The BMW M6 is a high-performance version of the 6 Series coupé/convertible and developed by the motorsport division of BMW. The BMW M6 was based on the subsequent generations of the 6 series. In 1983, BMW took the M88/3 Straight-six engine, a modified version of the M88/1 from the BMW M1 and put it in the E24 chassis of the 6 Series, thus creating the M635CSi; the first generation of the M6 was critically acclaimed throughout its lifespan for its elegant, aggressive "shark-nose" styling, its luxury equipment and its performance. A top speed of 254 km/h made the European M635CSi the second fastest BMW automobile built next to the M1. However, Rug Cunningham, of Cunningham BMW, ran a bone stock 1987 U. S. M6 in the La Carrera Classic Race in Mexico in 1989 and recorded an indicated top speed of 283 km/h; the vehicle can be distinguished from other E24 models by "///M" badges on the front grille and rear decklid, body color side-view mirrors, BBS RS wheels, a rear lip spoiler, a larger front air dam, larger front brakes and a 10 mm lowered ride height.
The North American and Japanese M6 was fitted with the catalyzed S38B35 engine, generating a power output of 256 hp and 243 lb⋅ft of torque, whereas the European M635CSi received the non-catalyzed M88/3 engine, generating a power output of 286 PS at 6,500 rpm and 340 N⋅m of torque at 4,500 rpm. A total of 538 catalyzed M635CSi models were sold in Europe between 1988 and 1989; the E24 series became a "world car" for the 1988 and 1989 model years, sporting the same bumpers and aerodynamic treatments as its high-performance counterparts across all markets. According to BMW, the car can accelerate from 0–97 km/h in 5.8 and 6.8 seconds for the European and North American versions respectively. However and Driver tested a North American U. S. M6 in July 1987 and achieved a 0–60 mph acceleration time of 6.1 seconds. In 1987, Road and Track touted the U. S. M6 as being one of the 10 fastest cars in America; the quarter mile time for the M635CSi has been recorded at 14.5 seconds while 161 km/h is achieved in 15 seconds.
Production of the E24 M635CSi/M6 ended in 1989. 1,677 cars imported to North America, with the last two 1,676 and 1,677 cars being 1989 Canadian models. The BMW M6 concept made its debut at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show, it was based on the BMW E63/E64 6 Series, introduced in 2004. The M6 shared the same uneven firing 5.0 L V10 S85 engine and SMG III gearbox with the E60 M5 that produces 373 kW at 7,750 rpm and 520 N⋅m of torque at 6,100 rpm. Manufacturer claimed. Road & Track measured the 0-60 mph acceleration time at 4.1 seconds. The top speed was limited to 250 km/h. De limited; the M6 has the same'power button' as the M5 which toggles the choice of "P400"or "P500" engine power modes. From ignition, the car delivers 400 PS, but engaging the Steering wheel's M button allows the full 373 kW to be engaged if it is configured so via the iDrive settings; the M6 weighs 1,710 kg courtesy of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic roof panel as well as thermoplastic front wings, aluminium doors and bonnet and carbon fibre reinforced plastic boot lid.
The carbon fibre and other light materials are used in places like the bumpers and roof that are far from the centre of gravity and/or high up, so that they not only reduce the overall weight but improve the handling by reducing the moment of inertia and lowering the centre of mass height. The M6 was offered as a cabriolet. Both the coupé and convertible could be visually distinguished from the 630i, 645Ci and 650i by their deeper front valance with air intakes, more contoured side sills, aerodynamic side view mirrors, an additional rear valance with diffuser and the absence of front fog lights. Only 701 examples were produced with a manual gearbox. In the 2010 model year, the M6 was the second-most expensive BMW sold in the U. S. after the US$137,000 760Li, with an MSRP of US$108,150 for the convertible and US$102,350 for the coupe. Production of the M6 ended in mid-2010, with sales over the five-year run totalling 9,087 for the coupe and 5,056 for the convertible. Details for the new generation of the M6 were announced in February 2012, with the official reveal taking place at the Geneva Motor Show the following month.
The new model is based on the BMW F12/F13 and shares its 7-speed M-DCT gearbox, BMW S63 V8 engine and other technology with the BMW M5. The M6 coupé has a carbon-fibre roof and other weight saving measures, making it 20 kg lighter than the M5, however it is 140 kg heavier than its predecessor; the M6 Convertible is 50 kg heavier than the previous M6 Convertible. The official claimed performance figures state the acceleration from 0–100 km/h in 4.2 seconds and an electronically limited top speed of 250 km/h with the de-limited top speed being 305 km/h with the optional M-driver's package. The design language of the M6 was similar to the M series cars; the front of the car has a newly designed M kidney grille with an “M6” badge – a homage to the first generation of the M6. With the 2014 Competition Package, the M6 comes with a sportier exhaust system with black tips, stiffer springs and anti-roll bars, steering is more direct than the base M6, the twin-turbocharged V8 engine utilised in the M6 is updated and produces 575 PS and 680 N⋅m (502 lb⋅ft
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor
S-segment is the a European segments for passenger cars for sport coupés. The cars are described as sports cars and the equivalent Euro NCAP class is called "roadster sport". S-segment cars have a sporting appearance and are designed to have superior handling and/or straight-line acceleration compared to other segments; the most common body styles for S-segment cars are convertible. Rear passenger accommodation is not a priority for S-segment cars, therefore many models are either two-seat cars or have a 2+2 layout with cramped rear seating. Most recent S-segment cars use the commonplace front-engine design, however the majority of cars with a Mid-engine design or rear-engine design belong to the S-segment; the five highest selling S-segment cars in Europe are the Audi TT, Mazda MX-5, Porsche 911, Ford Mustang and Porsche Boxster/Cayman. In 2014, the five highest selling coupé models were the BMW 4 Series, Opel Astra GTC,BMW 2 Series, Renault Mégane Coupé and Mercedes-Benz C-Class; the five highest selling convertible models in 2014 were the Fiat 500C, Mini Hatch, BMW 4 Series, Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen Golf Mk6
The BMW i8 is a plug-in hybrid sports car developed by BMW. The i8 is part of BMW's electric fleet "Project i" being marketed as BMW i; the 2015 model year BMW i8 has a 7.1 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that delivers an all-electric range of 37 km under the New European Driving Cycle. Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency cycle, the range in EV mode is 24 km with a small amount of gasoline consumption, its design is influenced by the BMW M1 Homage concept car, which in turn pays homage to BMW's last production mid-engined sports car prior to the i8: the BMW M1. The BMW i8 can accelerate from a dead-stop to 100 km/h in 4.4 seconds and has an electronic limited top speed of 250 km/h. The BMW i8 has a fuel efficiency of 2.1 L/100 km under the NEDC test with carbon emissions of 49 g/km. The EPA rated the i8 combined fuel economy at 76 MPGe and 29 miles per gallon when running in pure gasoline mode; the initial turbodiesel concept car was unveiled at the 2009 International Motor Show Germany.
The production version of the BMW i8 was unveiled at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. The i8 was released in Germany in June 2014. Deliveries to retail customers in the U. S. began in August 2014. By early November 2016 global sales since mid-2014 totaled more than 10,000 BMW i8s, making the i8 the world's top selling plug-in electrified sports car; the top selling markets are the United Kingdom and Germany. First introduced as the Concept Vision EfficientDynamics, the i8 is part of BMW's "Project i" and it is being marketed as a new brand, BMW i, sold separately from BMW or Mini; the BMW i3, launched for retail customers in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2013, was the first model of the i brand available in the market, it was followed by the i8, released in Germany in June 2014 as a 2015 model year. Other i models are expected to follow; the initial turbodiesel concept car was unveiled at the 2009 International Motor Show Germany, In 2010, BMW announced the mass production of the Vision EfficientDynamics concept in Leipzig beginning in 2013 as the BMW i8.
The BMW i8 gasoline-powered concept car destined for production was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. The production version of the BMW i8 was unveiled at the 2013 International Motor Show Germany; the following are the concept and pre-production models developed by BMW that preceded the production version. BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept car is a plug-in hybrid with a three cylinder turbo-diesel engine. Additionally, there are two electric motors with 139 hp, it allows an acceleration to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds and an electronically limited top speed of 250 km/h. According to BMW, the average fuel consumption in the EU test cycle is 3.76 liters/100 kilometers, has a carbon dioxide emission rating of 99 grams per kilometer. The estimated all-electric range is 50 km, the 24-liter petrol tank extends the total vehicle range to up to 700 km; the lightweight chassis is made from aluminum. The windshield, top and fenders are made from polycarbonate glass, with the body having a drag coefficient of 0.22.
The designers of the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept were Mario Majdandzic for the exterior and Jochen Paesen for the interior. The vehicle was unveiled in 2009 International Motor Show Germany, followed by Auto China 2010. BMW i8 Concept plug-in hybrid electric vehicle includes an electric motor located in the front axle powering the front wheels rated 96 kW and 250 N⋅m, a turbocharged 1.5-liter 3-cylinder gasoline engine driving rear wheels rated 164 kW and 300 N⋅m of torque, with combined output of 260 kW and 550 N⋅m, a 7.2 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that allows an all-electric range of 35 km. All four wheels provide regenerative braking; the location of the battery pack in the energy tunnel gives the vehicle a low centre of gravity, enhancing its dynamics. Its top speed is electronically limited to 250 km/h and is expected to go from 0 to 100 km/h in 4.6 seconds. Under normal driving conditions the i8 is expected to deliver 80 mpg‑US under the European cycle. A full charge of the battery will take less than 2 hours using 220 V.
The positioning of the motor and engine over the axles results in optimum 50/50 weight distribution. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany, followed by CENTER 548 in New York City, 42nd Tokyo Motor Show 2011, 82nd Geneva Motor Show 2012, BMW i Born Electric Tour at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni at Via Nazionale 194 in Rome, Auto Shanghai 2013; this concept car was featured in the film Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol. The BMW i8 Concept Spyder included a shorter wheelbase and overall length over the BMW i8 Concept, carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic Life module, drive modules made from aluminium components, interlocking of surfaces and lines, 8.8-inch screen display, off-white outer layer, orange tone tanned leather upholstery. The vehicle was unveiled in Auto China 2012 in Beijing and won Concept Car of the Year, followed by 83rd Geneva International Motor Show 2013; the designer of the BMW i8 Concept Spyder was Richard Kim. The design of the BMW i8 coupe prototype was based on the BMW i8 Concept.
The BMW i8 prototype has an average fuel efficiency of less than 2.5 L/100 km under the New European Driving Cycle with carbon emissions of less than 59 g/km. The i8 with its carbon-fib
BMW 1 Series (E87)
The BMW E81/E82/E87/E88 is the first generation of the BMW 1 Series range of small hatchback and convertible cars, which were produced from 2004 to 2013. It replaced the 3 Series Compact as least expensive vehicle in the BMW range; the body styles of the range are: 3-door hatchback 5-door hatchback 2-door coupe 2-door convertible The 3-door and 5-door hatchbacks were replaced by the F20 and F21 models in 2011, while the E82 coupé and E88 convertible variants were replaced by the 2 Series F22 and F23 in 2013. The engines available were four-cylinder diesel and four- and six-cylinder petrol, in both aspirated and turbocharged forms. Unlike most hatchback competitors, the E81/E82/E87/E88 uses rear-wheel drive; the 1 Series accounted for nearly one-fifth of the total BMW sales in 2008. BMW considered adopting the Rover R30 design program into the upcoming 1 Series, however it was decided to develop the 1 Series alongside the E90 3 Series; the E81/E82/E87/E88 shares 60% of components with the E90, including front and rear suspension, chassis, powertrain and electronic elements.
Design work was done by Christopher Chapman in 2001 under design director Chris Bangle. In 2002, the CS1 Concept previewed the 1 Series design at the Geneva Motor Show; the first 1 Series production models - in the E87 five-door hatchback body style - were launched at the Paris Motor Show in September 2004. The chassis has a rear-wheel drive layout with a 50:50 weight balance, a longitudinally-mounted engine and aluminium multi-link suspension; the 1 Series was launched globally in September 2004 as the E87 five-door hatchback. The E87 was produced from 2004 until 2011, with the model range consisting of the 116i, 116d, 118i, 118d, 120i, 120d, 123d and 130i. Kerb Weight: 1340 kg; the E81 three-door hatchback models were produced from July 2007 until 2012. As per the five-door body style, the model range consisted of the 116i, 116d, 118i, 118d, 120i, 120d, 123d and 130i; the overall length is the same as the five-door models, the kerb weight is 10 kg lighter. The 1 Series Coupé was unveiled in 2007 at the Frankfurt Motor Show and went on sale on 24 November 2007.
The model range consisted of the 118d, 118i, 120i, 120d, 123d, 125i, 125se, 128i, 135i and the 1 Series M Coupé. In North America, the E82 went on sale in October 2007 with the 135i models; the E82 was produced until August 2013. The E88 convertible models were produced from 2007 until June 2013; the model range consisted of 118i, 120i, 120d, 123d, 125i, 128i and 135i. The E88 uses a fabric roof. In early 2006, the 5-speed manual transmission was phased out in favour of the 6-speed gearbox; the automatic transmission option was a 6-speed ZF 6HP transmission for the 135i and 6l45 GM 6L50 transmission for the 128i. For the 135i model, a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission was available; the factory specifications are as follows: * Only sold in Canada and the United States. In most countries, the 135i is the top model of convertible range. From 2007 to 2010, the 135i was powered by the N54 twin-turbo 3.0 litre engine with a 6-speed manual or a 6-speed automatic transmission. From 2010, the 135i engine was upgraded to the N55 single-turbo 3.0 litre engine with a 6-speed manual or a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission.
The differential fitted to the 135i uses double-helical ball bearings, which operate at a lower temperature and reach operating temperature quicker, due to a reduction of fluid required in the differential. The 135i brakes are 6-piston front calipers and 2-piston rear calipers, with disk sizes of 338 mm and 324 mm respectively; the 135is coupe and convertible model was sold from 2013 in the United States and Canada. It is powered by an upgraded version of the N55 engine which produces 322 bhp and 317 lb⋅ft. Other upgrades include sports suspension, an M Sport body kit, 18-inch wheels. Transmission options were - as per the 135i - a 6-speed manual or a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission; the 130i is the top model of the E81/E87 hatchback range and was released in September 2004. It is powered by the N52 3.0 litre aspirated engine and transmission choices were a 6-speed manual or a 6-speed automatic. The BMW 1 Series M Coupe is a high-performance version of the BMW 1 Series Coupe, developed by BMW's motorsport branch BMW M.
While BMW naming convention would have called the car the "M1", the name "BMW 1 Series M" was used instead, to avoid confusion with the original BMW M1. At the 2007 Tokyo Auto Show, BMW unveiled the "BMW 1 Series tii Concept", thought to be a preview of the M version of the 1 Series. However, the eventual M model appeared four years and with significant differences, such as a six-cylinders instead of four. BMW announced the making of the M variant of the BMW 1-Series Coupé in December 2010; the 1M coupe was BMW M's second turbocharged engine. Since the 1M Coupe's N54 engine was used in the E89 BMW Z4 sDrive35is, the 1M Coupe is only the second M model, after the Z8 and E39 M5's shared S62, to use an engine shared with non-M models; the outputs for this engine are 250 kW at 450 N ⋅ m from 1,500 to 4,500 rpm. An additional 50 N⋅m is produced during overboost taking overall peak torque to 500 N⋅m; the only available drivetrain is a six-speed manual gearbox with an M limited slip differential. The front a
BMW M GmbH is a subsidiary of German car manufacturer BMW AG. BMW M, "M" was created to facilitate BMW’s racing program, successful in the 1960s and 1970s; as time passed, BMW M began to supplement BMW's vehicles portfolio with specially modified higher trim models, for which they are now most known by the general public. These M-badged cars traditionally include modified engines, suspensions, interior trims and exterior modifications to set them apart from their counterparts. All M models are tested and tuned at BMW's private facility at the Nürburgring racing circuit in Germany. BMW M remains the only performance based company to cater motorcycles at the same time the BMW S1000RR. Established in May 1972 with 35 employees, it grew to 400 employees by 1988, is an integral part of BMW's market presence; the first racing project was BMW’s 3.0 CSL. After the success of BMW M products like BMW 3.0 CSL in racing venues and the growing market for high performance sports cars, M introduced cars for sale to the public.
The first official M-badged car for sale to the public was the M1, revealed at the Paris Motor Show in 1978. The M1, was more of a racecar in domestic trim than an everyday driver; the direction of the M cars changed with the 1979 release of the M535i, a high performance version of BMW’s popular 5 Series mid-size sedan. In 1993 BMW Motorsport GmbH changed their name to BMW M GmbH. BMW Motorsport GmbH supplied the 6.1 litre V12 DOHC 48 valve engine that powers the McLaren F1, like its engine supplier and manufacturer, has enjoyed plenty of racing success, famously winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1995, the first year of competition for the GTR racing variant. At present, BMW M has offered modified versions of nearly every BMW nameplate, except for the Z1, 7 Series flagship luxury sedan and the X1 and X3 compact crossover SUVs. There is no BMW M version of the 7 Series, as BMW did not want its flagship saloon to be powered by a high-revving engine, as the recent top-performing versions have V12 engines which while powerful are considered too heavy for a sporty offshoot.
So far the unofficial "BMW M7" is the Alpina B7, produced on BMW's assembly line though its engine and finishing touches are done by auto tuner Alpina. However, as BMW M shifted to turbocharged engines, there are rumors that there is an in-house BMW M7 in the works, it is speculated that its performance may exceed that of the BMW 760Li and Alpina B7; the BMW X5 and X6 sport activity vehicles received M derivatives for the 2010 model year onwards. These are the first M vehicles with xDrive four-wheel drive and automatic transmissions, the first M-badged SUV models. However, the E70 and E71 X5 and X6 M were developed by BMW Group rather than by BMW M. Although these are considered the most well known in-house tuning divisions, BMW M has a different philosophy than Mercedes-AMG. BMW M has emphasized tuning only vehicles with "Lateral agility", while AMG has created high-performance versions of many of its nameplates, including flagship sedans and SUVs. Accordingly, "an M car has to be responsive and fundamentally keen on turning as well as accelerating.
The M5's technical spec is all about connecting the driver to a car that reacts blindingly fast, whatever request the driver hands down." Until the 2010 model year, BMW M has never used supercharging or turbocharging, unlike Mercedes-AMG or Audi. BMW M vehicles used manuals and semi-automatic transmissions, in contrast to Mercedes-AMG which has automatic transmissions. However, the BMW X5 M and X6 M were the first M-vehicles offered with automatic transmission, a 6-speed Steptronic unit, since this works with xDrive. BMW M engines were traditionally large displacement aspirated high revving engines the S85 V10 in the E60 M5 and E63 M6 and the related S65 V8 in the E90 M3; these are the most powerful engines BMW has built without supercharging or turbocharging, with an output of 100 hp per liter of displacement, each has won numerous International Engine of the Year Awards. As late as the early 2000s, BMW regarded forced-induction as low-tech shortcuts to boosting horsepower, stating that this adds weight and complexity while reducing throttle response.
BMW purists have noted that while forced induction and/or large displacement does produce more torque for better day-to-day driving, most of them like the "character" and sound of low displacement aspirated engines with high redlines. However, the late 2000s international regulations trends on reducing CO2 emissions and fuel consumption are cited as the reasons not to continue further development on aspirated high redline engines; the N54 twin-turbo inline-6 which debuted in the 2007 BMW 335i gives equivalent performance to the E46 and E90 iterations of the BMW M3, while being much more practical and fuel-efficient as a daily driver. Starting with the X5 M and X6 M, featured in the F10 M5, BMW used the twin-turbocharged S63 which not only produces more horsepower and torque, but is more efficient than the S85 V10. Unlike the S85 and S65 which do not share a design with non-M BMW engines, the S63 has significant parts commonali