In computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware. Firmware can either provide a standardized operating environment for the device's more complex software, or, for less complex devices, act as the device's complete operating system, performing all control and data manipulation functions. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems, consumer appliances, computer peripherals, others. All electronic devices beyond the simplest contain some firmware. Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as EPROM, or flash memory. Changing the firmware of a device was or never done during its lifetime in the past but is nowadays a common procedure. Common reasons for updating firmware include adding features to the device; this may require ROM integrated circuits to be physically replaced or flash memory to be reprogrammed through a special procedure. Firmware such as the ROM BIOS of a personal computer may contain only elementary basic functions of a device and may only provide services to higher-level software.

Firmware such as the program of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions. Before the inclusion of integrated circuits, other firmware devices included a discrete semiconductor diode matrix; the Apollo guidance computer had firmware consisting of a specially manufactured core memory plane, called "core rope memory", where data was stored by physically threading wires through or around the core storing each data bit. Ascher Opler coined the term "firmware" in a 1967 Datamation article, it meant the contents of a writable control store, containing microcode that defined and implemented the computer's instruction set, that could be reloaded to specialize or modify the instructions that the central processing unit could execute. As used, firmware contrasted with hardware and software, it was not composed of CPU machine instructions, but of lower-level microcode involved in the implementation of machine instructions. It existed on the boundary between software.

Over time, popular usage extended the word "firmware" to denote any computer program, linked to hardware, including processor machine instructions for BIOS, bootstrap loaders, or the control systems for simple electronic devices such as a microwave oven, remote control, or computer peripheral. In some respects, the various firmware components are as important as the operating system in a working computer. However, unlike most modern operating systems, firmware has a well-evolved automatic mechanism of updating itself to fix any functionality issues detected after shipping the unit; the BIOS may be "manually" updated by a user. In contrast, firmware in storage devices gets updated when flash storage is used for the firmware. Most computer peripherals are themselves special-purpose computers. Devices such as printers, cameras, USB flash drives have internally stored firmware; some low-cost peripherals no longer contain non-volatile memory for firmware, instead rely on the host system to transfer the device control program from a disk file or CD.

As of 2010, most portable music players support firmware upgrades. Some companies use firmware updates to add new playable file formats. Other features that may change with firmware updates include the GUI or the battery life. Most mobile phones have a Firmware Over The Air firmware upgrade capability for much the same reasons. Since 1996, most automobiles have employed an on-board computer and various sensors to detect mechanical problems; as of 2010, modern vehicles employ computer-controlled anti-lock braking systems and computer-operated transmission control units. The driver can get in-dash information while driving in this manner, such as real-time fuel economy and tire pressure readings. Local dealers can update most vehicle firmware. Examples of firmware include: In consumer products: Timing and control systems for washing machines Controlling sound and video attributes, as well as the channel list, in modern televisions In computers: The BIOS found in IBM-compatible personal computers The EFI-compliant firmware used on Itanium systems, Intel-based computers from Apple, many Intel desktop computer motherboards Open Firmware, used in SPARC-based computers from Sun Microsystems and Oracle Corporation, PowerPC-based computers from Apple, computers from Genesi ARCS, used in computers from Silicon Graphics Kickstart, used in the Amiga line of computers RTAS, used in computers from IBM The Common Firmware Environment In routers and firewalls: LibreCMC – a 100% free software router distribution based on the Linux-libre kernel IPFire – an open-source firewall/router distribution based on the Linux kernel fli4l – an open-source firewall/router distribution based on the Linux kernel OpenWrt – an open-source firewall/router distribution based on the Linux kernel m0n0wall – an embedded firewall distribution of FreeBSD In NAS systems: NAS4Free

John Liston

John Liston, English comedian, was born in London. He made his public debut on the stage at Weymouth as Lord Duberley in The Heir at Law. After several dismal failures in tragic parts, some of them in support of Mrs Siddons, he discovered accidentally that his forte was comedy in the personation of old men and country boys, in which he displayed a fund of drollery and broad humour. An introduction to Charles Kemble led to his appearance at the Haymarket on 10 June 1805 as Sheepface in the Village Lawyer, his association with this theatre continued with few interruptions until 1830. Paul Pry, the most famous of all his impersonations, was first presented on 13 September 1825 and soon became, thanks to his creative genius, a real personage. Liston remained on the stage till 1837, he had married in a singer and actress. In the January 1825 of the London Magazine there appeared a Memoir of John Liston written by his close friend Charles Lamb; this was said by Lamb to be "pure invention" and intended as a humorous essay.

Liston himself replied to this Memoir in the following edition of the London Magazine suggesting that the same writer pen a short life of Byron. Several pictures of Liston in character are in the Garrick Club, as Paul Pry in the South Kensington Museum and the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland archives; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Liston, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 780. Prance Claude, "Companion to Charles Lamb", Mansell Publishing Limited, Cambridge 1983. Media related to John Liston at Wikimedia Commons

Jatco 5R05 transmission

The 5R05 called RE5R05A, JR507E/JR509E or TG5C/TG5D "5EAT", is a Jatco 5-speed automatic transmission, released in 2002, used in rear wheel drive or 4X4 vehicles with longitudinal engines. It shares little to nothing in common with the older RE5R01A transmission, its OEM ATF is the Original NISSAN ATF Matic J, for worldwide applications. Only for USA, this was superseded by Matic S in 2008. For Subaru applications the fluid must conform to ATF-HP specifications; this is available from the dealer as relabeled Idemitsu fluid. Valvoline produces a blue bottled "Import Multi Vehicle" fluid, applicable to all of North America while the red bottled "Max life ATF" is not applicable to vehicles operated in California. Castrol Transmax J and Pennzoil ATF-J are approved fluids. Kia sorento 2003-2009 kia borrego 2010-2012 Infiniti_FX35 2003–2009 2003–2008 VQ35DE Infiniti_G35 2003–2009 2003–2006 VQ35DE 2007–2009 VQ35HR Infiniti_G37 2008 VQ37VHR Infiniti_M45 2003–2004 2003–2004 VK45DE Nissan 350Z 2003–2008.

2003–2006 VQ35DE. 2007–2008 VQ35HR. Nissan Armada 2004–present. VK56DE. Nissan Navara 2005–present. QR25DE, VQ40DE. YD25DDTi. Nissan Pathfinder 2005–2012. VQ40DE. VK56DE, YD25DDTi. Nissan Patrol 1997–2010. TB48DE. Nissan Stagea 2002-2007. VQ25DET Nissan Titan 2003–present. VK56DE. Nissan Xterra 2005–present. VQ40DE