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BIOS is firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process, to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer's system board, it is the first software to run when powered on; the name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. The BIOS proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems; the interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard. The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components, loads a boot loader from a mass memory device which initializes an operating system. In the era of DOS, the BIOS provided a hardware abstraction layer for the keyboard and other input/output devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS after loading, instead accessing the hardware components directly.

Most BIOS implementations are designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary system chipset. BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard; this allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails can brick the motherboard permanently, unless the system includes some form of backup for this case. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface is a successor to the legacy PC BIOS, aiming to address its technical shortcomings; the term BIOS was created by Gary Kildall and first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975, describing the machine-specific part of CP/M loaded during boot time that interfaces directly with the hardware.

Versions of MS-DOS, PC DOS or DR-DOS contain a file called variously "IO. SYS", "IBMBIO. COM", "IBMBIO. SYS", or "DRBIOS. SYS". Together with the underlying hardware-specific but operating system-independent "System BIOS", which resides in ROM, it represents the analogue to the "CP/M BIOS". With the introduction of PS/2 machines, IBM divided the System BIOS into real- and protected-mode portions; the real-mode portion was meant to provide backward compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, therefore was named "CBIOS", whereas the "ABIOS" provided new interfaces suited for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2. The BIOS of the original IBM PC and XT had no interactive user interface. Error codes or messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of sounds were generated to signal errors when the power-on self-test had not proceeded to the point of initializing a video display adapter. Options on the IBM PC and XT were set by switches and jumpers on the main board and on expansion cards.

Starting around the mid-1990s, it became typical for the BIOS ROM to include a "BIOS configuration utility" or "BIOS setup utility", accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. This program allowed the user to set system configuration options, of the type set using DIP switches, through an interactive menu system controlled through the keyboard. In the interim period, IBM-compatible PCs‍—‌including the IBM AT‍—‌held configuration settings in battery-backed RAM and used a bootable configuration program on disk, not in the ROM, to set the configuration options contained in this memory; the disk was supplied with the computer, if it was lost the system settings could not be changed. The same applied in general to computers with an EISA bus, for which the configuration program was called an EISA Configuration Utility. A modern Wintel-compatible computer provides a setup routine unchanged in nature from the ROM-resident BIOS setup utilities of the late 1990s; when errors occur at boot time, a modern BIOS displays user-friendly error messages presented as pop-up boxes in a TUI style, offers to enter the BIOS setup utility or to ignore the error and proceed if possible.

Instead of battery-backed RAM, the modern Wintel machine may store the BIOS configuration settings in flash ROM the same flash ROM that holds the BIOS itself. Early Intel processors started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Systems with processors provide logic to start running the BIOS from the system ROM. If the system has just been powered up or the reset button was pressed, the full power-on self-test is run. If Ctrl+Alt+Delete was pressed, a special flag value stored in nonvolatile BIOS memory tested by the BIOS allows bypass of the lengthy POST and memory detection; the POST identifies, initializes system devices such as the CPU, RAM, interrupt and DMA controllers and other parts of the chipset, video display card, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and other basic hardware. Early IBM PCs had a routine in the POST that would download a program into RAM through the keyboard port and run it; this feature was intended fo

Bob Coy

Robert J. "Bob" Coy is the founder and former Senior Pastor of Calvary Chapel Fort Lauderdale in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. On April 3, 2014, Coy resigned as Senior Pastor of Calvary Chapel Fort Lauderdale, after admitting to committing adultery and having an addiction to pornography. In 2017, he was accused of sexually abusing a four-year-old girl, his media ministry, which includes radio and digital media, was subsequently terminated. Coy was born in Royal Oak, Michigan, on November 27, 1955. At 21 years old, Coy got a job at Capitol Records in Detroit. "I was living the life of sex and rock n roll, literally," he said. Coy abused drugs and alcohol, after multiple traffic tickets, he lost his license. Soon after, at 24 years old, a band manager reported. Coy got a job in property management, he became an entertainment director at a casino with an "All-Girl Revue." This, according to Coy, "is another way of saying I ran a strip club." Until 1981, Coy continued to live a life of sex and drugs. On the day after Christmas, his brother Jim let him crash in his living room after a wild party.

Jim gave Bob a pillow and Bible. Bob threw the Bible at Jim and said "Will you shut up with your Jesus stuff?" The Bible still on the floor and his wife went to bed. Bob says he couldn't sleep because the Bible was "calling out to him." He began reading. Jim and his wife entered the room and Jim announced: "God just woke me up and told me I'm supposed to pray for you." Soon afterward, Coy quit his job at the casino and began working as an associate pastor at Calvary Chapel Las Vegas. In 1985, Coy and his wife Diane moved to South Florida. In April 2014, Bob Coy resigned as the Senior Pastor and President of Calvary Chapel Fort Lauderdale after admitting committing adultery and being addicted to pornography. Coy spent a year in Chattanooga, Tennessee in that city's Calvary Chapel to undergo a "restoration process", while the church board appointed Doug Sauder to take Coy's position as Senior Pastor; the Coys divorced. He went on to work as a consultant at The Funky Biscuit in Boca Raton, Florida. In November 2017 they terminated the relationship as a result of the child abuse allegations published in The Miami New Times.

In November 2017, Coy was accused of molesting a child, beginning when she was four years old and continuing into her teenage years. Coy was fired from his consulting job at The Funky Biscuit. Due to a great need for increased services to keep children from entering foster care, in 1997 under the direction of Coy, 4Kids of South Florida was founded to care for orphans and children in the foster-care system in South Florida. However, Bob Coy's direct involvement with 4Kids cannot be substantiated through Florida's Division of Corporations web site, nor other references. My God Story. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2001. P. 178. ISBN 0-9708600-1-3. Devotionary. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2002. P. 265. ISBN 0-9708600-0-5. Dreamality. West Monroe, LA: Howard Publishing Co, Inc. 2005. P. 243. ISBN 978-1-58229-447-6; the Holy Spirit. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2008. P. 72. ISBN 1-932283-19-6. Living in the Active Word volume 1. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2008.

P. 365. ISBN 1-932283-28-5. Redeeming Relationships. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2008. P. 211. ISBN 978-1-932283-14-3. Living in the Active Word volume 2. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2009. P. 365. ISBN 978-1-932283-71-6. One Surrendered Life. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Calvary Chapel Church, Inc. 2013. P. 235. ISBN 978-1-932283-18-1

Strategy of the Roman military

The strategy of the Roman military contains its grand strategy, operational strategy and, on a small scale, its military tactics. If a fourth rung of "engagement" is added the whole can be seen as a ladder, with each level from the foot upwards representing a decreasing concentration on military engagement. Whereas the purest form of tactics or engagement are those free of political imperative, the purest form of political policy does not involve military engagement. Strategy as a whole is the use of force to achieve it. In its clearest form, strategy deals with military issues: either a threat or an opportunity is recognised, an evaluation is made, a military stratagem for meeting it is devised. However, as Clausewitz stated, a successful military strategy may be a means to an end, but it is not an end in itself. Where a state has a long term political goal to which it applies military methods and the resources of the state, that state can be said to have a grand strategy. To an extent, all states will have a grand strategy to a certain degree if it is determining which forces to raise as a military, or how to arm them.

Whilst early Rome did raise and arm troops, they tended to raise them annually in response to the specific demands of the state during that year. Such a reactive policy, whilst more efficient than the maintenance of a standing army, does not indicate the close ties between long-term political goals and military organization demanded by grand strategy. Early indications for a Roman grand strategy emerged during the Punic wars with Carthage, in which Rome was able to influence the course of the war by selecting to ignore the armies of Hannibal threatening its homeland and to invade Africa instead in order to dictate the primary theatre of war. In the Empire, as the need for and size of the professional army grew, the possibility arose for the expansion of the concept of a grand strategy to encompass the management of the resources of the entire Roman state in the conduct of warfare: great consideration was given in the Empire to diplomacy and the use of the military to achieve political goals, both through warfare and as a deterrent.

The contribution of actual military force to strategy was reduced to operational strategy - the planning and control of large military units. Rome's grand strategy incorporated diplomacy through which Rome might forge alliances or pressure another nation into compliance, as well as the management of the post-war peace. Vegetius wrote that "every plan... is to be considered, every expedient tried and every method taken before matters are brought to this last extremity... Good officers decline general engagements where the odds are too great, prefer the employment of stratagem and finesse to destroy the enemy as much as possible... without exposing their own forces.". However, Vegetius was writing late in the fourth century AD, in the latter years of the Empire. During this period, for much of the Empire, it can be argued that the Romans did follow a grand strategy calling for limited direct operational engagement. However, earlier in its history, in the Republic and early Empire Rome showed little reluctance to become engaged in direct military engagement, prosecuting offensive operations against numerous adversaries.

When a campaign did go badly wrong, operational strategy varied as the circumstances dictated, from naval actions to sieges, assaults of fortified positions and open battle. However, the preponderance of Roman campaigns exhibit a preference for direct engagement in open battle and, where necessary, the overcoming of fortified positions via military engineering; the Roman army was adept at building fortified camps for protection from enemy attack, but history shows a reluctance to sit in the camp awaiting battle and a history of seeking open battle. Roman armies of the Republic and early empire worked from a set tactical'handbook', a military tradition of deploying forces that provided for few variations and was ignored or elaborated only on occasion. Once the legion had deployed on an operation, they would march to their objective. There were exceptions when the armies were transported by the Roman navy but then in most instances this was followed by a march of several days or weeks; the approach to the battlefield was made in several columns.

A strong vanguard preceded the main body, included scouts and light troops. A tribune or other officer accompanied the vanguard to survey the terrain for possible camp locations. Flank and recon elements were deployed to provide the usual covering security. Behind the vanguard came the main body of heavy infantry; each legion was accompanied by its own baggage train. At the end of a day's march, the Romans would establish a strong field camp called a castra, complete with palisade and a deep ditch, providing a basis for supply storage, troop marshalling and defence. Streets were laid out, units designated to take specific places, guards posted at designed gates. Construction could take between 2 and 5 hours with part of the army laboring, while the rest stood guard, depending on the tactical situation. No other ancient army persisted over such a long period in systematic camp construction like th

Manish Raisinghan

Manish Raisinghan is an Indian television actor and model, having risen to popularity portraying Sameer in the television show Teen Bahuraniyaan. He played the Parallel Lead Role of Siddhant Rajendra Bharadwaj opposite Avika Gor and Mansi Srivastava in Colors TV Second Longest Running Show Sasural Simar Ka. Raisinghan is among the few models who have transitioned to a career in acting, he is a popular print and ramp model, who did well at the Grasim Mr. India contest in 2002, placing fourth overall and he won three titles. A mechanical engineer by profession, he is a martial arts expert, a Reiki specialist and an avid photographer. Raisinghan holds black belts in kung fu and kickboxing, he is a three-time national champion in martial arts. He qualified for the world championship four times, but was unable to pursue the sport further because of lack of sponsorship, he is a district-level champion in roller-skating. Raisinghan essayed the popular character of Siddhant Rajendra Bharadwaj in Colors TV's show Sasural Simar Ka.

He had a friendly appearance as a film star in Madhur Bhandarkar's film Heroine. Manish Raisinghan is a short filmmaker who has won various awards in short filmmaking, and in 2016 and 2017 his short films got recognised and selected at prestigious short film festivals world over including Cannes Film Festival. And 2017 his film was nominated for Best Film, Best Original Screenplay and Best Direction and won Best Film at the Berlin Film Festival. Ek Shringaar-Swabhiman as Shiva Sasural Simar Ka as Aryan / Siddhant Rajendra Bharadwaj Killerr Karaoke Atka Toh Latkah as himself Teen Bahuraaniyaan as Sameer Manohar Gheewala Waaris as Sunny Shetty Kaahin Kissii Roz as Aditya Apoorva Sikand Jab Love Hua as Arjun Betiyaan Apni Yaa Paraaya Dhan as Nirvan Hum Dono Hain Alag Alag as Aditya Kothari Rang Badalti Odhni as Rahul Khanna Raat Hone Ko Hai Kahiin to Hoga as Varun Raheja Rakt Sambandh as Mohan Tumhari Disha as Veer Sapna Babul Ka... Bidaai as Saket Heroine -guest AppearanceShort films Almost 2016 director Producer Director of photography Editor Ankahee Baatein 2016 Actor When I Met Myself 2016 Creative director Cinematographer Toh Mera Galat He Sahi Hai 2016 director Director of photography Editor Producer I Me Myself director Director of photography Editor Producer Actor VFX Now U Listen director Writer Producer ITA Popular Rishtey-Naate Award 2015 Golden Petal Award for Best Actor in a Supporting role of 2016 The International Iconic Award for Most Prominent Actor in 2018 Official Twitter

Don Felder

Donald William Felder is an American rock musician and songwriter, best known for his work as a lead guitarist of the Eagles from 1974 until 2001. Felder was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum in 2016. Don Felder was born in Gainesville, Florida, on September 21, 1947, he was raised in a Southern Baptist family. Felder was first attracted to music after watching Elvis Presley live on The Ed Sullivan Show, he acquired his first guitar when he was about ten years old, which he has stated he exchanged with a friend at the five-and-dime for a handful of cherry bombs. A self-taught musician, he was influenced by rock and roll. At the age of fifteen he started the Continentals. Felder's family could not afford music lessons, but he taught himself to play guitar by ear, by listening to tape recordings that he played back at half speed, he worked at a music school started by a Berklee graduate, who taught music theory and some notation to Felder during his employment there. Around that time, he met Bernie Leadon who became one of the founding members of the Eagles.

Leadon replaced Stephen Stills in the Continentals, which changed its name to the Maundy Quintet. Felder and Leadon both attended Gainesville High School. Felder gave guitar lessons at a local music shop for about 18 months, at which time Felder learned how to play slide guitar from Duane Allman. One of Felder's students was a young Tom Petty; the Maundy Quintet recorded and released a 45 rpm single on the Tampa-based Paris Tower label in 1967, which received airplay in north-central Florida. After the Maundy Quintet broke up, Felder went to Manhattan, New York City, with a band called Flow, which released a self-titled improvisational rock fusion album in 1970; the 1970 Flow album has the distinction of being among the first issued on the newly independent CTI Records label, founded by noted jazz producer Creed Taylor. While in New York, Felder improved his mastery of improvisation on the guitar and learned various styles. After Flow broke up, Felder moved to Boston. In 1973, Felder moved to Los Angeles where he was hired as guitar player for a tour by David Blue, replacing David Lindley, touring with Crosby & Nash.

He helped Blue put together a tour, during which they opened at a few Crosby and Nash shows in November 1973 and for Neil Young at the opening of the Roxy Theatre. Once again, Felder replaced this time in Crosby & Nash's band when Lindley fell ill, he would jam from time to time with the Eagles in their rehearsal space. In 1974, he featured on the Michael Dinner album The Great Pretender. In early January 1974, Felder was called by the Eagles to add slide guitar to their song "Good Day in Hell" and some guitar solos to "Already Gone". Shortly afterwards, he was invited to join the band. Concurrently, the band began distancing themselves from their initial country rock style and moving more in the direction of full-fledged rock music. On the band's fourth album, One of These Nights, Felder sang lead vocal on the song "Visions", which he co-wrote with Don Henley, arranged the title track's distinctive guitar solo and bass line. After founding member Bernie Leadon departed in 1975 following the tour to support the album, Joe Walsh joined the band.

Felder had jammed with Walsh while Leadon was still a member of the Eagles, together as dual guitar leads, they would become one of rock music's most memorable onstage partnerships. Felder doubled on banjo and pedal steel guitar on future tours, all of which were handled by Leadon; the first album that the Eagles released after the lineup change was Hotel California, which became a major international bestseller. Felder submitted "16 or 17 tracks" that resulted in the songs "Victim of Love" and the album's title track, "Hotel California". After the release of Hotel California and the tour that followed, the Eagles found themselves under tremendous pressure to repeat this success and tensions were made worse by alcohol and other drugs. Bassist Randy Meisner left the band after the tour due to exhaustion and he was replaced by former Poco bassist Timothy B. Schmit, who had replaced him in that band; the fighting did not end with the addition of the mild-mannered Schmit, but it rather intensified during the recording of The Long Run, which took eighteen months to complete, Felder and Frey were hostile to one another, despite respecting each other's musical abilities.

According to Henley, Felder attempted to gain more control by co-opting Walsh so that it was the pair up against himself and Frey when the band was dividing into factions and Henley and Frey began to have their differences, thus causing the Eagles to disband. At a concert in Long Beach, California for Senator Alan Cranston on July 31, 1980, known as the "Long Night at Wrong Beach", things hit breaking point when the animosity between Felder and Frey boiled over before the show began after Felder said, "You're welcome – I guess" to Cranston and his wife, thus offending Frey, he angrily the pair began to threaten beatings throughout the show. Felder recalls Frey telling him during "Best of My Love," "I'm gonna kick your ass when we get off the stage." After the concert, Felder smashed, according to Frey, Felder's "cheapest guitar". The Eagles disbanded shortly thereafter. Following the 1980 breakup of the Eagles, Felder focused more on his family but embarked on a solo career, concentrating on film composition and session work.

He worked on the Bee Gees' 1981 album Living Eyes as a session guitarist. Through his association with Bee Gees' producer Albhy Galuten, Felder made session ap

Toonumbar National Park

The Toonumbar National Park is a protected national park located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The 14,910-hectare park is situated 620 kilometres north of Sydney, near the town of Woodenbong; the park is part of the Focal Peak Group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The park features subtropical rainforests protecting threatened plants and animals, such as the sooty owl, red-legged pademelon and yellow-bellied glider; the rainforests on Dome Mountain and the Murray Scrub are part of the World Heritage listed Gondwana Rainforests of Australia. The rugged landscape of Mount Lindesay, Dome Mountain and Edinburgh Castle have provided the inspiration for many local Aboriginal legends; the Murray Scrub and the Dome Mountain Forest contain significant areas of subtropical and temperate rainforest and are listed as part of the World Heritage Gondwana Rainforests of Australia.

There are drier and cooler places in the park and this has resulted in incredible diversity of flora, from eucalypt woodlands and tall gum forests, to forests of bangalow palms. Animals in the park include marbled frogmouth, Albert lyrebird and rainforest reptiles and frogs; the rainforest area is an important refuge for a number of fruit-eating pigeons and insectivorous bats. Pademelons live there. Focal Peak Volcano situated in Mt Barney National Park was active 23 million years ago and was responsible for the eroded volcanic remains of Mount Lindesay, Dome Mountain and Edinburgh Castle that dominate the landscape today; the high rainfall combined with fertile soil have created lush rainforests. On average, the park receives 1,035.8 millimetres of rain each year. Its highest recorded rainfall was 449.4 millimetres in one day. Toonumbar National Park was part of the successful Githabul Nation native title claim; the Native title claimant Trevor Close an Aboriginal lawyer fought the NSW Government fifteen years probono to win the historic Native Title claim in memory of his grandfather Rory Close and his children Nea Close, Marnie Close Sera Close, Issiah Close and Tomika Close, Yartha Close and Kory Close.

Trevor Close Githabul Tribal name is Mudargun. Inside Toonumbar National Park there are a number of jurabihls which were recorded with the assistance of the late Auntie Millie Boyd in 1974 by Howard Creamer; these types of sites are of National significance due to their rarity in Australia and the rest of the world. Dome Mountain is the Githabul sacred site for the rain ceremony. Edinburgh Castle is the Goanna site and owned by the Clara Williams descendants who reside at the Aboriginal Reservation Muli Muli, 10 km west of the town of Woodenbong. Protected areas of New South Wales "List of animals recorded in park". NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 1 September 2003