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Backplane

A backplane is a group of electrical connectors in parallel with each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus. It is used as a backbone to connect several printed circuit boards together to make up a complete computer system. Backplanes use a printed circuit board, but wire-wrapped backplanes have been used in minicomputers and high-reliability applications. A backplane is differentiated from a motherboard by the lack of on-board processing and storage elements. A backplane uses plug-in cards for processing. Early microcomputer systems like the Altair 8800 used a backplane for the processor and expansion cards. Backplanes are used in preference to cables because of their greater reliability. In a cabled system, the cables need to be flexed every time that a card is added or removed from the system. A backplane does not suffer from this problem, so its service life is limited only by the longevity of its connectors.

For example, DIN 41612 connectors have three durability grades built to withstand 50, 400 and 500 insertions and removals, or "mating cycles". To transmit information, Serial Back-Plane technology uses a low-voltage differential signaling transmission method for sending information. In addition, there are bus expansion cables which will extend a computer bus to an external backplane located in an enclosure, to provide more or different slots than the host computer provides; these cable sets have a transmitter board located in the computer, an expansion board in the remote backplane, a cable between the two. Backplanes have grown in complexity from the simple Industry Standard Architecture or S-100 style where all the connectors were connected to a common bus. Due to limitations inherent in the Peripheral Component Interconnect specification for driving slots, backplanes are now offered as passive and active. True passive backplanes offer no active bus driving circuitry. Any desired arbitration logic is placed on the daughter cards.

Active backplanes include chips. The distinction between the two isn't always clear, but may become an important issue if a whole system is expected to not have a single point of failure. Common myth around passive backplane if it is single, is not considered a SPOF. Active back-planes are more complicated and thus have a non-zero risk of malfunction; however one situation that can cause disruption both in the case of Active and Passive Back-planes is while performing maintenance activities i.e. while swapping boards there is always a possibility of damaging the Pins/Connectors on the Back-plane, this may cause full outage for the system as all boards mounted on the back-plane should be removed in order to fix the system. Therefore we are seeing newer architectures where systems use high speed redundant connectivity to interconnect system boards point to point with No Single Point of Failure anywhere in the system; when a backplane is used with a plug-in single board computer or system host board, the combination provides the same functionality as a motherboard, providing processing power, memory, I/O and slots for plug-in cards.

While there are a few motherboards that offer more than 8 slots, the traditional limit. In addition, as technology progresses, the availability and number of a particular slot type may be limited in terms of what is offered by motherboard manufacturers. However, backplane architecture is somewhat unrelated to the SBC technology plugged into it. There are some limitations to what can be constructed, in that the SBC chip set and processor have to provide the capability of supporting the slot types. In addition an unlimited number of slots can be provided with 20, including the SBC slot, as a practical though not an absolute limit. Thus, a PICMG backplane can provide any number and any mix of ISA, PCI, PCI-X, PCI-e slots, limited only by the ability of the SBC to interface to and drive those slots. For example, an SBC with the latest i7 processor could interface with a backplane providing up to 19 ISA slots to drive legacy I/O cards; some backplanes are constructed with slots for connecting to devices on both sides, are referred to as midplanes.

This ability to plug cards into either side of a midplane is useful in larger systems made up of modules attached to the midplane. Midplanes are used in computers in blade servers, where server blades reside on one side and the peripheral and service modules reside on the other. Midplanes are popular in networking and telecommunications equipment where one side of the chassis accepts system processing cards and the other side of the chassis accepts network interface cards. Orthogonal midplanes connect vertical cards on one side to horizontal boards on the other side. One common orthogonal midplane connects many vertical telephone line cards on one side, each one connected to copper telephone wires, to a horizontal communications card on the other side. A "virtual midplane" is an imaginary plane between vertical cards on one side that directly connect to horizontal boards on the other side; some people use the term "midplane" to describe a board that sits between and connects a hard drive hot-swap backplane and redundant power supplies.

Servers have a backplane to attach hot swappable hard drives. They may

Kagoshima

Kagoshima is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin, it has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" for its bay location, hot climate, emblematic stratovolcano, Sakurajima. The city was founded on April 1, 1889. Kagoshima Prefecture was the center of the territory of the Shimazu clan for many centuries, it was a busy political and commercial port city throughout the medieval period and into the Edo period when it formally became the capital of the Shimazu's fief, the Satsuma Domain. The official emblem is a modification of the Shimazu's kamon designed to resemble the character 市. Satsuma remained one of the most powerful and wealthiest domains in the country throughout the period, though international trade was banned for much of this period, the city remained quite active and prosperous, it served not only as the political center for Satsuma, but for the semi-independent vassal kingdom of Ryūkyū.

Kagoshima was a significant center of Christian activity in Japan prior to the imposition of bans against that religion in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Kagoshima was bombarded by the British Royal Navy in 1863 to punish the daimyō of Satsuma for the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year and its refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation. Kagoshima was the birthplace and scene of the last stand of Saigō Takamori, a legendary figure in Meiji Era Japan in 1877 at the end of the Satsuma Rebellion. Japan's industrial revolution is said to have started here, stimulated by the young students' train station. Seventeen young men of Satsuma broke the Tokugawa ban on foreign travel, traveling first to England and the United States before returning to share the benefits of the best of Western science and technology. A statue was erected outside the train station as a tribute to them. Kagoshima was the birthplace of Tōgō Heihachirō. After naval studies in England between 1871 and 1878, Togo's role as Chief Admiral of the Grand Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese War made him a legend in Japanese military history, earned him the nickname'Nelson of the Orient' in Britain.

He led the Grand Fleet to two startling victories in 1904 and 1905 destroying Russia as a naval power in the East, thereby contributing to the failed revolution in Russia in 1905. The Japanese diplomat Sadomitsu Sakoguchi revolutionized Kagoshima's environmental economic plan with his dissertation on water pollution and orange harvesting; the 1914 eruption of the volcano across the bay from the city spread ash throughout the municipality, but little disruption ensued. The name "Kagoshima" means "deer child island" or "young-deer island". On the night of June 17, 1945 the 314th bombardment wing of the Army Air Corps dropped 809.6 tons of incendiary and cluster bombs destroying 2.11 square miles of Kagoshima. Kagoshima was targeted because of its expanded naval port as well as its position as a railway terminus. A single B-29 was lost to unknown circumstances. Area bombing was chosen over precision bombing because of the cloudy weather over Japan during the middle of June; the planes were forced to navigate and bomb by radar.

Japanese intelligence predicted that the Allied Forces would assault Kagoshima and the Ariake Bay areas of southern Kyushu to gain naval and air-bases to strike Tokyo. Kagoshima City is 40 minutes from Kagoshima Airport, features shopping districts and malls located wide across the city. Transportation options in the city include the Shinkansen, local train, city trams and ferries to-and-from Sakurajima; the large and modern Kagoshima City Aquarium, situated near a shopping district known as "Dolphin Port" and the Sakurajima Ferry Terminal, was established in 1997 along the docks and offers a direct view of Sakurajima. One of the best places to view the city is from the Amuran Ferris wheel atop of Amu Plaza Kagoshima, the shopping center attached to the central Kagoshima-Chūō Station. Just outside the city is the early-Edo Period Sengan-en Japanese Garden; the garden was a villa belonging to the Shimazu clan and is still maintained by descendants today. Outside the garden grounds is a Satsuma "kiriko" cut-glass factory where visitors are welcome to view the glass blowing and cutting processes, the Shoko Shūseikan Museum, built in 1865 and registered as a National Historic Site in 1959.

The former Shuseikan industrial complex and the former machine factory were submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage as part of a group list titled Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture. On August 1, 1934 – the Villages of Yoshino, Nakagōriu and Nishitakeda, all from Kagoshima District, were merged into Kagoshima. On October 1, 1950 – the Villages of Ishiki and Higashisakurajima were merged into Kagoshima. On April 29, 1967 – the Cities of Kagoshima and Taniyama were merged and became city of new Kagoshima. On November 1, 2004 – the Towns of Yoshida and Sakurajima. Cities: Aira, Ibusuki, Minamikyūshū, Satsumasendai, Tarumizu

Menschen Vereeniging Wolbodo

The Mensenvereniging Wolbodo was founded in 1959 as the PSK by 17 students, who were Catholic, but did not want to join the Catholic student society Virgiel. In 1960 the name was changed to Sanctus Wolbodo or in Dutch "Sint Wolbodo", referring both to the saint, the patron saint of students and to its Catholic nature; the connection with the church was broken in 1967 after a happening with Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama in which the first body painting in the Netherlands took place. In the period 1964-1968 regular jazz performances were organized by Novum Jazz, which attracted an artistic and progressive crowd to Wolbodo. Whereas for most student societies the membership ends with the finishing of the study at a certain point in time Wolbodo decided that one should be able to be a member whenever one thought of Wolbodo as a place to feel at home. Influenced by changing attitudes in the 1970s, Wolbodo started calling itself a people society instead of student society and dropped the St in front of the name.

Nowadays most people prefer to write it as Menschen Vereeniging, the same words, written in pre-WWII Dutch. Although Wolbodo isn't a student only society, there is still a strong connection to the Delft University of Technology and Delft student life. In 2010 Wolbodo had about 80 members. In contrast to most student societies that are hierarchically structured, Wolbodo is horizontally structured; this is a preciously cultivated form of anarchy within the society. The only form of organisation within the society is the presence of a board. Wolbodo's residence is a building is called Novum; the main area of this building is the parlor. Novum is the property of a foundation, Intra Muros, better known as IM; the foundation provides for the necessary maintenance of the building. Wolbodo has three subsocieties. OWEE. Food. Wine tasting evenings every first Thursday of the month. Beer tasting evenings with novelty beers every last Thursday of the month. On Sunday it is movienight. Wolpop is an external organisation which aims to support upcoming artists by organizing a festival, called Wolpop, every year.

While Wolpop is independent of Wolbodo, most boardmembers of Wolpop are Wolbodo members. Wolbodo homepage - The truth about Wolbodo Wolpop homepage - The Wolpop festival homepage

2013–14 FIS Cross-Country World Cup

2013–14 FIS Cross-Country World Cup was a multi-race tournament over the season for cross-country skiers. This was the 33rd official World Cup season in cross-country skiing for ladies; the season began on 29 November 2013 in Kuusamo and ended on 16 March 2014 in Falun, Sweden. This season's biggest event was 2014 Winter Olympics; the table shows the number of points won in the 2013–14 Cross-Country Skiing World Cup for men and women. All results in all distance races and sprint races counts towards the overall World Cup totals. All distance races, included individual stages in Tour de Ski and in World Cup Final, count towards the distance standings. All sprint races, including the sprint races during the Tour de Ski and the first race of the World Cup final, count towards the sprint standings. In mass start races bonus points are awarded to the first 10 at each bonus station; the Nations Cup ranking is calculated by adding each country's individual competitors' scores and scores from team events.

Relay events count double, with only one team counting towards the total, while in team sprint events two teams contribute towards the total, with the usual World Cup points awarded. Only individual events. First World Cup career victory First World Cup podium Victories in this World Cup Following are notable cross-country skiers who announced their retirement after the 2013/14 season: Roddy Darragon Katrin Zeller Tobias Angerer Jens Filbrich Axel Teichmann Agnieszka Szymańczak Chandra Crawford Bettina Gruber Christoph Eigenmann Nobu Naruse

2012 Southern Conference Baseball Tournament

The 2012 Southern Conference Baseball Tournament took place at Fluor Field at the West End in Greenville, SC from May 23 through May 27. The final game was televised on ESPN3 The tournament used a double-elimination format. Only the top eight teams in the conference standings participated, leaving three UNC Greensboro and Davidson out. Samford went 4-0 to win the tournament, clinching the conference's automatic berth in the 2012 NCAA Division I Baseball Tournament and the school's first Regional appearance. 2012 marks the school's first baseball championship since joining the Southern Conference in 2008. Appalachian State earned the tiebreaker over College of Charleston after winning the regular season series 8-6, 8-2, 3-8 The Citadel earned the tiebreaker over Furman after winning the regular season series 7-0, 3-1, 6-8 As tournament host, game order and times would have been adjusted to allow Furman to play the 5:00 pm game as long as it remained in the winner's bracket. * denotes extra innings The first round game between Georgia Southern and Elon tied the Southern Conference Tournament record for largest margin of victory at 17.

The first round elimination game between Elon and College of Charleston broke the Southern Conference Tournament record with 39 combined hits. The championship game was a rematch of the 2011 championship game where Georgia Southern defeated Samford 1-0

Kaberamaido District

Kaberamaido is a district in Eastern Uganda. Like most other Ugandan districts, it is named after its'chief town', where the district headquarters are located. Kaberamaido District lies between Latitudes:1.5500 to 2.3834 and Longitudes:30.0167 to 34.3000. The average coordinates of the district are:01 47N, 33 09E; the district is bordered by Alebtong District to the north, Amuria District to the northeast, Soroti District to the east, Serere District to the southeast, Buyende District to the south, Amolatar District to the southwest and Dokolo District to the northwest. The District headquarters at Kaberamaido, lie 65 kilometres by road, west of Soroti, the largest city in the sub-region; this location lies 215 kilometres, by road, northeast of Kampala, the capital of Uganda and the largest city in that country. The following are the district measurements: Total Area: 1,788.5 square kilometres Total Land Area: 1,354.5 square kilometres Forest Area: 22 square kilometres Open Water Area: 269 square kilometres Area Under Wetlands: 143 square kilometres In 1991, the national population census estimated the population of the district at about 81,500.

The district had a population of 131,700 in 2002, according to the national census that year, with an annual population growth rate of 4.3%. In 2012, it was estimated that the population of Kaberamaido District was 199,200; the table below, illustrates how the district has grown between 2002 and 2012. All numbers are estimates. Kaberamaido District is the main area of the Kumam people. In 2008, the Kumam were in the majority; the Iteso were the next most populous group in the district, totaling 27,317 people. These two ethnicities speak Kumam and Ateso languages and are of the Nilotic family; the Langi at 4,617 people are the next most populous group. The other tribal groups found in the district constitute less than 1% of the district population in individual tribal terms; these include, the Acholi, Bakenyi, Mening, Basoga and Alur. Kaberamaido District Homepage