sedan Starting with 2012 models introduced in late 2011, only the liftback has been sold in the United States, with no version of the sedan being offered. Toyota stated in late 2011 that the sedan would not be sold in Canada, as they were "evaluating that model's future" due to lackluster sales of previous sedans. Production of all United States and Canadian Yaris models shifted from Japan to Toyota Motor Manufacturing France starting in May 2013; the Vios was introduced in the Caribbean in 2013 as the Yaris Sedan. In early 2018, a version of the Asian-market Yaris ATIV replaced the Vios in these markets, being marketed under the Yaris Sedan name. In Mexico, it is sold alongside the more upmarket and costlier Mazda2-based Yaris R; the 2019 model year Yaris Liftback was never introduced in the United States. However, sales of the Canadian 2019 model are continuing indefinitely. In 2014, Mazda de México Vehicle Operation began production of the Mazda2 in Salamanca, Guanajuato for various North and South American markets.
At the 2015 New York International Auto Show in April of that year, it was announced that this plant would produce a version of the Mazda2 for Toyota with minor styling changes, with the vehicle to be sold in Mexico as the Yaris, in the United States as the Scion iA, in Canada as the Yaris sedan. In July 2015, Toyota confirmed that the car would be sold in Mexico as the Yaris R. After the phase-out of the Scion marque in the United States, the car was renamed as the Toyota Yaris iA from August 2016 for the 2017 model year. For the 2019 model year, it was renamed again as the Yaris sedan in the United States, receiving a minor facelift with a new grille insert and trim changes. Unlike the previous models, which offered only exterior colors and a choice between 6-speed manual and 6-speed automatic transmissions as factory options, both the United States and Canadian 2019 Yaris sedans are offered in L, LE and XLE trims with a wider variety of interior and exterior options. A new Mazda-built Yaris hatchback—a rebadged Mazda2 with a front fascia similar to that of the Yaris sedan—will make its debut at the 2019 New York International Auto Show in April of that year and replace the Yaris Liftback in the United States for the 2020 model year.
Its official images were revealed on 1 April 2019. The United States market 2020 Yaris hatchback is offered in XLE trims. Whether this vehicle will replace the XP130 in Canada has not been confirmed. Toyota Yaris Official Website
The E-segment is the second largest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "executive cars". It is equivalent to the full-size car category used in the United States and the executive car category used in Europe. E-Segment is a niche in Europe. Most E-segment cars are sedans/saloons, however several models are produced in a wagon/estate body style; the three highest selling E-segment cars in Europe are the Mercedes-Benz E-class, BMW 5 Series and Audi A6. The three highest selling cars in the equivalent category in the United States are the Dodge Charger, Chevrolet Impala and Chrysler 300. Car classifications Executive car Full-size car
Supermini is a British car classification or vehicle size class for a small car in a hatchback body style. It an equivalent of the European B-segment or American subcompact categories; the term is used by Euro NCAP for a size class including B-segment and the smaller A-segment cars. In the UK the supermini is the top-selling vehicle type. For years the Ford Fiesta has been the leader of the class, most-sold car in the UK overall, competiting against the Vauxhall Corsa, Volkswagen Polo, Renault Clio, Peugeot 208, many others; the term developed in the 1970s as an informal categorisation, by 1977 was used by the British newspaper The Times. By the mid-1980s, it had widespread use in Britain; the term was adopted by Euro NCAP as the smallest size class for passenger vehicles for the launch of Euro NCAP in 1997. The first round of NCAP tests was of seven supermini cars; the term is used by the Euro NCAP system as a size class for A-segment and B-segment. In 1977, the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette were among Britain's top 10 best-selling cars.
Other superminis of the mid-1980s included the Austin Metro, Vauxhall Nova, Nissan Micra, Peugeot 205, Volkswagen Polo and Renault 5. The 1983 Fiat Uno was won the European Car of the Year award; the 1990 Renault Clio and 1994 Fiat Punto were significant models in the supermini category during the 1990s.. Both the Clio and Punto were recipients of the European Car of the Year Award; the Clio replaced the long-running Renault 5, although the Renault 5 remained in production until 1996. In 1993, the Nissan Micra, became the first Japanese car company to be receive the European Car of the Year award. In 1999, the Toyota Yaris received the European Car of the Year award, was noted for its high roof which allowed for improved interior space. Retro styling became popular across Europe from the late-1990s, the first successful retro-themed supermini was the 2000 launch of the BMW-owned Mini Hatch; the Fiat 500— launched in 2007 on the fiftieth anniversary of the release of the original model— was another popular retro-themed supermini, popular in Europe
S-segment is the a European segments for passenger cars for sport coupés. The cars are described as sports cars and the equivalent Euro NCAP class is called "roadster sport". S-segment cars have a sporting appearance and are designed to have superior handling and/or straight-line acceleration compared to other segments; the most common body styles for S-segment cars are convertible. Rear passenger accommodation is not a priority for S-segment cars, therefore many models are either two-seat cars or have a 2+2 layout with cramped rear seating. Most recent S-segment cars use the commonplace front-engine design, however the majority of cars with a Mid-engine design or rear-engine design belong to the S-segment; the five highest selling S-segment cars in Europe are the Audi TT, Mazda MX-5, Porsche 911, Ford Mustang and Porsche Boxster/Cayman. In 2014, the five highest selling coupé models were the BMW 4 Series, Opel Astra GTC,BMW 2 Series, Renault Mégane Coupé and Mercedes-Benz C-Class; the five highest selling convertible models in 2014 were the Fiat 500C, Mini Hatch, BMW 4 Series, Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen Golf Mk6
The C-segment is the third smallest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "medium cars". It is equivalent to the Euro NCAP "small family car" size class, the compact car category in the United States and Great BritainIn 2011, the C-segment had a European market share of 23%; the European segments are not based on weight criteria. In practice, C-segment cars have been described as having a length of 4.5 metres. The most common body styles for C-segment cars are hatchbacks and wagons/estates; the five highest selling C-segment cars in Europe are the Volkswagen Golf, Škoda Octavia, Opel Astra, Ford Focus and Renault Mégane. According to 2011 sales, compact cars are the second segment in Europe after the subcompact one, with 3 million units sold; the world's the 1958 FR layout Austin A40 Farina Countryman. Because of the Volkswagen Golf's definition and long standing dominance of this class it is referred to as the "Golf segment" in much of Europe. During the late 1990s, compact MPVs increased in popularity as a competitor to the compact car, with models such as the Renault Scenic and the Citroën C4 Picasso becoming popular in Europe..
By the early 2010s, demand for compact MPVs was declining, due to the rise of the compact SUV. At the start of the 1970s, the two most popular sectors of the UK market were compact cars and mid-size cars. Since its launch in 1962, the BMC 1100/1300 had been Britain's best selling car, other locally produced compact cars included the Ford Escort, Vauxhall Viva and Hillman Avenger. Imported compact cars that were popular in the UK included the Citroën GS and Datsun Sunny 120Y; the BMC 1100/1300 was replaced in 1973 by the Austin Allegro, second-generation Ford Escort was released in 1974. The third-generation Vauxhall Viva was produced until late 1979, when it was replaced by the Vauxhall Astra; the Astra was part of a late 1970s transition in compact cars from being predominantly rear-wheel drive saloons, to becoming front-wheel drive hatchbacks. The Austin Allegro— introduced five years earlier— was front-wheel drive, although it was produced in saloon and estate body styles; the German-built Volkswagen Golf front-wheel drive hatchback was released in 1974 and was one of the first significant imported compact cars to impact the UK compact car market.
The sporty "GTI" version of the Golf sparked a huge demand for "hot hatchbacks" in the UK and many other countries. The Hillman Avenger continued to sell well, in spite of the 1978 launch of the Talbot Horizon front-wheel drive hatchback; the Ford Escort Mk3 went on sale in the autumn of 1980 replacing the rear-drive saloon format in favour of hatchbacks and front-wheel drive. A saloon version, called the Ford Orion was added in 1983. In 1983, the Austin Allegro was replaced by the Austin Maestro hatchback. In 1984, the Vauxhall Astra Mk2 hatchback/estate/cabriolet was released, including a saloon version called the Vauxhall Belmont; the first significant Japanese-designed compact car in the UK was the 1981 Triumph Acclaim, a four-door saloon based on the Honda Ballade with a Honda-designed engine. The Acclaim was replaced in 1984 by the Rover 200. In late 1985, the Peugeot 309 became the first Peugeot to be produced in the UK. Ford began the 1990s by replacing its 10-year-old Escort with the Ford Escort MkV.
In 1998, the European version of the Escort was replaced by the global Ford Focus MkI model. General Motors released the Vauxhall Astra Mk3 update in 1991 and the all-new Astra Mk4 in 1998. Rover Group introduced the Rover 200 Mk2 in 1989; the Rover 200 Mk3 was introduced in 1995, replacing the Honda Prelude-based Mk2 with a UK-designed car. Car classification Compact car