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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.

The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. However, as with all major media outlets, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying "There is no news today". Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.

Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.

Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.

On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.

The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years l

Sheila Bond

Sheila Bond was an American actress and singer, known for her work on Broadway. Bond was born Sheila Phyllis Berman in New York City of Jewish descent, was educated at the Professional Children's School in New York City, she retired from show business. She was divorced from Barton L. Goldberg, with whom she had two children, Brad Goldberg and Lori Yarom, she had five grandchildren. She had a sister, Francine married to singer Don Cherry, she divided her time between Florida. Bond debuted on Broadway in 1943 as a dancer in Models, she appeared in the revue, Make Mine Manhattan in 1948. Her film career began with playing the sister of Judy Holliday, whom Bond resembled, in The Marrying Kind in 1952, she is best known for her 1953 Tony Award-winning performance as "Fay Fromkin" in the original Broadway production of Wish You Were Here. On March 25, 2017, Bond died at her Manhattan home at the age of 90, she was survived by her daughter Lori, her son Brad, five grandchildren. Sheila Bond on IMDb Sheila Bond at the Internet Broadway Database

Andrew Cantwell

Andrew Cantwell was an Irish academic in France and medical writer, known as an opponent of inoculation. Cantwell was born in Tipperary, studied medicine at the University of Montpellier, where he graduated in 1729. Having failed in 1732 to secure the succession to the chair of medicine, left vacant by Jean Astruc's migration to Paris, he left for Paris in 1733. After going through a further course of study there, he graduated M. D. of Paris in 1742. In 1750 Cantwell was appointed at Paris professor of surgery in the Latin language, in 1760 he became professor of the same subject in French, he was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, elected 1738, died at Paris 11 July 1764. The Paris disputation of 1742 written by Cantwell was under Jacques Albert Hazon, concerned treatment for the stone with alkalis, it examined the lithontriptic remedies of Joanna Stephens, indicating some positive outcomes of trials. Cantwell had translated a paper from 1740 by Stephen Hales in this area into French. Cantwell became a persistent opponent of inoculation against small-pox, made an extended stay in England to study the practice and its results.

He took issue with the favourable views of Charles Marie de La Condamine. He wrote a Dissertation on Inoculation, an Account of Small-pox, Latin dissertations on medicine, his Faits concluans contre l'inoculation pointed to risks that other diseases could be transmitted by inoculation. The Dictionnaire historique de la médecine of Nicolas Éloy of 1778, the Nouvelle Biographie Générale of 1855, list other works. Contributions by Cantwell are in the Philosophical Transactions, vols. xl. xli. xlii. They include papers on ophthalmology: a letter to Thomas Stack, a report on the work of Jacques Daviel, his son Andrew Samuel Michael Cantwell was known as a translator in France. He translated many English works into French. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie, ed.. "Cantwell, Andrew". Dictionary of National Biography. 8. London: Smith, Elder & Co