Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or related bacterial strain. They are similar to yeast and paramecium killing factors, are structurally and ecologically diverse. Applications of bacteriocins are being tested to assess their application as narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Bacteriocins were first discovered by André Gratia in 1925, he was involved in the process of searching for ways to kill bacteria, which resulted in the development of antibiotics and the discovery of bacteriophage, all within a span of a few years. He called his first discovery a colicine. Bacteriocins are categorized in several ways, including producing strain, common resistance mechanisms, mechanism of killing. There are several large categories of bacteriocin; these include the bacteriocins from gram-positive bacteria, the colicins, the microcins, the bacteriocins from Archaea. The bacteriocins from E. coli are called colicins. They are the longest studied bacteriocins.
They are a diverse group of bacteriocins and do not include all the bacteriocins produced by E. coli. In fact, one of the oldest known so-called colicins was called colicin V and is now known as microcin V, it produced and secreted in a different manner than the classic colicins. This naming system is problematic for a number of reasons. First, naming bacteriocins by what they putatively kill would be more accurate if their killing spectrum were contiguous with genus or species designations; the bacteriocins possess spectra that exceed the bounds of their named taxa and never kill the majority of the taxa for which they are named. Further, the original naming is derived not from the sensitive strain the bacteriocin kills, but instead the organism that produces the bacteriocin; this makes the use of this naming system a problematic basis for theory. Bacteriocins that contain the modified amino acid lanthionine as part of their structure are called lantibiotics. However, efforts to reorganize the nomenclature of the family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products have led to the differentiation of lantipeptides from bacteriocins based on biosynthetic genes.
Alternative methods of classification include: method of killing, molecular weight and chemistry, method of production. Gram negative bacteriocins are classified by size. Microcins are less than 20 kDa in size, colicin-like bacteriocins are 20 to 90 kDa in size and tailocins or so called high molecular weight bacteriocins which are multi subunit bacteriocins that resemble the tails of bacteriophages; this size classification coincides with genetic and functional similarities. See main article on microcins. Colicins are bacteriocins found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins occur in other Gram-negative bacteria; these CLBs are distinct from Gram-positive bacteriocins. They are 90 kDa in size, they consist of a receptor binding domain, a translocation domain and a cytotoxic domain. Combinations of these domains between different CLBs occur in nature and can be created in the laboratory. Due to these combinations further subclassification can be based on either import mechanism or on cytotoxic mechanism.
Most well studied are the tailocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They can be further subdivided into F-type pyocins. Bacteriocins from Gram positive bacteria are classified into Class I, Class IIa/b/c, Class III; the class I bacteriocins include nisin and other lantibiotics. The class II bacteriocins are small heat-stable proteins; this class is subdivided into five subclasses. The class IIa bacteriocins are the largest subgroup and contain an N-terminal consensus sequence -Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val-Xaa-Cys across this group; the C-terminal is responsible for species-specific activity, causing cell-leakage by permeabilizing the target cell wall. Class IIa bacteriocins have a large potential for use in food preservation as well medical applications due to their strong anti-Listeria activity and broad range of activity. One example of Class IIa bacteriocin is pediocin PA-1; the class IIb bacteriocins require two different peptides for activity. One such an example is lactococcin G, which permeabilizes cell membranes for monovalent sodium and potassium cations, but not for divalent cations.
All of these bacteriocins have a GxxxG motifs. This motif is found in transmembrane proteins, where they are involved in helix-helix interactions. Accordingly, the bacteriocin GxxxG motifs can interact with the motifs in the membranes of the bacterial cells, killing the cells. Class IIc encompasses cyclic peptides, in which the N-terminal and C-terminal regions are covalentely linked. Enterocin AS-48 is the prototype of this group. Class IId cover single-peptide bacteriocins, which are not post-translationally modified and do not show the pediocin-like signature; the best example of this group is the stable aureocin A53. This bacteriocin is stable under acidic conditions, high temperatures, is not affected by proteases; the most proposed s
This is a list of political parties in the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria has a political system based on direct democratic and multi-party aspirations, with different levels of government: Self-governing municipalities and communes, self-governing autonomous regions and provinces, the autonomous region as a whole. There have been two elections in the region so far, one for the communes/municipalities and one for regions/provinces in 2017, while the third federation-level election for the Syrian Democratic Council was delayed; the following parties are represented either in the Syrian Democratic Assembly as of September 2016 or in cantonal parliaments: Notes: * including independents The following groups or parties are not represented at either the cantonal or federal level. Politics of Syria List of political parties by country The Carter Center. "Foreign Volunteers for the Syrian Kurdish Forces". Atlanta: Carter Center.
Syrian Democratic Assembly
The Brazilian Naval Revolts, or the Revoltas da Armada, were armed mutinies promoted by Admirals Custódio José de Melo and Saldanha Da Gama and their fleet of Brazilian Navy ships against the unconstitutional staying in power of the central government in Rio de Janeiro. In November 1891, President Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, amid a political crisis compounded by the effects of an economic crisis, in flagrant violation of the new constitution, decided to "solve" the political crisis by ordering the closure of Congress, supported by Paulista oligarchy; the Navy, still resentful of the circumstances and outcomes of the coup that had put an end to the monarchy in Brazil, under the leadership of Admiral Custódio José de Melo, rose up and threatened to bombard the town of Rio de Janeiro capital of the Republic. To avoid a civil war, Marshal Deodoro resigned the presidency in 23 November. With the resignation of Deodoro, after just nine months from the beginning of his administration, the vice president, Floriano Peixoto, took office.
The 1891 Constitution, provided for a new election if the presidency or vice-presidency became vacant sooner than two years in office. The opposition accused Floriano of staying as head of the nation illegally; the second revolt started in March 1892, when thirteen generals sent a letter and manifesto to the President Marshal Floriano Peixoto. This document demanded new elections be called to fulfill the constitutional provision and ensure internal tranquility in the nation. Floriano harshly suppressed the movement. Thus, not solved, the political tensions increased; the revolt broke out in September 1893 at Rio de Janeiro, was suppressed only in March 1894 after a long blockade of the city. With many of the Brazilian Navy's most powerful ships either in the hands of the rebels or under repair, the Brazilian government had to improvise a new fleet to battle the rebel fleet; the "cardboard squadron" had to face off against a mutiny that had overtaken most of the powerful ships of the original navy.
Local bloody conflicts in some regions of Brazil ensued. The navy's mutiny off Rio de Janeiro was a challenge, became linked to the Federalist Rebellion; the revolt included the powerful battleship Aquidaban and a collection of small ironclads, modern cruisers and older wood'cruiser' or steam frigate type ships. Two of the navy's major ships were overseas and away from the conflict: the battleship Riachuelo was under repairs in France, the corvette Barrozo was on a round-the world training voyage; this did not leave the government with much left to challenge the mutineers, who could have controlled the seas and influenced the concurrent conflicts on land. The government bought itself a new naval force on the open markets, of small and sometimes unusual ships including torpedo gunboats, various medium and small torpedo boats, small armed yachts, a transport converted to carry a Zalinsky "dynamite gun"; such improvised stocking up was common at that time: the US pressed a similar mix of ships into action to supplement its fleet in the 1898 war with Spain, Japan scrambled to purchase available ships for its conflict with Russia in 1904-5.
In this case, the new fleet was dedicated to confronting the original navy of the same country. On September 13, the fortresses in Rio de Janeiro, held by the Army, began to be bombarded; the rebel forces' fleet consisted of navy vessels and civilian vessels of Brazilian and foreign companies. In the Navy, the rebels were the majority, but faced strong opposition in the Army, where thousands of young people joined the battalions that supported President Floriano. State elites Sao Paulo, were in favor of Floriano. At dawn on December 1, Custódio de Mello, in Aquidabã, followed by the República and auxiliary cruisers, went south to join the federalists. At the time was the Federalist Revolution, a dispute between the federalists and republicans, the latter supported by Floriano; the Federalists The city of Desterro, as it was called the capital of Santa Catarina, was dominated by the rebels. On December 7, Rear Admiral Luis Filipe Saldanha da Gama director of the Naval School, joined the movement, taking over the rebels in Rio de Janeiro, beginning the second phase of the Armada Revolt.
By this time, the rebels had no food. The São José Fortress, on Cobras Island, was destroyed by the loyalist troops and, on February 9, 1894, when the rebels, under the command of Saldanha da Gama, landed at Ponta da Armação, in Niterói, were defeated, they were defeated on Governor's Island.. Niterói, the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, had its seven bombed forts. On February 20, 1894, the seat of government was moved to Petrópolis, a mountain town beyond the reach of the Navy guns. Niterói would not return to host the capital in 1903; the federal government had acquired warships, which were dubbed the "cardboard fleet." The command of this squadron was given to veteran of the Paraguayan War. In March 1894, with the support of the Army and the Paulista Republican Party, the Armada Revolt was stifled; the rebels took refuge in the Portuguese ships Mindelo and Afonso de Albuquerque, ending the se
"Hljómalind" is a song by the Icelandic band Sigur Rós from their 2007 album Hvarf/Heim. It was released on heavyweight 7" vinyl as the album's first single on October 29, 2007; the B-side of the single features a live acoustic version of the song "Starálfur". It reached #91 on the UK Singles Chart; the band had performed the track live as a work in progress since 1999, when it was written as part of the Ágætis byrjun studio sessions. It was called "Rokklagið"; the song wasn't released until 2007, when it was recorded in studio, featured on the Hvarf album as Hljómalind. Before choosing this name, the song had the working title "The Rabbit and the Prince". "Hljómalind" was a record store in Reykjavík, run by Kristinn "Kiddi Kanína" Sæmundsson, the band's then-manager. The record shop started out as a mail-order operation run from the Reykjavík flea market Kolaportið, it was for a time Iceland's only Indie Rock record store. The shop moved two times before ending up on Laugavegur 21, where it ran for many years before closing in 2003.
The organic co-op café Kaffi Hljómalind opened on the premises. The Hljómalind house is occupied by Kaffibrennslan, a café and sandwich shop; the name "Hljómalind" is made up of two words, "hljóma-", which means sounds or chords, "-lind", which means fountain, spring or well. It could be translated as "a wellspring of sounds" or "a fountain of music". "Hljómalind" – 4:02 "Starálfur" – 5:28 "Hljómalind" – 4:02 "Starálfur" – 5:28 "Hljómalind" – 4:57 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Rudy A. Mazzocchi is an American entrepreneur and author. Mazzocchi founded and sold several companies in the medical space including Microvena, Vascular Science, Inc. CytoGenesis, Inc. and Image-Guided Neurologics. He is the CEO of Elenza, Executive Chairman of Establishment Labs Holdings, Inc. Executive Chairman of OptiStent, Inc. and Executive Chairman of LAFORGE Optical, Inc. In 2012, Mazzocchi published the award-winning novel Equity of Evil, he is the author of over 70 patents. Mazzocchi attended the University of Pittsburgh, graduating with a Bachelor of Science in life sciences and biochemistry, he completed graduate studies in biophysics at UCLA. Mazzocchi's first medical start-up was the firm Microvena, a producer of medical devices he founded in 1989 as a co-venture with Phillips Plastics. Soon after its founding Microvena began operating independently of Phillips, within four years had over seven million dollars in annual sales. In 1997 groundwork for a potential Microvena IPO led Piper Jaffray to determine that the value of Microvena was between $170 million to $185 million.
That year Mazzocchi received the inaugural "technology leader" award from Minnesota Technology Inc. Mazzocchi remained CEO until 1998, after which Mazzocchi joined a lawsuit launched by minority shareholders against the majority owners for opting against company expansion and growth into new areas. After leaving Microvena Mazzocchi co-founded the medical company Vascular Science, where he served on the board of directors. In 1999 the company was sold to St. Jude Medical, in a deal worth $100 million, he next co-founded and served as a director for CytoGenesis, Inc., purchased by BresaGen Ltd in 2000. Mazzocchi co-founded Quasm Inc. and German-based ReStent Therapeutics, Inc. Mazzocchi next founded Image-Guided Neurologics, serving as CEO and president of the firm until the company was purchased by Medtronic, Inc. in 2005. In 2004 Mazzocchi was asked to take the chairmanship of the public company BresaGen when it entered financial trouble. BresaGen was acquired by Hospira Inc for $17.1 million in 2006.
Following this he had been chairman and interim CEO of nanotechnology firm Triton BioSystem and Managing Director for the Atlanta venture capital company Accuitive Medical Ventures. In 2008 Mazzocchi became CEO of NovaVision. In 2010 he was named CEO of Elenza; the company is developing the first auto-focusing intraocular lens replacements for people with cataracts and presbyopia. As of 2015, Elenza was in litigation proceedings against Novartis in relation to its technologies, he was on the Board of Directors of Greatbatch, serving on the Technology Development and Innovation and Corporate Governance and Nominating committees, has served as a Director of NexGen Medical Systems. Mazzocchi published the novel Equity of a medical thriller based on true events; the book drew off Mazzocchi's experience in medical venture capitalism and was awarded the Global eBook Award for best suspense novel and an eLit award for best suspense/thriller novel. In a 2012 interview with the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mazzocchi wrote of the prologue that it "is a snap-shot of my work experience in a human genetics lab during my college years as a pre-med student.
We were forbidden from discussing what happened there behind those closed doors and it took nearly 30 years for me to eventually'tell the story'". The book itself is about a new method of abortion that resulted in the pirating of intact human fetuses that became a supply of harvested organs that were grown like hydroponic vegetables to supply the multi-billion dollar black market of human organ transplants. Mazzochi's follow-up novel Equity of Fear was released in 2013 by Twilight Times Books. Broadway World Books stated that Equity of Fear offered "the same suspense and international intrigue" as the first installment of the series. In late 2013, Mazzocchi released his first non-fiction book STORYTELLING - The Indispensable Art of Entrepreneurism published by Twilight Times Books. Mazzocchi has authored more than 70 patents, including patents in the fields of cardiology, orthopedics, neurosurgery and embryonic stem-cell development. For a few brief examples, in 2001 Mazzocchi was a part of the team that patented a new medical grafting apparatus, granted to St. Jude Medical.
In 2003 Mazzocchi authored a patent for a method and apparatus for occluding aneurysms, assigned to AGA Medical Corporation. In 2010 he authored patents for a fiducial marker devices and methods and a method and device for filtering body fluid. In 2011 Mazzocchi was named as one of the three inventors of a trajectory guide with angled/patterned guide lumens, given to the University of South Florida. Mazzocchi was the recipient of the 2004 Ernst & Young annual Entrepreneur of the Year Award, received the 2013 Global Entrepreneur of the Year Award by the Business International Group
Tecmo Super Bowl III: Final Edition is a football video game released on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and the Sega Genesis. According to a spokesperson for the game's developer/publisher, the subtitle "Final Edition" refers to it being the last football game Tecmo would make for 16-bit systems; the game features the full NFLPA licenses. The game is closer to the real-life sport in comparison to the NES and the previous two SNES/Sega Genesis Tecmo Super Bowl games in several ways; each team has a playbook of eight passing plays and eight running plays, any one of which can be switched out and another put in its place in the middle of a game. It includes some of the more nuanced strategies of football, such as attempting two-point conversions. Setting itself apart from the NES-era games was the in-game presentation, more akin to the realistic "TV style" presentation of modern football games like the Madden series. After a big offensive play, or a turnover or sack on defense, a box would appear on screen with a small grayscale picture of the player involved alongside his current statistics for the game.
The series' shift towards greater realism is reflected in the game's season mode. First, it records detailed statistics of each game and cumulative statistics for each team in the league throughout the season. Throughout the season the game would maintain a list of leaders across the league in each major statistical category, would record when a player or team broke an NFL record; the rosters for each team can be customized by the user, the starting lineup of a user-controlled team can be changed at any point in Season mode. Tecmo Super Bowl III's season mode features occasional injuries, which would last for varied amounts of time just as in real life. Although Tecmo Super Bowl II: Special Edition added many new features during its limited release, Tecmo Super Bowl III added more to make the "Final Edition" the last installment of the series; the new Super Star Editor allows for creating players while using a limited point system. These created; as in the last edition, player trades can be made during a three-week period right before Season Mode begins.
Free agency is another addition to the game, which allows signing players not on teams, but not before space on rosters is made available. The free agent pool is only available. Depending on the home team, different stadium types are sometimes used, such as real grass fields, indoor/outdoor astro turf, or a converted baseball infield style of stadium. Alternate schedules are generated by the computer; the fake extra point option, excluded from the previous version, was added to the game. New to the game is that player stats and real life player portraits are posted during games, so whenever a player makes a big catch, or a running back runs for so many yards, a window comes up indicating how that player is doing; as the game reflects the rosters and attributes of the 1995 season, this Tecmo Super Bowl game includes the two new expansion teams for 1995, the Jacksonville Jaguars and Carolina Panthers. Reviewing the Super NES version, Slo Mo of GamePro remarked positively on the two-player mode, the graphics, the Superstar Editor, the inclusion of real pro teams, colors and players.
He criticized the limited field view which leads to deep receivers running off screen, but concluded the game to be "easy to play and a gas for two antagonists." A reviewer for Next Generation panned the game, citing outdated graphics and perspective, a mediocre soundtrack, a small and "ill-conceived" playbook. He gave it one out of five stars. Reviewing the Genesis version, GamePro's Wiley Weasel said the game has passable graphics and sound effects, but falters in the control department, he criticized the inability to switch to the player closest to the ball after a snap, the lack of spin or stiff-arm moves, the need to cycle through receivers on passing plays, that the player's team falls under A. I. control. He concluded that the game falls short of competitors like Madden NFL'96 but is worth consideration due to its accessibility. Tecmo Super Bowl III: Final Edition at MobyGames Tecmo Super Bowl III at GameFAQs Tecmo Super Bowl III at GameFAQs