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BBC News (TV channel)

BBC News is a British free-to-air television news channel. It was launched as BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997 at 5:30 pm as part of the BBC's foray into digital domestic television channels, becoming the first competitor to Sky News, running since 1989. For a time, looped news and weather bulletins were available to view via BBC Red Button. On 22 February 2006, the channel was named News Channel of the Year at the Royal Television Society Television Journalism Awards for the first time in its history; the judges remarked that this was the year that the channel had "really come into its own." The channel won the accolade for a second time in 2017. From May 2007, viewers in the UK could watch the channel via the BBC News website. In April 2008, the channel was renamed BBC News as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's news output, complete with a new studio and presentation, its sister service, BBC World was renamed BBC World News while the national news bulletins became BBC News at One, BBC News at Six and BBC News at Ten.

Across the day the channel averages about twice the audience of Sky News. The channel broadcasts from Broadcasting House in the West End of London. BBC News 24 was available to digital terrestrial and cable television subscribers. To this day, it and BBC Parliament remain the only BBC "digital" channels which are made available to analogue cable subscribers; this coverage was improved in 1998 with the advent of digital television in the United Kingdom allowing satellite and digital terrestrial television viewers to view the service. It was difficult to obtain a digital satellite or terrestrial receiver without a subscription to Sky or ONdigital but now the channel forms an important part of the Freeview and Freesat channel packages; the BBC had run the international news channel BBC World for two and a half years prior to the launch of BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997. Sky News had had a free hand with domestic news for over eight years and being owned by News Corporation their papers were used to criticise the BBC for extending its news output.

Sky News objected to the breaking of its monopoly, complaining about the costs associated with running a channel that only a minority could view from the licence fee. Sky News claimed that a number of British cable operators had been incentivised to carry News 24 in preference to the commercial Sky News. However, in September 1999 the European Commission ruled against a complaint made by Sky News that the publicly funded channel was unfair and illegal under EU law; the Commission ruled that the licence fee should be considered state aid but that such aid was justified due to the public service remit of the BBC and that it did not exceed actual costs. The channel's journalistic output has been overseen by Controller of the channel, Kevin Bakhurst, since 16 December 2005; this was a return to having a dedicated Controller for the channel in the same way as the rest of the BBC's domestic television channels. At launch, Tim Orchard was Controller of News 24 from 1997 until 2000. Editorial decisions were overseen by Rachel Atwell in her capacity as Deputy Head of television news.

Her deputy Mark Popescu became responsible for editorial content in 2004, a role he continued in until the appointment of Bakhurst as Controller in 2005. A further announcement by Head of television news Peter Horrocks came at the same time as Bakhurst's appointment in which he outlined his plan to provide more funding and resources for the channel and shift the corporation's emphasis regarding news away from the traditional BBC One bulletins and across to the rolling news channel; the introduction of simulcasts of the main bulletins on the channel was to allow the news bulletins to pool resources rather than work against each other at key times in the face of competition from Sky News. The BBC Governors' annual report for 2005/2006 reported that average audience figures for fifteen-minute periods had reached 8.6% in multichannel homes, up from 7.8% in 2004/2005. The 2004 report claimed that the channel outperformed Sky News in both weekly and monthly reach in multichannel homes for the January 2004 period, for the first time in two years moved ahead of Sky News in being perceived as the channel best for news.

On 21 April 2008, BBC News 24 was renamed BBC News on the channel itself – but is referred to as the BBC News Channel on other BBC services. This is part of the creative futures plan, launched in 2006, to bring all BBC News output under the single brand name; the BBC News Channel moved from the Studio N8 set, which became home to BBC World News, to what was the home of the national news in Studio N6, allowing the channel to share its set with the BBC News at One and the BBC News at Ten – with other bulletins moving to Studio TC7. The channel relocated, along with the remaining BBC News services at Television Centre, to the newly refurbished Broadcasting House on 18 March 2013 at 13:00 GMT. Presentation and on-screen graphics were refreshed, with new full HD studios and a live newsroom backdrop. Moving cameras in the newsroom form part of the top of the hour title sequence and are used at the start of weather bulletins. On 16 July 2013, the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC News would be launched by early 2014.

The channel broadcasts on the BBC's new HD multiplex on Freeview. HD output from BBC News has been simulcast on BBC One HD and BBC Two HD since the move to Broadcasting House in March 2013; the channel launched on 10 December 2013 and rolled-out nationwide up to June 2014. Each hour consists of headlines on each

Marcus Lollius

Marcus Lollius with the cognomen Paulinus was a Roman politician, military officer and supporter of the first Roman emperor Augustus. Lollius was a member of the plebeian gens Lollia, his father was Marcus Lollius, his mother was called Paulina. Little is known of early life, it is that he was a homo novus or a new man of politics in the late Roman Republic and early Imperial era. Lollius has been assumed to be the "Marcus" referred to in Appian's Civil Wars. Appian recounts that Lollius was a legate of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, who after the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC had been proscribed. Lollius hid himself as a slave and was purchased by a "Barbula", before his identity was revealed by a friend to Lepidus in Rome. Lepidus went to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa who interceded on Lepidus' behalf with Octavian, who ensured that the name of Lollius was removed from the proscription lists. Lollius fought in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, where Lollius interceded before Octavian on behalf of Lepidus, captured while fighting for Mark Antony.

As Lollius joined Octavian and as upward Roman mobility depended on patronage, there is a possibility that Lollius and Augustus were close friends before Augustus had eliminated his rivals. Lollius either served in a political position as a quaestor, tribune or praetor before being appointed by Augustus as a provincial governor, his first known office was his governorship of Galatia in Anatolia in 25 BC. For Augustus to appoint him as a governor, Lollius must have proven himself to be a capable politician. Lollius was the first Roman governor of Galatia. Galatia was ruled as a kingdom, their last king, had died. Thereafter, Augustus sent Lollius to Galatia to serve as its governor and to integrate Galatia into the Empire, an important task. Although the mission was difficult and opposed by the local population, Lollius proved himself to be a successful governor there, he was able to train Amyntas' army and incorporate them into the Roman army, with the Galatian Legion becoming a part of the Legio XXII Deiotariana.

He founded a Roman colony in Galatia which showcased Roman civilization, all without causing any violence to erupt in the province. When Lollius' time as governor had finished, he returned to Rome and was elected consul in 21 BC, he served his consulship alongside his old friend Quintus Aemilius Lepidus. His consulship is mentioned in an inscription which he dedicated to himself and Lepidus during that year; the inscription is located on the eastern arch of the southern face of the Pons Fabricius in Rome. The inscription reads, in Latin: M LOLLIVS M F Q LEPIOS EX S C PROBAVERVNT"Marcus Lollius, son of Marcus, Quintus Lepidus, son of Marcus, "Consuls, approved this in accordance with a decree of the Senate."Lollius and Lepidus had dedicated this inscription as repairs were carried out to the bridge. We only know about his consulship from the inscription; this inscription can be seen here. Lollius was the first person from the gens Lollia to obtain a consulship. In 19/18 BC, Augustus appointed Lollius as a Roman governor again, this time to the province of Macedonia.

During his governorship, Lollius defeated a Thracian tribe called the Bersi, as known from a fragmentary inscription found in Philippi, Greece. In 17/16 BC Lollius was appointed by Augustus as governor of Gaul. During his governorship, he was responsible for several legions, his legions were defeated by the Germanic tribes--the Sicambri and Usipetes--that had crossed the Rhine. The military defeat that Lollius suffered, known as the clades Lolliana, is coupled by Suetonius with the disaster of Publius Quinctilius Varus, but it was disgraceful rather than dangerous. Augustus dispatched his step-son Tiberius to rectify the situation and to regain the captured standard of the Legio V Macedonica. On the arrival of Tiberius, the Germanic tribes retired beyond the Rhine. Although the political and military career of Lollius suffered, he was never again given command of an army, he remained on friendly terms with Augustus; the Horrea Lolliana was either built by his son of the same name. It is known from the inscriptions that refer to them, from their plan in the Severan Marble Plan of Rome.

It seems that the family of Lollius had extensive trade connections, his family's name is found among the Italian merchants on the Greek island of Delos in the Hellenistic period. Lollius in 2/1 BC was appointed by Augustus as a tutor to his adopted son and grandson Gaius Caesar on his mission to the Roman East and to learn about government. Among the officers who escorted them were the historian Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Roman Senator Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, the future Praetorian prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus; when all the men arrived in the Roman East, embassies were sent to Lollius, instead of Gaius Caesar, whom they ignored. Lollius' relations with Gaius Caesar started to deteriorate when they visited Tiberius, living in voluntary exile on the Greek island of Rhodes. Lollius had poisoned Gaius Caesar's mind against Tiberius, whom Lollius had hated since 16 BC. Gaius Caesar seems to have insulted his uncle Tiberius, Lollius was held responsible for the incident; as Lollius and Gaius Caesar continued their tour of the Roman East, they started to quarrel.

Lollius fell out of favor with Gaius Caesar, as he was accused of receiving bribes from the Parthian King, Phraates. As Gaius Caesar denounced Lollius to Augustus, depending on the source, either poisoned himself or committed suicide in an unspecified manner to avoid punishment, or else died from natural causes. Lollius amassed a huge fortune that he plundered from the provin

Wilma Pastrana

Wilma Pastrana Jiménez is a certified public accountant and wife of the former governor of Puerto Rico, Alejandro García Padilla. Pastrana became the 13th First Lady of Puerto Rico on January 2, 2013 and took on programs to improve child education and welfare on the island. Wilma Pastrana Jiménez was born in Puerto Rico, she graduated with honors from the Colegio Nuestra Señora del Pilar. She earned a Bachelor of Business Administration from Boston University before returning to Puerto Rico and obtaining a CPA license. Pastrana married Alejandro García Padilla on April 7, 2001, they have three children: Ana, Juan Pablo, Diego. Jiménez worked with businesses and organizations such as Deloitte & Touche, GlaxoSmithKline, Panell Kerr and Foster, as well as the Puerto Rico Convention Center and the Tourism Company, continuing after she became first lady; when her husband won the Governorship of the Island, Jiménez took on additional roles, including initiatives to reduce the dropout rate and spur educational development, to combat childhood obesity and improve health to provide safe spaces and developmental opportunities for children living with disabilities, to teach nutrition and gardening skills throughout the country and several other social service programs to build community

Hridaypur

Hridaypur is a town in Barasat of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is close to Kolkata and a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority; the rail-line bisects the area in 2 zones: West Hridaypur East HridaypurThe Eastern part extends to National Highway 34. The western part is larger. West Hridaypur lacks any defined boundary; the western part of Hridaypur connects to Madhyamgram Sajirhat via Kora Badamtola. Hridaypur is notable for the Pranavananda Matri Ashram, an orphanage for girls following the ideals and teachings of Swami Pranavananda, the founder of Bharat Sevashram Sangha; the ashram houses a school where a large number of children of the local area study. The National Highway 34 runs through the east of Hridaypur. There is a bus stop named Hridaypur More, near Dakbungalow More at the point where the Hridaypur Station Road meets the Jessore Road. Hridaypur railway station, which belongs to the Sealdah–Hasnabad–Bangaon–Ranaghat line serves the area.

West Hridaypur Pranavananda Vidya Mandir for Girls Manabata Sikshayatan High School Udayrajpur Hariharpur High School BCDA College of Pharmacy and Technology SM's College of Management and Technology Sikkim Manipal University Narayana Multi-specialty Hospital Renuka Eye Institute Ramkrishna MedicareNorth 24 Parganas district has been identified as one of the areas where ground water is affected by arsenic contamination. Kolkata/Northern fringes travel guide from Wikivoyage

Billy Manuel

William Albert James Manuel is an English retired professional football left back and midfielder, best remembered for his time in the Football League with Brentford and Gillingham. His tenacious performances in midfield for Brentford led to the nickname'Billy the Pit Bull'. Manuel began his career in the youth systems at First Division clubs Chelsea and Tottenham Hotspur, before dropping down to the Third Division to sign for Gillingham on 10 February 1989, his addition to the squad failed to help the struggling club avoid relegation to the Fourth Division at the end of the 1988–89 season and Manuel remained at Priestfield for two more forgettable seasons before leaving in June 1991. He scored four goals for the Gills. Manuel moved back up to the Third Division to sign for Brentford in a £60,000 deal on 14 June 1991, to bring stability to the left back position, he made 45 appearances during the 1991–92 season and won the first silverware of his career when the Third Division title was clinched at the end of the campaign.

In the newly renamed First Division, Manuel moved into the midfield and impressed enough to be voted the Brentford supporters' Player of the Year at the end of the season, though it would end in disappointment with relegation straight back to the Second Division. New manager David Webb installed Manuel as captain for the 1993–94 season and moved him to left back, though he fell out of favour and was released in August 1994. Manuel scored two goals during three seasons with Brentford. Manuel signed for Second Division club Peterborough United on a short-term contract on 16 September 1994, he failed to make an appearance before departing on 28 October. Manuel joined high-flying Conference club Stevenage Borough on loan in late September 1994, he made three appearances before leaving Broadhall Way. Manuel signed for Second Division strugglers Cambridge United on a three-month contract on 28 October 1994, he made 12 appearances. Manuel re-signed for Peterborough United on 28 February 1995, four months after leaving the club.

He made 35 appearances and scored five goals before leaving London Road for the final time on 25 January 1996. Manuel rejoined Gillingham flying high in the Third Division, on 26 January 1996, he helped the Gills to promotion to the Second Division with a second-place finish at the end of the 1995–96 season and made 11 appearances in 1996–97, before being released at the end of the campaign. In both his spells with Gillingham, Manuel scored four goals. Manuel dropped back down to the Third Division to sign for Barnet prior to the beginning of the 1997–98 season, he scored one goal before being released at the end of the 1998 -- 99 season. Manuel dropped into non-league football in 1999 and signed for Southern League First Division East club Folkestone Invicta and helped the club to promotion to the Premier Division in his first season, he was released as part of a cost-cutting exercise in December 2000. He moved on to play for Horsham, Grays Athletic, Tonbridge Angels, Windsor & Eton, Waltham Forest and Metrogas before retiring in 2005.

While a player at Folkestone Invicta, Manuel was the club's assistant manager. After his retirement from football, Manuel spent a period living in the USA before returning to his native Hackney to run a pub, he worked in refurbishments. Brentford Football League Third Division: 1991–92Gillingham Football League Third Division second-place promotion: 1995–96Folkestone Invicta Southern League First Division East: 1999–00Individual Brentford Supporters' Player of the Year: 1992–93 Billy Manuel at Soccerbase

Hydraulic engineering

Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids; this area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, channels and levees, to both sanitary and environmental engineering. Hydraulic engineering is the application of the principles of fluid mechanics to problems dealing with the collection, control, regulation and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out; the hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, the occurrence of scour and deposition. "The hydraulic engineer develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways and related structures for irrigation projects, cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants."

A few examples of the fundamental principles of hydraulic engineering include fluid mechanics, fluid flow, behavior of real fluids, pipelines, open channel hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport, physical modeling, hydraulic machines, drainage hydraulics. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering defines hydrostatics as the study of fluids at rest. In a fluid at rest, there exists a force, known as pressure, that acts upon the fluid's surroundings; this pressure, measured in N/m2, is not constant throughout the body of fluid. Pressure, p, in a given body of fluid, increases with an increase in depth. Where the upward force on a body acts on the base and can be found by the equation: p = ρ g y where, ρ = density of water g = specific gravity y = depth of the body of liquidRearranging this equation gives you the pressure head p/ρg = y. Four basic devices for pressure measurement are a piezometer, differential manometer, Bourdon gauge, as well as an inclined manometer; as Prasuhn states: On undisturbed submerged bodies, pressure acts along all surfaces of a body in a liquid, causing equal perpendicular forces in the body to act against the pressure of the liquid.

This reaction is known as equilibrium. More advanced applications of pressure are that on plane surfaces, curved surfaces and quadrant gates, just to name a few; the main difference between an ideal fluid and a real fluid is that for ideal flow p1 = p2 and for real flow p1 > p2. Ideal fluid has no viscosity. Real fluid has viscosity. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all fluids. A viscous fluid will deform continuously under a shear force by the pascles law, whereas an ideal fluid does not deform; the various effects of disturbance on a viscous flow are a stable and unstable. For an ideal fluid, Bernoulli's equation holds along streamlines. P/ρg + u²/2g = p1/ρg + u1²/2g = p2/ρg + u2²/2g Assuming a flow is bounded on one side only, that a rectilinear flow passing over a stationary flat plate which lies parallel to the flow, the flow just upstream of the plate has a uniform velocity; as the flow comes into contact with the plate, the layer of fluid actually'adheres' to a solid surface. There is a considerable shearing action between the layer of fluid on the plate surface and the second layer of fluid.

The second layer is therefore forced to decelerate, creating a shearing action with the third layer of fluid, so on. As the fluid passes further along with the plate, the zone in which shearing action occurs tends to spread further outwards; this zone is known as the'boundary layer'. The flow outside the boundary layer is free of shear and viscous-related forces so it is assumed to act as an ideal fluid; the intermolecular cohesive forces in a fluid are not great enough to hold fluid together. Hence a fluid will flow under the action of the slightest stress and flow will continue as long as the stress is present; the flow inside the layer can be either turbulent, depending on Reynolds number. Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers include hydraulic structures such as dams, water distribution networks, water collection networks, sewage collection networks, storm water management, sediment transport, various other topics related to transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering.

Equations developed from the principles of fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics are utilized by other engineering disciplines such as mechanical and traffic engineers. Related branches include hydrology and rheology while related applications include hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal protection, flood alleviation. Earliest uses of hydraulic engineering were to irrigate crops and dates back to the Middle East and Africa. Controlling the movement and supply of water for growing food has been used for many thousands of years. One of the earliest hydraulic machines, the water clock was used in the early 2nd millennium BC. Other early examples of using gravity to move water include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the similar Turpan water system in ancient China as well as irrigation canals in Peru. In ancient China, hydraulic engineering was developed, engineers constructed massive canals with levees and dams to channel the flow of water for irrigation, as well as locks to allow ships to pass through.

Sunshu Ao is considered the first Chinese hydraulic engineer. Another important H