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Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex

The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex known as the Oxus civilization, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilization of Central Asia, dated to c. 2400–1900 BC in its urban phase or Integration Era, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya in Bactria, at Murghab river delta in Margiana. Its sites were named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. Bactria was the Greek name for the area of Bactra, in what is now northern Afghanistan, Margiana was the Greek name for the Persian satrapy of Marguš, the capital of, Merv, in modern-day southeastern Turkmenistan. Sarianidi's excavations from the late 1970s onward revealed numerous monumental structures in many sites, fortified by impressive walls and gates. Reports on the BMAC were confined to Soviet journals until the last years of the Soviet Union, so the findings were unknown to the West until Sarianidi's work began to be translated in the 1990s.

There is archaeological evidence of settlement in the well-watered northern foothills of the Kopet Dag during the Neolithic period, in this region, at Jeitun, mud brick houses were first occupied during Early Food Producing Era known as Jeitun Neolithic from c. 7200 to 4600 BC. The inhabitants were farmers who kept herds of goats and sheep and grew wheat and barley, with origins in southwest Asia. Jeitun has given its name to the whole Neolithic period in the northern foothills of the Kopet Dag. At the late Neolithic site of Chagylly Depe, farmers grew the kinds of crops that are associated with irrigation in an arid environment, such as hexaploid bread wheat, which became predominant during the Chalcolithic period; this region is dotted with the multi-period hallmarks characteristic of the ancient Near East, similar to those southwest of the Kopet Dag in the Gorgan Plain in Iran. Regionalization Era begins in Anau IA with a pre-Chalcolithic phase in Kopet Dag piedmont region from 4600 to 4000 BC Chalcolithic period developes from 4000 to 2800 BC in Namazga I-III, Ilgynly Depe, Altyn Depe.

During this Copper Age, the population of the region grew. Archaeologist Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, who led the South Turkmenistan Complex Archaeological Expedition from 1946, sees signs that people migrated to the region from central Iran at this time, bringing metallurgy and other innovations, but thinks that the newcomers soon blended with the Jeitun farmers. By contrast a re-excavation of Monjukli Depe in 2010 found a distinct break in settlement history between the late neolithic and early chalcolithic eras there. Major chalcolithic settlements sprang up at Namazga-Depe. In addition, there were smaller settlements at Anau and Yassy-depe. Settlements similar to the early level at Anau appeared further east– in the ancient delta of the river Tedzen, the site of the Geoksiur Oasis. About 3500 BC, the cultural unity of the area split into two pottery styles: colourful in the west and more austere in the east at Altyn-Depe and the Geoksiur Oasis settlements; this may reflect the formation of two tribal groups.

It seems that around 3000 BC, people from Geoksiur migrated into the Murghab delta and reached further east into the Zerafshan Valley in Transoxiana. In both areas pottery typical of Geoksiur was in use. In Transoxiana they settled at Sarazm near Pendjikent. To the south the foundation layers of Shahr-i Shōkhta on the bank of the Helmand river in south-eastern Iran contained pottery of the Altyn-Depe and Geoksiur type, thus the farmers of Iran and Afghanistan were connected by a scattering of farming settlements. In the Early Bronze Age, at the end of Late Regionalization Era, the culture of the Kopet Dag oases and Altyn-Depe developed a proto-urban society; this corresponds to level IV at Namazga-Depe. Altyn-Depe was a major centre then. Pottery was wheel-turned. Grapes were grown; the height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age known as Integration Era, corresponding to Namazga-Depe level V. Namazga Depe reaching c. 52 hectares and holding maybe 17-20,000 inhabitants, Altyn Depe with its maximum size of c. 25 hectares and 7-10,000 inhabitants, were the two big cities in Kopet Dag piedmont.

It is this Bronze Age culture, given the BMAC name. Gonur Depe is the largest of all settlements in this period and is located at the delta of Murghab river in southern Turkmenistan with an area of around 55 hectares. An elliptical fortified complex, known as Gonur North includes the so called "Monumental Palace", other minor buildings and ritual places, together with the "Royal Necropolis", water reservoirs, all dating from around 2400 to 1900 BC. In Bactria, Northern Afghanistan, the site Dashly 3 is regarded to be from Middle Bronze Age period to Late Bronze age, the old Dashly 3 complex, sometimes identified as a palace, is a fortified rectangular 88 m x 84 m compound; the square building had massive double outer walls and in the middle of each wall was a protruding salient composed of a T-shaped corridor flanked by two L-shaped corridors. The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and barley. With their impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools and jewellery of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilisation.

The complex can b

Gaumee Film Award for Best Cinematography

The Gaumee Film Award for Best Cinematography is given as part of the Gaumee Film Awards for Maldivian Films. The award was first given in 1994. Here is the nominees of the respective award ceremonies. 4th Award: Ibrahim Moosa, Hassan Haleem – Eynaa 5th Award: Moomin Fuad, Ali Shifau – Heylaa 6th Award: Ibrahim Moosa Manik – YoosufIbrahim Moosa – Niuma Ibrahim Moosa – Zalzalaa En'buri Aun Hassan Haleem – Fanaa Ali Shifau – Dhin Veynuge Hithaamaigaa 7th Award: Hussain Munawwar – SazaaHussain Munawwar – Loodhifa Hussain Munawwar – Ingili Ibrahim VisanLove Story Ibrahim Visan – Fathis Handhuvaruge Feshun 3D 8th Award: Shivaz Abdulla – AhshamAli Shifau, Ahmed Sinan – Vaashey Mashaa Ekee Ali Shifau, Ahmed Sinan – Hulhudhaan Ali Shifau, Ahmed Sinan – Emme Fahu Vindha Jehendhen Ali Shifau – Mikoe Bappa Baey Baey Gaumee Film Awards

William Henry Boulton

William Henry Boulton was a lawyer and political figure in Canada West. He served as Mayor of Toronto from 1845 to 1847, in 1858, he was a member of the Orange Order in Canada. Boulton died in Toronto in 1874. Boulton was born in York in Upper Canada in 1812, the son of D'Arcy Boulton and the grandson of G. D'Arcy Boulton, he entered practice with Gamble and Boulton. He was a keen cricketer, his public support of the Canadian cricket team is said to have furthered his political ambitions, he was first elected to Toronto city council in 1838. In 1844, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, representing Toronto as a Conservative member, he was re-elected in 1848 and 1851, he opposed the bill making King's College a secular institution. He supported making the Legislative Council elective, he was supported by the Orange Order in Toronto and was viewed as a member of the Family Compact. In 1854, he became deputy grand master for the order in British North America. After he left politics, he continued to practice law.

His former residence, "The Grange", is now part of the Art Gallery of Ontario. The Boultons were said to be hospitable people and hosted many guests at the Grange. Lord Elgin, when Governor-General of Canada, was a guest of Boulton in the home when he was Mayor of Toronto, it received the name the Grange after the family estate in England. Boulton lived in the home until his death in 1874. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Adams, P. A history of Canadian cricket, lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4466-9652-1