B cells known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the small lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present secrete cytokines. In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ where they were first discovered by Chang and Glick, not from bone marrow as believed. B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors on their cell membrane. BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells. HSCs first differentiate into multipotent progenitor cells common lymphoid progenitor cells. From here, their development into B cells occurs in several stages, each marked by various gene expression patterns and immunoglobulin H chain and L chain gene loci arrangements, the latter due to B cells undergoing VJ recombination as they develop.
B cells undergo two types of selection while developing in the bone marrow to ensure proper development. Positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving both the pre-BCR and the BCR. If these receptors do not bind to their ligand, B cells do not receive the proper signals and cease to develop. Negative selection occurs through the binding of self-antigen with the BCR; this negative selection process leads to a state of central tolerance, in which the mature B cells don't bind with self antigens present in the bone marrow. To complete development, immature B cells migrate from the bone marrow into the spleen as transitional B cells, passing through two transitional stages: T1 and T2. Throughout their migration to the spleen and after spleen entry, they are considered T1 B cells. Within the spleen, T1 B cells transition to T2 B cells. T2 B cells differentiate into either follicular B cells or marginal zone B cells depending on signals received through the BCR and other receptors.
Once differentiated, they are now considered naive B cells. B cell activation occurs in the secondary lymphoid organs, such as the lymph nodes. After B cells mature in the bone marrow, they migrate through the blood to SLOs, which receive a constant supply of antigen through circulating lymph. At the SLO, B cell activation begins when the B cell binds to an antigen via its BCR. Although the events taking place after activation have yet to be determined, it is believed that B cells are activated in accordance with the kinetic segregation model determined in T lymphocytes; this model denotes that before antigen stimulation, receptors diffuse through the membrane coming into contact with Lck and CD45 in equal frequency, rendering a net equilibrium of phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation. It is only when the cell comes in contact with an antigen presenting cell that the larger CD45 is displaced due to the close distance between the two membranes; this allows for net phosphorylation of the BCR and the initiation of the signal transduction pathway.
Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81; when a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent antigens and include foreign proteins, they are named as such because they are unable to induce a humoral response in organisms that lack T cells. B cell responses to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane.
T helper cells follicular T helper cells recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor. Following TCR-MHC-II-peptide binding, T cells express the surface protein CD40L as well as cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-21. CD40L serves as a necessary co-stimulatory factor for B cell activation by binding the B cell surface receptor CD40, which promotes B cell proliferation, immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation as well as sustains T cell growth and differentiation. T cell-derived cytokines bound by B cell cytokine receptors promote B cell proliferation, immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation as well as guide differentiation. After B cells receive these signals, they are considered activated. Once activated, B cells participate in a two-step differentiation process that yields both short-lived plasmablasts for immediate protection and long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells for persistent protection; the first step, known as the e
Old Mother Riley, MP is a 1939 British comedy film starring Arthur Lucan and Kitty McShane, which forms part of the Old Mother Riley series of films. The film's plot centres on Old Mother Riley standing for election to the House of Commons. Concerning Old Mother Riley's fight against her landlord, as a means of defeating a corrupt politician intent on demolishing her street and the local pub along with it, Mother Riley taking to the soapbox. Local crowds cheer her on, she finds herself elected to Parliament, promoted to Cabinet Minister for Strange Affairs. Old Mother Riley - Arthur Lucan Kitty Riley - Kitty McShane Jack Nelson - Torin Thatcher Henry Wicker - Henry Longhurst Archie - Patrick Ludlow Emperor of Rocavia - Dennis Wyndham Littleman - Rex Alderman The Supervisor - Cynthia Stock Brownlow - Kenneth Henry Mary Haberstroh writes in Britmovie, "“Old Mother Riley, MP” synthesizes slapstick comedy with malapropisms and everything in between to create one of the best Old Mother Riley films...
Lucan is credible as Old Mother Riley wanting to seek social equality for the poor and unemployed, Kitty McShane, Torin Thatcher, Henry B. Longhurst turn in stellar performances in this comedy; the story itself is well written and continuous without any unexplained gaps in the plot, making it easy for the viewer to follow... The characters in the film could well be real life figures who are trying to survive during the time of the Great Depression. “Old Mother Riley, MP” is a film, sure to please anyone who appreciates classic British comedy." In britishpictures.com, David Absalom writes, "by any reasonable definition, this is not a good film. But the character is so watchable, so wonderfully manic, you enjoy the film despite its faults." TV Guide wrote, "graced with an insane plot... Nonsensical but full of laughs." Old Mother Riley, MP on IMDb
3C Institute is a private, for-profit research and development company based in Durham, North Carolina. The company partners with researchers, program providers, non-profits, companies to develop customized digital information delivery systems, such as personalized games, e-training courses, web-based assessments. 3C Institute develops evidence-based social emotional learning products for children and parents. 3-C Institute for Social Development was founded in 2001 by clinical psychologist Dr. Melissa DeRosier; the organization changed its name to 3C Institute in 2013. Dr. DeRosier received her doctorate from UNC-Chapel Hill in 1992 and completed a two-year fellowship at Duke University Medical Center, she worked on a five-year federal grant examining bullying and violence prevention in the Wake County Public School System. She observed that teachers and schools were using non-evidence-based programs to improve social and emotional skills and founded the company to address this research-to-practice gap.
The company sought Small Business Innovation Research funding for the development of its products. Since 2001, the company has expanded to 75 employees and received $25 million in SBIR funding from agencies such as the U. S. Department of Education, National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A corporate spin-off, Personalized Learning Games, was founded in 2014 to commercialize 3C Institute's social-emotional learning games. 3C Institute was recognized with the U. S. Small Business Administration’s Tibbetts Award in 2011 and received a special Award of Excellence for Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship in 2014 from the U. S. Small Business Administration, which highlights entrepreneurs who find unique and novel solutions to social problems. 3C Institute has developed web- and game-based interventions to address children and adolescents’ behavioral and social problems. The company’s flagship product, Social Skills Group Intervention, received recognition from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration as a mental health promotion winner in 2010.
The effectiveness of S. S. GRIN was proven by tracking 1,500 students over three years in 10 schools. S. S. GRIN for High-Functioning Autism is listed in SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices and the National Autism Network. In November 2014, the company released Zoo U, an evidence-based social-emotional learning and assessment game for elementary school students; the game was developed with SBIR funding and received a Games for Change nomination for "Most Significant Impact" in 2015. 3C Institute is developing other social-emotional learning games including Stories in Motion, intended for elementary school students with high-functioning autism, Hall of Heroes, intended for middle school students. 3C Institute works with outside clients to develop programs to help researchers collect and translate data better. 3C has developed training models for school psychologists and others to help them apply the interventions more and effectively. A notable project has been the Student Curriculum on Resilience Education, which helps first-year college students adjust to the unique stresses of college life and was created in partnership with Leading Education and Awareness for Depression.
"3C Institute | Research, Services for Social Development". 3cisd.com. Retrieved 2014-09-21. "3C Marketplace | Social Skills, Emotional Literacy, & Character Education Products". 3cmarketplace.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-19. Retrieved 2014-09-21