The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the worlds most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period, the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, all of these stages were defined in southern Europe. In addition to this subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used. Charles Lyell introduced the term pleistocene in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today and this distinguished it from the older Pliocene Epoch, which Lyell had originally thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. The Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years before present and it covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell.
The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC, the IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75°06 N 42°18 W, the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils, Discoaster pentaradiatus, the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age. The revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places and it is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earths surface was covered by ice.
In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C, during interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global, antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap, there were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one, the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest, the east was covered by the Laurentide
In its most general form, a nipple is a structure from which a fluid emanates. More specifically, it is the projection on the breasts or udder of a mammal by which, in females, in this sense, it is often called a teat, especially when referring to non-humans, and the medical term used to refer to it is papilla. A breast or nipple is called a pap. The rubber mouthpiece of a bottle or pacifier may be referred to as a nipple or a teat. In humans, nipples of both males and females are one of the erogenous zones. In many cultures, human female nipples are sexualized and it is considered a taboo or a public indecency to uncover them in public. The word nipple most likely originates as a diminutive of neb, an Old English word meaning beak, nose, or face, the words teat and tit share a Germanic ancestor. The second of the two, was inherited directly from Proto-Germanic, while the first entered English via Old French. In the anatomy of mammals, a nipple, mammary papilla or teat is a projection of skin containing the outlets for 15–20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the tip.
The skin of the nipple is rich in a supply of special nerves that are sensitive to certain stimuli, the dominant innervation to the nipple is derived from the lateral cutaneous branches of fourth intercostal nerve. The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant and eutherian mammals typically have an even number of nipples arranged bilaterally, from as few as two to as many as 19. The average projection and size of female nipples is slightly more than 3/8 of an inch. This is equal to about 5 stacked American quarters and nursing tend to increase nipple size, sometimes permanently. Nipples of both males and females are one of the zones, when stimulated, leads to sexual arousal. The male and female breast have a nerve supply but the nerves lie closer together in men. After puberty, female breasts turn more sensitive, likely due to hormonal influences, during arousal they generally become stiff and protrude. Nipple stimulation is sometimes enough to elicit an orgasm in some women.
Research has suggested the sensations are genital orgasms caused by nipple stimulation, in women, one study indicated that sensation from the nipples travels to the same part of the brain as sensations from the vagina and cervix
Bali is an island and province of Indonesia. The province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and it is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar, is located in the part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesias Hindu minority. According to the 2010 Census,83. 5% of Balis population adhered to Balinese Hinduism, followed by 13. 4% Muslim, Christianity at 2. 5%, Bali is a popular tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy and it is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali, in March 2017, Tripadvisor named the island the worlds top destination in its Travelers choice award.
Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species, in this area alone over 500 reef building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about 7 times as many as in the entire Caribbean, most recently, Bali was the host of the 2011 ASEAN Summit,2013 APEC and Miss World 2013. Bali is the home of the Subak Irrigation System, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bali was inhabited around 2000 BC by Austronesian people who migrated originally from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the islands west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi, each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 dont mention a king, until 914 and they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously.
Mpu Sindoks great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989 and this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, and Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150, jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and particularly Hindu culture. The name Bali dwipa has been discovered from inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation, some religious and cultural traditions still practiced today can be traced to this period
Buru is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon, the island belongs to Maluku province and includes the Buru and South Buru regencies. Their administrative centers and Namrole, have ports, there is a military airport at Namlea which supports civilian cargo transportation. About a third of the population is indigenous, mostly Buru, the rest of population are immigrants from Java and nearby Maluku Islands. The religious affiliation is evenly split between Christianity and Sunni Islam, with remnants of traditional beliefs. While local languages and dialects are spoken within communities, the national Indonesian language is used among the communities. Most of the island is covered with forests rich in tropical flora, from the present 179 bird and 25 mammal species, about 14 are found either on Buru only or on a few nearby islands, the most notable being the wild pig Buru babirusa. There is little industry on the island, and most population is engaged in growing rice, sweet potato, coconuts, coffee, other significant activities are animal farming and fishing.
The island was first mentioned around 1365, between 1658 and 1942, it was colonised by the Dutch East India Company and by the Crown of the Netherlands. The Dutch administration relocated many local villages to the newly built capital at Kayeli Bay for working at clove plantations. It promoted the hierarchy among the people with selected loyal rajas placed above the heads of the local clans. The island was occupied by the Japanese forces between 1942 and 1945 and in 1950 became part of independent Indonesia, during former president Suhartos New Order administration in the 1960s–1970s, Buru was the site of a prison used to hold thousands of political prisoners. While held at Buru, writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote most of his novels, Buru island lies between two seas of the Pacific Ocean – Seram Sea on the north and Banda Sea to the south and west. To the east, it is separated by the Manipa Strait from Seram Island, with an area of 9,505 km2, Buru is the third largest among the Maluku Islands after Halmahera and Seram.
Buru is shaped like an oval, elongated from west to east, the maximum length is about 130 km from east to west and 90 km from north to south. The coastline is smooth, with the only indentation being Kayeli Bay located on the eastern coast, the bay has a smooth, oval shape. It extends into the island to 8–12 km and has a width of 17 km, the width decreases to 9 km at the mouth. At the northern part of the mouth stands Namlea, the largest town of the island, the highest point on the island is the peak of Mount Kapalatmada
The alveolar process is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on bones that hold teeth. In humans, the bones are the maxillae and the mandible. On the maxillae, the process is a ridge on the inferior surface. It makes up the thickest part of the maxillae, the alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament, which is called the lamina dura when viewed on radiographs. It is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament, integrity of the lamina dura is important when studying radiographs for pathological lesions. The alveolar bone or process is divided into the alveolar bone proper, both the alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone have the same components, cells, intercellular substances, blood vessels, and lymphatics. The alveolar bone proper is the lining of the socket or alveolus. Although the alveolar bone proper is composed of bone, it may be called the cribriform plate because it contains numerous holes where Volkmann canals pass from the alveolar bone into the PDL.
The alveolar bone proper is called bundle bone because Sharpey fibers, as in cellular cementum, Sharpey fibers in bone are generally mineralized only partially at their periphery. The alveolar crest is the most cervical rim of the alveolar bone proper, in a healthy situation, the alveolar crest is slightly apical to the cementoenamel junction by approximately 1.5 to 2 mm. The alveolar crests of neighboring teeth are uniform in height along the jaw in healthy situation. The supporting alveolar bone consists of cortical bone and trabecular bone. The cortical bone, or cortical plates, consists of plates of bone on the facial and lingual surfaces of the alveolar bone. These cortical plates are usually about 1.5 to 3 mm thick over posterior teeth, the trabecular bone consists of cancellous bone that is located between the alveolar bone proper and the plates of cortical bone. The alveolar bone between two neighboring teeth is the interdental septum, the mineral content of alveolar bone is mostly calcium hydroxyapatite, which is similar to that found in higher percentages in both enamel and dentin, but is most similar to the levels in cementum.
Like all bone, mature alveolar bone is by weight 60% mineralized or inorganic material, 25% organic material, and 15% water. The minerals of potassium, magnesium, iron, selenium, phosphorus, chromium and it is important to note that alveolar bone is more easily remodeled than cementum, thus allowing orthodontic tooth movement. When viewing a stained histological section, the alveolar bone shows arrest lines and reversal lines
The capital is Kendari, on the east coast of the peninsula. From the seventeenth century until the twentieth century, the region was the site of the Buton sultanate. The two major ranges in Southeast Sulawesi are the Tanggeasinua Range and the Mekongga Range. The major rivers are the Lalinda, the Lasolo, and the Sampara. The unrevised population of the province was 1,771,951 in the Indonesia 2000 census, increasing to 2,230,569 for the 2010 decennial censuscomprising 1,120,225 males, kolaka and Konawe Selatan were the 3 most populous regencies. The latest official estimate is 2,417,962. Islam is predominant religion, most of the population is centered on Buton and Muna islands off the south coast of Sulawesi, and in and around Kendari. The main ethnic groups in Southeast Sulawesi are Tolaki, Muna etc.1 – Bombana Regency is partly peninsula, south Buton Regency Central Buton Regency West Muna Regency Under discussion is a proposal to create an additional municipality of Raha. These five new regencies created since 2010, and the potential extra municipality, are not separated in the table above
Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans. Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.
Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence. However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic. While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use by 1880, ernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates and vertebrates in 1866. Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.
In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that used the site are displaced or destroyed. Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, trawling, habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide. Perhaps the greatest threat to organisms and biodiversity is the process of habitat loss, temple found that 82% of endangered bird species were significantly threatened by habitat loss. Endemic organisms with limited ranges are most affected by destruction, mainly because these organisms are not found anywhere else within the world. Many endemic organisms have very specific requirements for their survival that can only be found within a certain ecosystem, extinction may take place very long after the destruction of habitat, a phenomenon known as extinction debt.
Habitat destruction can decrease the range of certain organism populations, one of the most famous examples is the impact upon Chinas giant panda, once found across the nation. Now it is found in fragmented and isolated regions in the southwest of the country. Biodiversity hotspots are chiefly tropical regions that feature high concentrations of species and. These hotspots are suffering from loss and destruction. Most of the habitat on islands and in areas of high human population density has already been destroyed. Islands suffering extreme habitat destruction include New Zealand, the Philippines and East Asia — especially China, Malaysia and Japan — and many areas in West Africa have extremely dense human populations that allow little room for natural habitat. Marine areas close to highly populated coastal cities face degradation of their coral reefs or other marine habitat and these areas include the eastern coasts of Asia and Africa, northern coasts of South America, and the Caribbean Sea and its associated islands.
Regions of unsustainable agriculture or unstable governments, which may go hand-in-hand, central America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Amazonian tropical rainforest areas of South America are the main regions with unsustainable agricultural practices and/or government mismanagement. Areas of high agricultural output tend to have the highest extent of habitat destruction, in the U. S. less than 25% of native vegetation remains in many parts of the East and Midwest. Only 15% of land area remains unmodified by human activities in all of Europe, tropical rainforests have received most of the attention concerning the destruction of habitat
Museum of Osteology
The Museum of Osteology is a private museum devoted to the study of bones and skeletons. This museum is located in Oklahoma City and displays over 350 skeletons from animal species from all over the world. With another 5000 skeletons as part of the collection, but not on display, the museum was established by Jay Villemarette, founder of the company Skulls Unlimited International, Inc. which is located next to the museum. Construction on the began in 2004 and opened to the public on October 1,2010. The museum focuses on the form and function of the system with numerous educational. The collections housed by the Museum of Osteology are the result of over 30 years of collecting by Jay Villemarette, currently the collections consist of approximately 5,000 specimens representing over 2,500 species of mammals, reptiles and fish. In 2015, the Museum of Osteology opened a location, Animals Unveiled, at the I-Drive 360 entertainment complex in Orlando. This location is slated as the largest skeleton museum in America with over 450 skeletons on display, official website Museum of Osteology on AdventureRoad.
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In art and literature, grotesque may refer to something that simultaneously invokes in an audience a feeling of uncomfortable bizarreness as well as sympathetic pity. More specifically, the forms on Gothic buildings, when not used as drain-spouts, should not be called gargoyles. The word first was used of paintings found on the walls of basements of Roman ruins that were called at that time Le Grotte due to their appearance. Spreading from Italian to the other European languages, the term was used largely interchangeably with arabesque and moresque for types of decorative patterns using curving foliage elements. Rémi Astruc has argued that there is an immense variety of motifs and figures. Beyond the current understanding of the grotesque as an aesthetic category, Astruc identifies the grotesque as a crucial, and potentially universal, anthropological device that societies have used to conceptualize alterity and change. Such designs were fashionable in ancient Rome, as fresco wall decoration, floor mosaics, the Roman wall decorations in fresco and delicate stucco were a revelation.
The first appearance of the word appears in a contract of 1502 for the Piccolomini Library attached to the duomo of Siena. Light scrolling grotesques could be ordered by confining them within the framing of a pilaster to give them more structure, giovanni da Udine took up the theme of grotesques in decorating the Villa Madama, the most influential of the new Roman villas. In the 16th century, such artistic license and irrationality was controversial matter, more familiar material for grotesques could be drawn from Ovids Metamorphoses. This large array provided a repertoire of elements that were the basis for artists across Europe, counter Reformation writers on the arts, notably Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, bishop of Bologna, turned upon grottesche with a righteous vengeance. Vasari, echoing Vitruvius, described the style as follows, Grotesques are a type of extremely licentious, other 16th-century writers on grottesche included Daniele Barbaro, Pirro Ligorio and Gian Paolo Lomazzo. In the meantime, through the medium of engravings the grotesque mode of surface ornament passed into the European artistic repertory of the 16th century, from Spain to Poland.
Later Mannerist versions, especially in engraving, tended to lose that initial lightness and be more densely filled than the airy well-spaced style used by the Romans. Soon grottesche appeared in marquetry, in maiolica produced above all at Urbino from the late 1520s, in book illustration, in the 17th and 18th centuries the grotesque encompasses a wide field of teratology and artistic experimentation. The monstrous, for instance, often occurs as the notion of play, the sportiveness of the grotesque category can be seen in the notion of the preternatural category of the lusus naturae, in natural history writings and in cabinets of curiosities. The last vestiges of romance, such as the marvellous provide opportunities for the presentation of the grotesque in, for instance, the mixed form of the novel was commonly described as grotesque - see for instance Fieldings comic epic poem in prose. Grotesque ornament received an impetus from new discoveries of original Roman frescoes and stucchi at Pompeii
North Sulawesi babirusa
The North Sulawesi babirusa, Babyrousa celebensis, is a pig-like animal native to Sulawesi and some nearby islands in Indonesia. It has two pairs of large tusks composed of enlarged canine teeth, the upper canines penetrate the top of the snout, curving back toward the forehead. The North Sulawesi babirusa is threatened from hunting and deforestation, the common and scientific names are various transcriptions of its local name, which literally translated means pig-deer in reference to the huge tusks of the male suggestive of a deers antlers. Following the split, the true Babyrousa babyrussa is restricted to Buru, the north Sulawesi babirusa has a head-and-body length of 85–110 cm and weighs up to 100 kg. It is virtually hairless, and the tail-tuft is nearly hairless, in males, the relatively long and thick upper canines are strongly curved. They emerge through the roof of the snout, while the lower canines emerge through the side of the mouth. The upper canines can grow backwards in a curve until they penetrate the skull of the male babirusa, in females, the canines are far shorter and typically do not protrude.
Its habitat is the underbrush of tropical forests and canebrakes, and its mostly-hairless, mottled-grey-and-brown hide provide it with a degree of camouflage. The North Sulawesi Babirusa is known for its two pairs of tusks, both its upper and its lower pairs of teeth are greatly enlarged, and curve up. The upper canines of the male are so curved and enlarged that they emerge through the flesh, by way of holes and this species is protected by Indonesian law but is threatened by illegal hunting. Because it is split-hooved and has a stomach, there was some dispute in Halakha as to whether the babirusa is, in fact. Eventually it was found that the animal is not a true ruminant, in captivity, the species is very inbred. In 2006, a male North Sulawesi Babirusa and a domestic pig were accidentally allowed to interbreed in the Copenhagen Zoo. The offspring were 5 hybrid piglets with teeth most resembling the North Sulawesi Babirusa, while their colour was highly variable