White blood cells called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including lymphatic system. All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells and platelets. Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by cell lineage; these broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, basophils and monocytes. These types are distinguished by their physical and functional characteristics. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic. Further subtypes can be classified; the number of leukocytes in the blood is an indicator of disease, thus the white blood cell count is an important subset of the complete blood count.
The normal white cell count is between 4 × 109/L and 1.1 × 1010/L. In the US, this is expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood. White blood cells make up 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult, making them less numerous than the red blood cells at 40% to 45%. However, this 1 % of the blood makes a large difference to health. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, it is normal. It is abnormal, when it is neoplastic or autoimmune in origin. A decrease below the lower limit is called leukopenia; this indicates a weakened immune system. The name "white blood cell" derives from the physical appearance of a blood sample after centrifugation. White cells are found in the buffy coat, a thin white layer of nucleated cells between the sedimented red blood cells and the blood plasma; the scientific term leukocyte directly reflects its description. It is derived from the Greek roots leuk- meaning "white" and cyt- meaning "cell".
The buffy coat may sometimes be green if there are large amounts of neutrophils in the sample, due to the heme-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase that they produce. All white blood cells are nucleated, which distinguishes them from the anucleated red blood cells and platelets. Types of leukocytes can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by cell lineage; these broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, basophils and monocytes. These types are distinguished by their physical and functional characteristics. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic. Further subtypes can be classified. Granulocytes are distinguished from agranulocytes by their nucleus shape and by their cytoplasm granules; the other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells are distinguished from lymphoid cells by hematopoietic lineage. Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell, constituting 60-70% of the circulating leukocytes, including two functionally unequal subpopulations: neutrophil-killers and neutrophil-cagers.
They defend against fungal infection. They are first responders to microbial infection, they are referred to as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, although, in the technical sense, PMN refers to all granulocytes. They have a multi-lobed nucleus; this gives the neutrophils the appearance of having multiple nuclei, hence the name polymorphonuclear leukocyte. The cytoplasm may look transparent because of fine granules. Neutrophils are active in phagocytosing bacteria and are present in large amount in the pus of wounds; these cells are not able to die after having phagocytosed a few pathogens. Neutrophils are the most common cell type seen in the early stages of acute inflammation; the average lifespan of inactivated human neutrophils in the circulation has been reported by different approaches to be between 5 and 135 hours. Eosinophils compose about 2-4% of the WBC total; this count fluctuates throughout the day and during menstruation. It rises in response to allergies, parasitic infections, collagen diseases, disease of the spleen and central nervous system.
They are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the respiratory and lower urinary tracts. They deal with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions; the most important causes of eosinophilia include allergies such as asthma, hay fever, hives. They secrete chemicals that destroy these large parasites, such as hook worms and tapeworms, that are too big for any one WBC to phagocytize. In general, their nucleus is bi-lobed; the lobes are connected by a thin strand. The cytoplasm is full of granules t
The Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai, China. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British naval officers and a Shanghai XI; the original Shanghai Cricket Club ceased activities in 1948. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, a new Shanghai Cricket Club was established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members; the first recorded cricket match in Shanghai was played somewhere in Hongkou on April 22, 1858, between a team of officers from HMS Highflyer and a Shanghai XI in 1858. Since cricket has had a home in Shanghai. In 1863, the first true cricket ground was bought by the Shanghai Recreation Fund from the Race Club; the ground was located inside the Shanghai Race Club racecourse, located in present-day People's Square and People's Park on the corner of Nanjing Road and Jiangxi Road. Interport matches with the Hong Kong Cricket Club and the Singapore Cricket Club began in 1866 as a series of home-and-away fixtures which continued up until 1948, just prior to the PLA takeover of Shanghai.
It was after the conclusion of one of these series that the Hong Kong team, returning from Shanghai was struck by tragedy as the SS Bokhara, the ship, transporting them back to Hong Kong, sank on October 10, 1892, off the coast of Formosa. Of the 13 Hong Kong cricketers on board, only two survived; the clubs continued to play Interport matches and today, the winner of a series is given the Bokhara Bell Memorial Trophy. The Shanghai Cricket Club was reestablished in 1994, under the same English name as the original club but a different Chinese name. In 2004, an inter-club league was established by the four SCC member clubs: Bashers CC, DPR Hot Dogs and Pudong CC; the club hosted the Shanghai International Sixes from 1997 through 2009. During this time, a women's side existed called the Pearls; the club has the Dragons and the Pirates. Drawn from the best cricket players in the city, the Dragons tour throughout Asia and host international teams in Shanghai; the Dragons have participated in most of the major tournaments on the Asian Cricket Sixes Tour, winning in Hong Kong and Phuket.
The Pirates were created in 2005 for the Hong Kong Cricket Sixes Festival, are composed of representatives of all seven member clubs and associate teams in Shanghai. They join the Dragons on tours throughout Asia, focusing on social activities and touring; the Shanghai Cricket Club plays regular matches with the Hong Kong Cricket Club, Kowloon Cricket Club, Lamma Cricket Club, the Beijing Cricket Club. In addition, the club plays semi-regular fixtures against Centaurs Cricket Club, Singapore Cricket Club, Kai Tak Cricket Club and has hosted many international touring sides including Marylebone Cricket Club; the Shanghai Cricket Club was the first club to play organized cricket in North Korea, competing for the Pyongyang Friendship Trophy in 2008. The SCC plays at grounds in Waigaoqiao, at Wellington College International; the Shanghai Cricket Club runs a three division league. The league is made up of the four foundation clubs as well as four associate teams: K2 CCC, China Zalmi CC, Dulwich Knights and Charminar Cheetahs CC.
League matches feature limited overs cricket. Division 1: 40 overs. Bashers Cricket Club Daredevils Cricket Club DPR Hot Dogs Cricket Club Pudong Cricket Club Dulwich Knights K2 China Cricket Club China Zalmi Cricket Club Shanghai Cricket Club website Bashers Cricket Club website Daredevils Cricket Club website DPR Hot Dogs website Pudong Cricket Club website
"Whatever You Want" is a song recorded by American singer Pink from her seventh studio album Beautiful Trauma. Pink co-wrote the song with Max Martin and Shellback; the song impacted hot adult contemporary radio on June 2018, as the third single from the album. On October 5, 2017, "Whatever You Want" was released as the second promotional single from the album with the first being the album's title track, which became the album's second official single; the song debuted alongside the announcement of Beautiful Trauma World Tour and a documentary on Apple Music. The music video for the song was premiered on Apple Music on March 1, 2018, it was released for Apple Music users and released to the public the following day. The music video was edited by Brad Comfort, it contains clips of Pink preparing for her Beautiful Trauma World Tour, clips from her performance at Super Bowl LII, clips from her at the 2017 MTV Video Music Awards. Ross McNeilage of MTV News called it "a classic Pink-fighting-for-love song" and "a gorgeous acoustic midtempo built with stunning harmonies that elevate the song to something much bigger than its laidback production".
Madeline Roth of the same publication added that it is an "uplifting power ballad". Anna Gaca of Spin deemed the song "a middle-of-the-road ballad about holding out in a relationship that feels like a sinking ship". Elias Leight of Rolling Stone regarded the song as "a celebration of romantic resilience", felt "strings swell grandly and ringing guitars signal renewed commitment". Mike Nied of Idolator described the song as "more of the punchy determination that we have come to expect from her music and is shaping up to be a nice addition to her discography". Remixes EP "Whatever You Want" – 3:22 "Whatever You Want" – 3:57 "Whatever You Want" – 3:53