BP plc is a multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors", whose performance in 2012 made it the world's sixth-largest oil and gas company, the sixth-largest energy company by market capitalization and the company with the world's 12th-largest revenue, it is a vertically integrated company operating in all areas of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining and marketing, power generation and trading. It has renewable energy interests in biofuels, wind power, smart grid and solar technology; as of 31 December 2018, BP had operations in nearly 80 countries worldwide, produced around 3.7 million barrels per day of oil equivalent, had total proven reserves of 19.945 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The company has around 18,700 service stations worldwide, its largest division is BP America in the United States. In Russia, BP owns a 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the world's largest publicly traded oil and gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production.
BP is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange. BP's origins date back to the founding of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1908, established as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company to exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it in 1954 adopted the name British Petroleum. In 1959, the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska and it was one of the first companies to strike oil in the North Sea. British Petroleum acquired majority control of Standard Oil of Ohio in 1978. Majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between 1979 and 1987. British Petroleum merged with Amoco in 1998, becoming BP Amoco plc, acquired ARCO and Burmah Castrol in 2000, becoming BP plc in 2001. From 2003 to 2013, BP was a partner in the TNK-BP joint venture in Russia. BP has been directly involved in several major environmental and safety incidents. Among them were the 2005 Texas City Refinery explosion, which caused the death of 15 workers and resulted in a record-setting OSHA fine.
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest accidental release of oil into marine waters in history, resulted in severe environmental and economic consequences, serious legal and public relations repercussions for BP. 1.8 million US gallons of Corexit oil dispersant were used in the cleanup response, becoming the largest application of such chemicals in US history. The company pleaded guilty to 11 counts of felony manslaughter, two misdemeanors, one felony count of lying to Congress, agreed to pay more than $4.5 billion in fines and penalties, the largest criminal resolution in US history. On 2 July 2015, BP and five states announced an $18.7 billion settlement to be used for Clean Water Act penalties and various claims. In May 1908 a group of British geologists discovered a large amount of oil at Masjid-i-Suleiman located in the province of Khuzestan, it was the first commercially significant. William Knox D'Arcy, by contract with Ali-Qoli Khan Bakhtiari, obtained permission to explore for oil for the first time in the Middle East, an event which changed the history of the entire region.
The oil discovery led to petrochemical industry development and the establishment of industries that depended on oil. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was incorporated as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company; some of the shares were sold to the public. The first chairman and minority shareholder of the company became Lord Strathcona. After establishing the company, the British government asked Percy Cox, British resident to Bushehr, to negotiate an agreement with Sheikh Khaz’al Ibn Jabir of Arabistan for APOC to obtain a site on Abadan Island for a refinery, storage tanks, other operations; the refinery was built and began operating in 1912. In 1913, the British government acquired a controlling interest in the company and at the suggestion of Winston Churchill, the British navy switched from coal to oil. In 1914, APOC signed a 30-year contract with the British Admiralty for supplying oil for the Royal Navy at the fixed price. In 1915, APOC established its shipping subsidiary the British Tanker Company and in 1916 it acquired the British Petroleum Company, a marketing arm of the German Europäische Petroleum Union in Britain.
In 1919, the company became a shale-oil producer by establishing a subsidiary named Scottish Oils which merged remaining Scottish oil-shale industries. After World War I, APOC started marketing its products in Continental Europe and acquired stakes in the local marketing companies in several European countries. Refineries were built in Llandarcy in Grangemouth in Scotland, it acquired the controlling stake in the Courchelettes refinery in France and formed with the Government of Australia a partnership named Commonwealth Oil Refineries, which built the Australian's first refinery in Laverton, Victoria. In 1923, Burmah employed Winston Churchill as a paid consultant to lobby the British government to allow APOC have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were subsequently granted by the Iranian monarchy. APOC and the Armenian businessman C
Danielle Watts is a British Paralympic swimmer who has represented Great Britain at three Paralympic Games from 2000 to 2008 winning three medals. She is classified as an S1 category swimmer. At the 2000 Paralympic Games in Sydney, Watts competed in the women's 50 and 100 m freestyle and 50 m backstroke, she repeated these events at the 2004 Games in Athens, this time winning silver in the 100 m freestyle and bronze in both the 50 m freestyle and 50 m backstroke. She swam in two events at the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games, finishing 7th in the 50 m backstroke and 13th in the 50 m freestyle, she is the current world record holder for the S1 category over 50, 100 and 200 m freestyle and 100 m backstroke. In 2003, she was awarded Swimming World Magazine's Swimming World's World Disabled Swimmers of the Year. Danielle changed her own surname to Swann, she is a Christian and, in 2011, appeared on BBC News talking about unsuitable housing conditions for disabled people. "ParalympicsGB Team Beijing 2008: Swimming Team Biographies".
British Paralympic Association. Archived from the original on 2011-06-09. Retrieved 2009-02-04. Http://www.baptisttimes.co.uk/index.php/baptisms-testimonies/118-british-paralympics-triple-medallist-takes-to-the-waters-again- "Paralympic medallist Danielle Watts' house'too small'". BBC News. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2013-02-18. British Swimming athlete profile
Tantilla is a large genus of harmless New World snakes in the family Colubridae. The genus includes 64 species, which are known as centipede snakes, blackhead snakes, flathead snakes. Tantilla are small snakes exceeding 20 cm in total length, they are varying shades of brown, red or black in color. Some species have a brown body with a black head. Tantilla are nocturnal, secretive snakes, they spend most of their time buried in the moist leaf litter of semi-forested regions or under rocks and debris. The diet of snakes of the genus Tantilla consists of invertebrates, including scorpions, centipedes and various insects. Tantilla albiceps Barbour, 1925 - Barbour's centipede snake - Panama Tantilla alticola - Boulenger's centipede snake - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia Tantilla andinista Wilson & Mena, 1980 - Andes centipede snake - Ecuador Tantilla armillata Cope, 1876 - Costa Rica, El Salvador Tantilla atriceps - Mexican blackhead snake - USA, northern Mexico Tantilla bairdi Stuart, 1941 - Baird's blackhead snake - Guatemala Tantilla berguidoi Batista, Lotzkat, & Wilson, 2016 - Chucantí centipede snake - Panama Tantilla bocourti - Bocourt's blackhead snake - Mexico Tantilla boipiranga Sawaya & Sazima, 2003 - Brazil Tantilla brevicauda Mertens, 1952 - Mertens' centipede snake - El Salvador Tantilla briggsi Savitzky & H.
M. Smith, 1971 - Briggs' centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla calamarina Cope, 1876 - Pacific Coast centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla capistrata Cope, 1876 - Capistrata centipede snake - Peru Tantilla cascadae Wilson & Meyer, 1981 - Michoacán centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla ceboruca Canseco-Márquez et al. 2007 - Mexico Tantilla coronadoi Hartweg, 1944 - Guerreran centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla coronata Baird & Girard, 1853 - southeastern crowned snake - southeastern United States Tantilla cucullata Minton, 1956 - Big Bend blackhead snake - USA, Mexico Tantilla cuniculator H. M. Smith, 1939 - Peten centipede snake - south Mexico, Guatemala Tantilla deppei - Deppe's centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla excelsa McCranie & Smith, 2017 - Honduras Tantilla flavilineata H. M. Smith & Burger, 1950 - yellow-lined centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla gottei McCranie & Smith, 2017 - Honduras Tantilla gracilis Baird & Girard, 1853 - flathead snake - southwestern United States, northern Mexico Tantilla hendersoni Stafford, 2004 - Peten centipede snake - Belize Tantilla hobartsmithi Taylor, 1936 - southwestern blackhead snake - southwestern United States, northern Mexico Tantilla impensa Campbell, 1998 - Guatemala Tantilla insulamontana Wilson & Mena, 1980 - mountain centipede snake - Ecuador Tantilla jani - Jan's centipede snake - Mexico, Guatemala Tantilla johnsoni Wilson, Vaughn & Dixon, 1999 - Mexico Tantilla lempira Wilson & Mena, 1980 - Mena's centipede snake - Honduras Tantilla melanocephala - blackhead snake - Mexico and South America.
Tantilla miyatai Wilson & Knight, 1987 - Ecuador Tantilla moesta - blackbelly centipede snake - Mexico, Belize Tantilla nigra - black centipede snake - Colombia Tantilla nigriceps Kennicott, 1860 - plains blackhead snake - southwestern United States, northern Mexico Tantilla oaxacae Wilson & Meyer, 1971 - Oaxacan centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla olympia Townsend, Medina-Flores, & Herrera, 2013 - Honduras Tantilla oolitica Telford, 1966 - rim rock crowned snake - USA Tantilla petersi Wilson, 1979 - Peters' blackhead snake Tantilla planiceps - western blackhead snake - United States, northern Mexico Tantilla psittaca McCranie, 2011 - Honduras Tantilla relicta Telford, 1966 - Florida crowned snake - USA Tantilla reticulata - reticulate centipede snake - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia Tantilla robusta Canseco-Márquez, Mendelson & Gutiérrez-Mayén, 2002 - Mexico Tantilla rubra Cope, 1876 - Big Bend blackhead snake - USA, Mexico Tantilla ruficeps Cope, 1894 - Costa Rica, Panama Tantilla schistosa - red earth centipede snake - Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Tantilla semicincta - ringed centipede snake - Panama, Venezuela Tantilla sertula Wilson & Campbell, 2000 - Mexico Tantilla shawi Taylor, 1949 - Potosí centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla slavensi Pérez-Higareda, H.
M. Smith & R. B. Smith, 1985 - Slavens' centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla stenigrammi McCranie & Smith, 2017 - Honduras Tantilla striata Dunn, 1928 - striped centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla supracincta - banded centipede snake - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador Tantilla taeniata Bocourt, 1883 - Central American centipede snake - Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Tantilla tayrae Wilson, 1983 - Volcán Tacaná centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla tecta Campell & E. N. Smith, 1997 - Guatemala Tantilla tjiasmantoi - Tjiasmanto's centipede snake - Peru Tantilla trilineata - Brazilian three-lined centipede snake - Brazil Tantilla triseriata H. M. Smith & P. W. Smith, 1951 - Mexican three-lined centipede snake - Mexico Tantilla tritaeniata H. M. Smith & Williams, 1966 - three-banded centipede snake - Honduras Tantilla vermiformis - Hallowell's centipede snake - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvator Tantilla vulcani Campbell, 1998 - Guatemala Tantilla wilcoxi Stejneger, 1902 - Chihuahuan blackhead snake - USA, northern Mexico Tantilla yaquia H.
M. Smith, 1942 - Yaqui blackhead snake - USA, MexicoNota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was des