Group 5 (racing)
Group 5 was an FIA motor racing classification, applied to four distinct categories during the years 1966 to 1982. Group 5 regulations defined a Special Touring Car category and from 1970 to 1971 the classification was applied to limited production Sports Cars restricted to 5 litre engine capacity; the Group 5 Sports Car category was redefined in 1972 to exclude the minimum production requirement and limit engine capacity to 3 litres. From 1976 to 1982 Group 5 was for Special Production Cars, a liberal silhouette formula based on homologated production vehicles. In 1966 the FIA introduced a number of new racing categories including one for modified touring cars known as Group 5 Special Touring Cars; the regulations permitted vehicle modifications beyond those allowed in the concurrent Group 1 and Group 2 Touring Car categories. Group 5 regulations were adopted for the British Saloon Car Championship from 1966 and for the European Touring Car Championship from 1968; the Special Touring Cars category was discontinued after the 1969 season.
For the 1970 season, the FIA applied the Group 5 classification to the Sports Car class, known as Group 4 Sports Cars. The minimum production requirement remained at 25 and the engine capacity maximum at 5 litres as had applied in the superseded Group 4. Group 5 Sports Cars contested the FIA's International Championship for Makes in 1970 & 1971, alongside the 3 litre Group 6 Prototype Sports Cars. During 1970 the FIA decided to replace the existing Group 5 Sports Car category when the rules expired at the end of the 1971 season, so the big 917s and 512s would have to be retired at the end of that year. Ferrari decided to give up any official effort with the 512 in order to prepare for the new 1972 season regulations, but many 512s were still raced by most of them converted to M specification. As a result of the rule change, sports car racing popularity suffered and did not recover until the following decade, with the advent of Group C which incidentally were forced out of competition in favour of the 3.5 atmo engine formula, reminiscent of events nineteen years previous.
In an effort to reduce the speeds generated at Le Mans and other fast circuits of the day by the unlimited capacity Group 6 Prototypes such as the 7 litre Fords, to entice manufacturers of 3 litre Formula One engines into endurance racing, the Commission Sportive Internationale announced that the new International Championship for Makes would be run for Group 6 Sports-Prototypes limited to 3 litre capacity for the four years from 1968 through 1971. Well-aware that few manufacturers were ready to take up the challenge, the CSI allowed the participation of 5 litre Group 4 Sports Cars manufactured in quantities of at least 50 units; this targeted existing cars like the newer Lola T70 coupe. In April 1968, the CSI announced that, as there were still too few entries in the 3 litres Group 6 Prototype category, the minimal production figure to compete in the Group 4 Sport category of the International Championship of Makes would be reduced from 50 to 25 starting in 1969 through to the planned end of the rules in 1971.
This was to allow the homologation in Group 4 of cars such as the Ferrari 250 LM and the Lola T70 which had not been manufactured in sufficient quantities to qualify. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and expensive effort to take advantage of this rule; as they were rebuilding race cars with new chassis every race or two anyway, they decided to conceive and build 25 versions of a whole new car for the Sport category with one underlying goal: to win its first overall victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In only ten months the Porsche 917 was developed, based upon the Porsche 908, with remarkable technology: Porsche's first 12-cylinder engine, many components made of titanium and exotic alloys, developed for lightweight hillclimb racers. Other ways of weight reduction were rather simple, like a gear lever knob made of Balsa wood; when Porsche was first visited by the CSI inspectors only three cars were completed, while 18 were being assembled and seven additional sets of parts were present.
Porsche argued that if they assembled the cars they would have to take them apart again to prepare the cars for racing. The inspectors asked to see 25 assembled and working cars. On April 20 Ferdinand Piëch displayed 25 917s parked in front of the Porsche factory to the CSI inspectors. Piëch offered the opportunity to drive one of the cars, declined. During June 1969, Enzo Ferrari sold half of his stock to FIAT, used some of that money to do what Porsche did 6 months earlier with the 917, to build 25 cars powered by a 5-litre V12 in order to compete against them. With the financial help of Fiat, that risky investment was made, surplus cars were intended to be sold to racing customers to compete for the 1970 season. Within 9 months Ferrari manufactured 25 512S cars. Ferrari entries only consisted of the factory cars, tuned by SpA SEFAC and there were the private cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, N. A. R. T. Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team and Escuderia Montjuich which not receive the same support from the factory.
They were considered as field fillers, never as candidate for a win. At Porsche, however, JWA Gulf, KG Salzburg who were replaced by Martini Racing for the following season, received all direct factory support and the privateers like AAW Shell Racing and David Piper Racing received a much better support than Ferrari's clients; the 917 instability problem was resolved with a rev
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; the history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on 15 November 1886. One year Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines. Twenty years the first magneto for automobiles followed; the first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913. In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation. In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, in 1927, injection pumps for diesel.
Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company presented its first car radio; as early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim. Both plants were used for armaments production; these "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company; the Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising. They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft.
In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people, deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. In the last years of the war, no new German tank drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an larger number of factories, relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations. On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80. Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, published several books and exhibitions on the subject.
In 2016, they published the website z. B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald. After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH, renamed Telenorma in 1985, acquired in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH; the most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor, the electric motor control, the traction control system, the xenon light for cars, the electronic stability control, the common rail direct fuel injection, the direct fuel injection. In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area. In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing centers in Vaitoudden close to Arjeplog in north Sweden.
A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004. In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems. Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003. Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015. In 2006, Bosch acquired Electro-Voice. In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in research. 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.
China has developed into an important manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2
Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder; this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, that allow the exhaust to escape; the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, a'poultice head' may be used, a simple metal plate bolted to the top of the block. Keeping all moving parts within the block has an advantage for physically large engines in that the camshaft drive gear is small and so suffers less from the effects of thermal expansion in the cylinder block. With a chain drive to an overhead camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear and slop in the chain without frequent maintenance. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and so required low compression ratios.
This made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke. Exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the sidevalve engine was the advent of Ricardo's turbulent head design; this reduced the space within the combustion chamber and the ports, but by careful thought about the airflow paths within them it allowed a more efficient flow in and out of the chamber. Most it used turbulence within the chamber to mix the fuel and air mixture. This, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation; the limit on sidevalve performance is not the gas flow through the valves, but rather the shape of the combustion chamber. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, whilst avoiding the problems of unwanted pre-detonation.
The shape of a sidevalve combustion chamber, being wider than the cylinder to reach the valve ports, conflicts with achieving both an ideal shape for combustion and the small volume needed for high compression. Modern, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted. In these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. In the case of the developed IOE engine for a market with poor fuels, engines such as Rolls-Royce B series or the Land-Rover use a complicated arrangement of inclined valves, a cylinder head line at an angle to the bore and corresponding angled pistons to provide a compact combustion chamber approaching the near-hemispherical ideal; such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available'in the field' became more to be diesel than petrol. Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.
In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant—usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases; the operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, sited within the cylinder block, its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves' pushrods, rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft—the rocker arms and shaft being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now contained within the cylinder head; the camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, still utilizing rocker arms, or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing'bucket' tappets.
The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. All inline engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the'V'. For a few compact'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder; this is common for motorcycles, such head/cylinder components are referred-to as barrels. Some engines medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, power generation, heavy traction purposes have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder; this reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a
The BMW S38 is a straight-6 DOHC petrol engine which replaced the M88 and was produced from 1986-1995. The S38 was produced for North America as an equivalent to the M88 with lower power output. In 1989, power output of the S38 was increased and it became the worldwide replacement for the M88. In 1998, the BMW M5 switched to the S62 V8 engine. There is therefore no direct successor to the S38, however the BMW S50 engine took over as BMW's high performance straight-6 engine; the S38 is based on the M88/3 engine. Compared to the M88/3, the S38 has a lower compression ratio, simplified exhaust manifold, catalytic converter, dual-row timing chain and a shorter camshaft duration; as per the M88/3, the S38 uses a DOHC valvetrain with shim-and-bucket valve actuation. Air intake is via six individual throttle bodies with intake trumpets, fed by a cast aluminum intake plenum; the initial version of the S38 has a stroke of 84 mm. Applications: 1984-1988 E28 M5 - North America only 1986-1989 E24 M6 - North America only 1987-1989 E24 M635CSi - models with catalytic converter For the S38B36, the displacement was increased to 3,535 cc.
This was achieved by increasing the stroke by 2 mm by using a new forged steel crankshaft. Other changes included revised camshafts, compression ratio increasing to 10:1, a variable-length inlet manifold, equal length stainless steel exhaust headers a hotwire mass airflow sensor and Bosch Motronic engine management. Applications: 1989–1992 E34 M5 1992–1995 E34 M5 - North America only In 1992, BMW further enlarged the S38 engine to 3,795 cc, by increasing the bore to 94.6 mm and the stroke to 90 mm. Power increased to 250 kW at 6,900 rpm and torque increased to 400 N⋅m at 4,750 rpm; the engine management was upgraded to Motronic 3.3 and the ignition system was upgraded to coil-on-plug ignition. Other changes include the compression ratio increasing to 10.5:1, a dual-mass flywheel, an exhaust manifold made from Inconel, larger intake and exhaust valves, lighter pistons, the throttle bodies increasing by 4 mm to 50 mm. Applications: 1992-1995 E34 M5 - European-specification
BMW 7 Series
The BMW 7 Series is a full-size luxury sedan produced by the German automaker BMW since 1977. It is the successor to the BMW E3 "New Six" sedan and is in its sixth generation; the 7 Series is only available in a saloon bodystyle. It traditionally introduces technologies and exterior design themes before they trickle down to other models in BMW's lineup; the first generation of the 7 Series was powered by straight-6 petrol engines, following generations have been powered by inline-4, straight-6, V8 and V12 engines with both natural aspiration and turbocharging. Since 1995, diesel engines have been optional in the 7 Series. Unlike the 3 Series and 5 Series saloons, BMW has not produced a M model for the 7 Series. However, in 2014 an "M Performance" option became available for the 7 Series; the E23 is the first generation 7 Series, was produced from 1977 to 1987. It was built in a 4-door sedan body style with 6-cylinder engines. From 1983 to 1986, a turbocharged 6-cylinder engine was available; the E23 introduced many electronic features for the first time in a BMW, including an on-board computer, service interval indicator, a "check control panel", a dictaphone and complex climate control systems.
It was the first BMW to offer an anti-lock braking system, a driver's airbag and double-link front suspension. The E32 is the second generation of 7 Series, produced from 1986 to 1994, it was available with a straight-six or V12 engine. In 1992, V8 engines became available; the E32 introduced the following features for the first time in a BMW: Electronic Damper Control, V12 and V8 engines, double glazing, the CAN bus electronic protocol, Xenon headlamps, traction control and dual-zone climate control. The E32 750i was the first car adhering to BMW's self-imposed speed limit of 250 km/h. The'iL' models were the first time that a long-wheelbase option was offered by BMW; the E38 is the third generation of the 7 Series, produced from 1994 to 2001. The model range consisted of standard length and long wheelbase sedans; the petrol engines available consisted of straight-six, V12 engines. The E38 was the first 7 Series; the E38 was the first car available with curtain airbags. It was the first European car to offer satellite navigation and the first BMW to offer an in-built television.
The E65/E66/E67/E68 is the fourth generation 7 Series, produced from 2002 to 2008. The model range consisted of standard length and long wheelbase sedans; the E65/E66/E67/E68 was the first BMW to include iDrive, "flame-surfacing" exterior styling, active anti-roll bars, a 6-speed automatic transmission, an electronic smart Key and night vision. The 760i model was the world's first production V12 engine to use direct injection; the F01/F02/F03/F04 is the fifth-generation 7 Series, produced from 2008 to 2015. The model range consisted of standard length and long wheelbase sedans; the F01 was the first BMW to be available with a hybrid drivetrain, an 8-speed automatic transmission and a turbocharged V12 engine. It was the first 7 Series to be available with a turbocharged petrol engine and all-wheel drive; the G11/G12 is the sixth generation of 7 Series, in production since 2015. It was revealed on June 2015 at BMW's headquarters in Munich. An official public reveal took place at the 2015 International Motor Show Germany.
G11 is the codename for the short-wheelbase model, the extended wheelbase model is codenamed G12 and designated with an additional L letter. The G11/G12 is the first car lineup of BMW Group to be based on the modular OKL platform; the OKL platform adopts technology first introduced in BMW i models, namely the introduction of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer as structural chassis components. As part of BMW's strategy of introducing plug-in hybrid variants for all future car models, the short and long-wheelbase models will be available with hybrid powertrains under the designations 740e and 740Le in 2016. Sales of hybrid-powered 7 Series models in the United States are as follows: Official BMW 7-Series page Official The All New BMW 7 Series in India