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The Bab-el-Mandeb is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden; the strait derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation or, according to an Arab legend, from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake that separated the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa. The Bab-el-Mandeb acts as a strategic link between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea via the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. In 2006, an estimated 3.3 million barrels of oil passed through the strait per day, out of a world total of about 43 million barrels per day moved by tankers. The distance across is about 20 miles from Ras Menheli in Yemen to Ras Siyyan in Djibouti; the island of Perim divides the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the Bab Iskender, is 2 miles wide and 16 fathoms deep, while the western, or Dact-el-Mayun, has a width of about 16 miles and a depth of 170 fathoms. Near the coast of Djibouti lies a group of smaller islands known as the "Seven Brothers".

There is a surface current inwards in the eastern channel, but a strong undercurrent outwards in the western channel. Paleo-environmental and tectonic events in the Miocene epoch created the Danakil Isthmus, a land bridge forming a broad connection between Yemen and Ethiopia. During the last 100,000 years eustatic sea level fluctuations have led to alternate opening and closing of the straits. According to the recent single origin hypothesis, the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were witness to the earliest migrations of modern humans, it is presumed that the oceans were much lower and the straits were much shallower or dry, which allowed a series of emigrations along the southern coast of Asia. According to Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church tradition, the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were witness to the earliest migrations of Semitic Ge'ez speakers into Africa, occurring c. 1900 BC around the same time as the Hebrew patriarch Jacob. The Kingdom of Aksum was a major regional power in the Horn of Africa.

It extended its rule across the strait with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom shortly before the rise of Islam. The British East India Company unilaterally seized the island of Perim in 1799 on behalf of its Indian empire; the government of Britain re-asserted its ownership in 1857 and erected a lighthouse there in 1861, using it to command the Red Sea and the trade routes through the Suez Canal. On February 22, 2008, a company owned by Tarek bin Laden unveiled plans to build a bridge named Bridge of the Horns across the strait, linking Yemen with Djibouti. Middle East Development LLC has issued a notice to construct a bridge passing across the Red Sea that would be the longest suspended passing in the world; the project has been assigned to engineering company COWI in collaboration with architect studio Dissing+Weitling, both from Denmark. It was announced in 2010 that Phase 1 had been delayed and as of mid-2016 nothing more has been heard about the project; the Bab-el-Mandeb is a sub-region in the Arab League, which includes Djibouti and Eritrea.

The most significant towns and cities along both the Djiboutian and Yemeni sides of the Bab-el-Mandeb Khôr ‘Angar Moulhoule Fagal At Turbah Cheikh Saïd Strait: Red Sea DamRegion: Arab League Maghreb Mashriq "Bab-el-Mandeb", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, 1911, p. 91 Notice-to-Proceed Launches Ambitious Red Sea Crossing Sea crossing

Battle of Fismes and Fismette

The Battle of Fismes and Fismette was a battle in Fismes, France that took place during the First World War from 3 August to 1 September 1918 during the end of the Second Battle of the Ourcq and the Aisne-Marne Offensive. Fismes is a small commune in the Marne department in the Champagne-Ardennes region of northeastern France, it is crossed by the Vesle River and linked to the hamlet of Fismette by a memorial bridge that commemorates the sacrifices made by the soldiers of the 28th Infantry Division who fought to liberate the region during the First World War. The Second Battle of the Marne was the last major German attack on the Western Front during World War I; the purpose of the attack had been to end the conflict, Erich Ludendorff, Chief Quartermaster General, believed that an attack conducted through Flanders would give Germany the final victory that it needed. In order to hide his true intentions, Ludendorff set up a large diversionary attack along the Marne; the Germans failed to break through the Allied line, on July 20 they were ordered to retreat.

By July 22, the 7th Army had established a new line from the upper Ourcq to Marfaux but were forced to retreat again, settling on the banks of the Vesle on August 3. There they prepared a new defensive position in Aisne; the banks of the Vesle were the new front: on the north were the German Wichura forces and to the south was the American 3rd Corps, which had relieved the 1st Army Corps. The two first days of the Battle, the 32nd American Division lost 2,000 men in its efforts to cross the Vesle River and reach Fismes; this Division was relieved by the 28th Infantry Division. For a month, the battle would continue in the areas surrounding Fismette; the Battle of Fismes and Fismette is unique in the history of World War I because of the extreme violence and street fighting that occurred, as well as the presence of storm trooper attacks and flame throwers. All of this culminated in the total destruction of Fismes, more than in the neighboring Reims. Over the course of just a month, Fismes would be won again five times by the Allied forces.

In the month of August, the quarter of Fismette was recaptured 5 times by the enemy. At the end of the battle on the two engaged countrysides, Company B, 112th Infantry from Meadville, who had 151 members who were assigned to duty in France, lost Ten of the soldiers and 48 injured; the survivors formed a group. This group was called the Last Man Society, formed by Lt. Col. R. Bruce Campbell and Fredrick L. Pond; the name of this group was changed to the Société de Fismes in 1948 to signify the group’s connection to the City in France. This group was to meet in remembrance of their efforts, the last man of the club was to drink a bottle of wine, Barton & Guestier "Royal Purple Burgundy" brought back from France by Lt. Pond. Ignatius Joseph Maggio was the final member of the Society, he passed away on May 12th of 1995 at the age of 100. He decided not to open the bottle instead choosing to leave it unopened, it now resides within the City of Meadville Building intact. The Fismes Memorial site is located along the Vesle River, near the memorial bridge, constructed with the help of the State of Pennsylvania.

The Battle of Fismes and Fismette that occurred during World War I sparked a lasting friendship between the City of Fismes and the United States the State of Pennsylvania. The main intentions of this memorial are to commemorate the soldiers' sacrifices and strengthen the ties that exist between Fismes and the United States the State of Pennsylvania; the memorial will consist of four exterior panels visible to the public. Each panel will display a different representation of Fismes during the First World War and its assistance and liberation by American soldiers in the 28th Infantry Division; the memorial will be inaugurated September 15th, 2018

Liberia at the 2012 Summer Olympics

Liberia competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was the nation's eleventh appearance at the Olympics since its debut in 1956; the team comprised four Liberians: three athletes, for the first time, one jukoda. Among these athletes, American-born decathlete Jangy Addy was the only one to compete at his second consecutive Olympics. Sprinter Phobay Kutu-Akoi, a psychology graduate from St. John's University in New York, was the nation's flag bearer at the opening ceremony. Liberia, was unable to win its first Olympic medal. Liberian athletes have achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote – Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in roundMen Combined events – DecathlonWomen Liberia had 1 judoka invited, Liva Saryee.

However, Saryee did not compete, as he received a bye in the first round and did not start in the second round. It transpired that Saryee had been proposed for selection by the national judo federation despite never having taken part in any judo competition and being unfamiliar with the rules of the sport. Men

Wittigkofen Castle

Wittigkofen Castle is a castle in the municipality of Bern of the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. Wittigkofen Castle was built as a residence for a farm and was awarded to the followers of the Zähringians. In the mid thirteenth century Heinricus Wittenchoven managed the farm, he was a member of the first documented feudal superior. The property was home to the monastery of Interlaken; the castle belonged to different families. Beat Ludwig von Mülinen purchased the castle in 1570 and gave half to Hans Rudolf Steiger six years later. In June 2011 a decision was made by the director Jürg StüssiLauterburg of the Library am Guisanplatz, a federal military library in Bern, to purchase a historical collection of items from the Von Wurstemberger family; the collection of items had been exhibited in the Wittigkofen Castle. The collection included a large library, a portrait of Johann Ludwig Von Wurstemberger, a cabinet, drawings; the Von Wurstemberger library was located in the French room of the castle and contained many books that reflected the impact that this family had on the Confederation's military history.

Before being packed for transfer, every book was cleaned with a special vacuum to avoid bringing insects to their new location. The books were packed into 50 removal boxes for transfer to the Library am Guisanplatz, with the help of active military personnel, moved to their new location in September 2011. List of castles in Switzerland


CARINE is a first-order classical logic automated theorem prover. CARINE is a resolution based theorem prover built for the study of the enhancement effects of the strategies delayed clause-construction and attribute sequences in a depth-first search based algorithm. CARINE's main search algorithm is semi-linear resolution, based on an iteratively-deepening depth-first search and used in theorem provers like THEO. SLR employs DCC to achieve a high inference rate, ATS to reduce the search space. Delayed Clause Construction is a stalling strategy that enhances a theorem prover's performance by reducing the work to construct clauses to a minimum. Instead of constructing every conclusion of an applied inference rule, the information to construct such clause is temporarily stored until the theorem prover decides to either discard the clause or construct it. If the theorem prover decides to keep the clause, it will be constructed and stored in memory, otherwise the information to construct the clause is erased.

Storing the information from which an inferred clause can be constructed require no additional CPU operations. However, constructing a clause may consume a lot of time; some theorem provers spend 30 % -40 % of their total execution time deleting clauses. With DCC this wasted time can be salvaged. DCC is useful when too many intermediate clauses are being constructed and discarded in a short period of time because the operations performed to construct such short lived clauses are avoided. DCC may not be effective on theorems with only propositional clauses. How does DCC work? After every application of an inference rule, certain variables may have to be substituted by terms and thus a substitution set is formed. Instead of constructing the resulting clause and discarding the substitution set, the theorem prover maintains the substitution set along with some other information, like what clauses where involved in the inference rule and what inference rule was applied, continues the derivation without constructing the resulting clause of the inference rule.

This procedure keeps going along a derivation until the theorem provers reaches a point where it decides, based on certain criteria and heuristics, whether to construct the final clause in the derivation or discard the whole derivation i.e. deletes from memory the maintained substitution sets and whatever information stored with them. A clause in theorem proving is a statement that can result in a true or false answer depending on the evaluation of its literals. A clause is represented as a disjunction, set, or multi-set of literals. An example of a clause as a disjunction of literals is: ~wealthy \/ ~smart \/ ~beautiful \/ loves where the symbols \/ and ~ are OR and NOT; the above example states that if Y is wealthy AND smart AND beautiful X loves Y. It does not say who Y are though. Note that the above representation comes from the logical statement: For all Y, X belonging to the domain of human beings: wealthy /\ smart /\ beautiful => loves By using some transformation rules of formal logic we produce the disjunction of literals of the example given above.

X and Y are variables. ~wealthy, ~smart, ~beautiful, loves are literals. Suppose we substitute the variable X for the constant John and the variable Y for the constant Jane the above clause will become: ~wealthy \/ ~smart \/ ~beautiful \/ loves A clause attribute is a characteristic of a clause; some examples of clause attributes are: - the number of literals in a clause - the number of term symbols in a clause - the number of constants in a clause - the number of variables in a clause - the number of functions in a clause - the number of negative literals in a clause - the number of positive literals in a clause - the number of distinct variables in a clause - the maximum depth of any term in all the literals in a clause Example: the clause C = ~P \/ Q has a length of 2 because it contains 2 literals 1 negative literal, ~P 1 positive literal, Q 2 constants which are a and b 2 variables 1 distinct variable, x 1 function, f maximum term depth of 2 5 term symbols which are x,a,b,f,x An attribute sequence is a sequence of k n-tuples of clause attributes that represent a projection of a set of derivations of length k.

K and n are positive integers. The set of derivations form the domain and the attribute sequences form the codomain of the mapping between derivations and attribute sequences. Example: <,> is an attribute sequence where k=3 and n=2. It corresponds to some derivation, say, <,> where B1, B2, R1, B3, R2, B4 are clauses. The attribute here is assumed to be the length of a clause; the first pair corresponds to the pair from the derivation. It indicates that the length of B1 is 2 and the length of B2 is 2; the second pair corresponds to the pair and it indicates that the length of R1 is 2 and the length of B3 is 1. The last pair corresponds to the pair and it indicates that the length of R2 is 1 and the length of B4 is 1. Note: An n-tuple of clause attributes is similar to the feature vector named by Stephan Schulz, PhD. Korf, Richard E. "Depth-First Iterative -Deepening: An Optimal Admissible Tree S

Petals: The Minnie Riperton Collection

Petals: The Minnie Riperton Collection is a posthumous 2-disc set compilation album by American R&B and soul singer Minnie Riperton, released in 2001, issued by Capitol Records. The compilation consists of songs from her albums released on Capitol Records; the collection includes her No. 1 pop hit "Lovin' You", the popular "Perfect Angel", "Inside My Love", "Adventures in Paradise" and "Memory Lane". Featured is Riperton's last released single "Here We Go" from the album Love Lives Forever, a live reprise of "Lovin' You" featuring George Benson and a cover of Joni Mitchell's "A Woman of Heart And Mind"; the tracks "You Gave Me Soul" and "Lonely Girl" from her Come to My Garden album appears here, which she recorded under the name Andrea Davis, as well as her material as a member of Rotary Connection, on "I Took a Ride", "Were Going Wrong", a cover of "Respect". Minnie Riperton - Petals: The Minnie Riperton Collection Album Petals: The Minnie Riperton Collection|Amazon