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In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament or a legislator who holds no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesman in the Opposition, being instead a member of the "rank and file". The term dates from 1855; the term derives from the fact that they sit physically behind the frontbench in the House of Commons. A backbencher may be a new parliamentary member yet to receive high office, a senior figure dropped from government, someone who for whatever reason is not chosen to sit either in the ministry or the opposition Shadow Ministry, or someone who prefers to be a background influence, not in the spotlight. By extension, those who are not reliable supporters of all of their party's goals and policies and have resigned or been forced to resign may be relegated to the back benches. For example, in recent British political events, Clive Lewis became a backbencher after resigning from Jeremy Corbyn's shadow cabinet over Brexit, or Boris Johnson who became a backbencher again, after resigning as Foreign Secretary in Theresa May's cabinet over Brexit.

May herself returned to the backbenches after her resignation from the premiership, to be succeeded by Johnson. In most parliamentary systems, individual backbenchers have little power to affect government policy. However, they play a role in providing services to their constituents, in relaying the opinions and concerns of their constituents. For example, asking the government for funding for a project in their constituency; some backbenchers sit on parliamentary committees, where legislation is considered in more detail than there is time for on the floor of the House and, provide input into the legislative process. The Wright Committee reforms introduced in the UK provided backbenchers with much more power in committees, giving Parliament greater control of its agenda, increasing backbench membership in committees vastly. In addition, since backbenchers form the vast majority of MPs, collectively they can sometimes exercise considerable power in cases where the policies of the government are unpopular or when a governing party is internally split.

Backbenchers carry considerable influence when the government majority is small, for example, Theresa May's government from 2017 to 2019 was defeated sixteen times in the House of Commons. In some legislative assemblies, sitting at the back of the chamber is not associated with having a minor role. In Switzerland, senior figures sit in the back rows in order to have a better overview and be closer to the doors for discussions outside the plenary. In Germany, the party leaders sit in the front row, but there are no designated places for other senior figures; the term backbenchers therefore refers to unknown MPs without much influence, regardless of where they sit. The importance of the front rows for the leaders had to do with the fact that acoustics were unsatisfactory before microphones were introduced; the term "backbencher" has been adopted outside parliamentary systems, such as the United States Congress. While legislative branches in presidential systems do not share the firm front bench/back bench dichotomy of the Westminster system, the term has been used to denote junior legislators, or legislators who are not part of party leadership within a legislative body.

When Democrat Tim Ryan of Ohio challenged Nancy Pelosi of California for House Minority Leader in 2016, the Washington Post reported that he "emerged from the backbench — he sits on the last bench in the chamber". The most important backbench role many would argue is that of a constituency representative. Constituents rely on their MPs to represent them in parliament and make sure their concerns are heard and welfare is looked after, whether or not they voted for the MP representing them. Constituents may email and meet their MPs, raising the issues and concerns they want the government to hear. Without this link many people would find it hard for their voices to be heard by the government. Backbenchers have an important opportunity to raise their constituents concerns directly to the Prime Minister in Prime Minister's Questions. Performing well in this constituency role is vital for backbenchers, as if they aren't prominent names in their party, their performance in their constituency could be a big factor on whether they will be re-elected to their seat in the next election.

Backbenchers have an unofficial agenda setting power, with Opposition Day Debates, Private Member's Bills, Prime Minister's Questions available to place items on the parliamentary agenda which are awkward for the government. There is the Commons Backbench Business Committee, created in 2010, this has cross party support and debates matters unlikely to be debated in government time, they formally end a decision with a vote. By the end of the 2010 Coalition Government it had undergone 300 debates, ranging from prisoner voting rights to the Hillsborough Disaster. Furthermore, they have influence as discussed above when they are a member of a committee, these committees provide a perfect opportunity for backbenchers to have their voices heard in the legislative process, it proves difficult for backbenchers to be involved and have direct input in the legislative process when they are not involved in these activities. There has been much speculation on the influence backbenchers hold in Parliament.

Many believe backbenchers hold little to no influence, there has been much research to suggest they have a significant background influence. For example, Meg Russell analysed UK government bills and found that successful amendments were due to parliamentary pressure, 60%


Jonathan Dagan, known by his stage name J. Views, is a two-time Grammy nominated musician based in New York; as a songwriter, producer and art director, J. Views is known for pushing the boundaries in the creative world innovating the dialog with his audience. Under the alias J. Views, he has collaborated with numerous guest musicians, his production incorporates nostalgic elements through the use of samples, analog tapes and synthesizers, is described as multilayered and detailed. NPR’s All Songs Considered said, "J. Views writes songs that whirl and clatter like tiny Rube Goldberg devices."In 2018 Dagan created the leading sample used in Drip Too Hard by American rappers Lil Baby and Gunna. The song was certified 5X Platinum by the RIAA, peaked at #4 on the US Billboard Hot 100. In February 2019 Nicki Minaj released her version of the song, titled "Barbie Drip". Another J. Views sample from the same Splice series was featured in the 2019 release by Australian musician Flume "Levitate". Among his international productions, Dagan produced the album Orot by Israeli artist Avraham Tal.

The album was certified Platinum in Israel, its leading single is the #1 most played song of the decade on Israeli radio, according to the Israeli society of music publishers ACUM. Dagan worked on the first J. Views demo with vocalist Noa Lembersky in 2004. Soon after, tracks from that demo caught the attention of several record labels, and, in the following months, the first J. Views songs were released in over 50 compilations worldwide. In April 2005, the debut album of J. Views, Muse Breaks, was released by Deeplay Music; the second J. Views full-length album and homes, was released in 2011, it originated as an idea Dagan dubbed "Work In Progress." Dagan began developing it in the spring of 2010. The plan was to make an album available for pre-order, record and release tracks over the course of a year to fans who subscribed to the process. From early on, the project drew subscribers in, allowed the album to be financed through pre-orders; each song was recorded and released in the same period in which it had been conceived, giving fans an intimate real-time look at the artistic evolution of the album.

Right after the release of “Salty Air” - the 3rd track in the process - it was selected by Revlon to be used in its 2011 advertising campaign, starring Halle Berry. Once completed, Dagan distributed the finished album in physical form to his subscribers, only made it available to the general public. In 2012, rivers and homes was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Recording Package. In November 2014, Dagan launched The DNA Project, a website presenting the step-by-step making of the next J. Views album in real-time; the concept was presented as a crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter. Dagan had a vision to create a multi-layered player for his next album, allowing listeners to access the origins and creative processes behind every song; the campaign raised $65,234 with the backing of over 1,000 fans, with the help of digital agency, Hello Monday, the website was launched. With the DNA Project, J. Views invites his fans to follow his creative process in its entirety, providing access to the people and sounds that inspired each song, as well as exclusive videos of J.

Views’s writing process, recording sessions, innermost thoughts during the creation of each song. Since its launch, the DNA Project has generated buzz in digital and music communities, with over one million views. In June 2015, the DNA Project won the Cannes Silver Lion Award in the Design Category. Other awards include the Site of the Day Awards from FWA and Awwwards, as well as The Webby Awards Music Website Nominee and Awwwards & Internet Explorer Site of the Year Nominee; the album was set to be completed in December 2015. Until fans were encouraged to interact with the DNA Project by commenting, adding sounds and images of their own, downloading samples for use in their own music; the album was released under the title 401 Days in 2016. The third and latest album of J. Views, 401 Days was released independently in May 2016; the first video from the first single of 401 Days, #Almostforgot, is a mobile experience controlled by the viewer’s heart rate in real time. In 2018 he was invited by Harman Kardon and Volvo to create three songs in three European cities with the Swedish music artist Ana Diaz.

On their Amsterdam trip they met Yuri Landman who build an electric table string instrument in a few hours with Views. J. Views performs with a changing live setup, in 2017 the live band includes Denitia Odigie, Ofer Levy, Tomer Rabinowitz; this live band launched the album 401 Days along with a 30-Piece Orchestra at the Tel-Aviv Opera Hall, as an audio-visual experience. J. Views received two Grammy Award nominations. For his package design of his album rivers and homes and for his art direction, alongside designer Mathias Høst Normark, for his third album 401 Days. in 2012 and 2016 respectively. For the creation of DNA Project, J. Views teamed up with Danish creative agency Hello Monday; the website has received numerous nominations including.

Nexus Automotive

Nexus Automotive Ltd was an importer and assembler of General Motors products in Pakistan. The company was founded by M. A. Razaq, an expatriate Pakistani who retired as Corporate Vice President of General Motors Corporation, 1999. Balubaid Establishment of Saudi Arabia, a diversified group involved in automotive, real estate, other industrial businesses, was an investor in the assembly business of Nexus Automotive; the company was owned, with ownership distributed between Pakistani and Saudi families. Nexus used the idle capacity at the Ghandhara Nissan Limited plant at Port Qasim to assemble vehicles, under a contract assembly agreement; the project was estimated at 15 million US dollars and GM-Chevrolet provided support to ensure that the local components and the car assembly met GM quality standards. The company planned to export its models to other countries in South Asia and Africa; the source of assembly kits and imported units is GM Daewoo, a GM subsidiary in South Korea that supplies Chevrolet, Opel and Daewoo branded vehicles to markets including the United States, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa and Asia.

GM Daewoo is the "corporate center of excellence" for GM's global small car platform, code-named Gamma. Current products exported by GM Daewoo include Chevrolet Spark, Optra and Epica. Nexus imported the Chevrolet Optra and Chevrolet Joy vehicles and marketed them nationally through their franchised dealer network. From December 2005, the manufacturing of Chevrolet Joy started in Pakistan. Other GM products sourced from the global GM network were planned for introduction to the Pakistani local market. Pakistan's automotive sector has experienced significant growth; the small car segment remains monopolized by PakSuzuki and other brands. In past, Government policies have favored Paksuzuki and Honda due to which further investment has been blocked in the country, but now new policies are inviting new producers to enter the market. When Nexus Automotive was operating Gandhara Nissan, Deewan Mushtaq, Adam Motors had assembling operations in Pakistan; the company struggled to make substantial sales in the market dominated by Paksuzuki and used car imports.

Despite being a new entrant, no incentive was granted to Nexus by the government similar to Adam motors. The sales dropped to the point where assembly became nonviable and the company focused on CBU imports during its final months. Nexus ceased operations in 2006, it has been reported by the media that General Motors along with Volkswagen and Renault-Nissan may consider entering the Pakistani market again. The 2016-21 Automotive Industry Development Policy approved in March 2016 includes incentives for new entrants and non-operational units; the new policy has increased the chances of these units resuming their operations in Pakistan. Nexus Automotive This exists no more

Westmarch, Paisley

Westmarch was a football stadium located on Greenhill Road in Ferguslie Park, Scotland. It was the home ground of St Mirren from 1883 to 1894. St Mirren moved to Westmarch from their Thistle Park ground in 1883; the first match was played on 25 August, with the visiting Queen's Park team beaten 2–1. St Mirren were amongst the founders of the Scottish Football League in 1890, the first league match at Westmarch was played on 20 September 1890, in which local rivals Abercorn beaten 4–2. By that time the ground had a stand at the western end of ground, some way from the pitch, surrounded by a racing and cycling track. On 22 October 1892 the club recorded its highest league attendance at Westmarch when 8,000 saw a 3–1 defeat to Celtic. In 1894 the club decided to move. After attempting to buy their former Shortroods ground, a site was found and developed on Love Street; the final league match was played at Westmarch on 17 February 1894, with St Mirren beating Dundee 10–3 the highest scoring league game to have been played at the ground.

The final game was against Abercorn in the final of the Paisley Charity Cup, a match that ended in a 10–0 victory for St Mirren. The ground was subsequently used for trotting before being purchased by the Caledonian Railway in order to build a line between Paisley St James and Barrhead; the new line opened on 1 October 1902

Elliott W. Sproul

Elliott Wilford Sproul was a U. S. Representative from Illinois. Born in Apohaqui, Kings County, New Brunswick, Sproul attended the public schools, he moved to Boston, Massachusetts in 1879 and to Chicago, Illinois in 1880, engaged in the building and contracting business. He was naturalized in 1886, he served as member of the Chicago City Council 1896–1899. He served as delegate to the 1920 Republican National Convention, he served as member of the board of directors of the Chicago Public Library 1919-1921. Sproul was elected as a Republican to the four succeeding Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1930 to the Seventy-second Congress. He resided in Chicago until his death there on June 22, 1935, he was interred in Mount Hope Cemetery in Illinois. United States Congress. "Elliott W. Sproul". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Falilat Ogunkoya

Falilat Ogunkoya is a Nigerian former track and field athlete. Ogunkoya has won a number of national championships, including a gold medal in 1996 in the 400 metres, gold in the 200 metres and 400 m in 1998, gold again in 1999 and 2001 in the 400 m. At the 1987 All Africa Games in Nairobi she won the silver medal in the 200 m. In 1995 at the All Africa Games in Harare she won the silver in the 400 m, at the 1999 Games in Johannesburg she won a gold medal in the 400 m. At the 1996 Summer Olympics she won a bronze medal in the 400 m, behind Marie-José Pérec of France and Cathy Freeman of Australia, in a personal best and African record of 49.10, the twelfth fastest of all time. Falilat Ogunkoya at World Athletics Falilat Ogunkoya at Olympics at