A machine is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement, they can include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement called mechanical systems. Renaissance natural philosophers identified six simple machines which were the elementary devices that put a load into motion, calculated the ratio of output force to input force, known today as mechanical advantage. Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements and control components and include interfaces for convenient use. Examples include a wide range of vehicles, such as automobiles and airplanes, appliances in the home and office, including computers, building air handling and water handling systems, as well as farm machinery, machine tools and factory automation systems and robots.
The English word machine comes through Middle French from Latin machina, which in turn derives from the Greek. The word mechanical comes from the same Greek roots. A wider meaning of "fabric, structure" is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage; this meaning is found in late medieval French, is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, the word could mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination; the modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to military siege engines, both in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The OED traces the formal, modern meaning to John Harris' Lexicon Technicum, which has: Machine, or Engine, in Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to raise or stop the Motion of a Body... Simple Machines are reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, Pulley, Wheel and Screw... Compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable.
The word engine used as a synonym both by Harris and in language derives from Latin ingenium "ingenuity, an invention". The hand axe, made by chipping flint to form a wedge, in the hands of a human transforms force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting forces and movement of the workpiece; the idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever and screw. Archimedes discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple machines and were able to calculate their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can "set a load in motion". However, the Greeks' understanding was limited to statics and did not include dynamics or the concept of work. During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how much useful work they could perform, leading to the new concept of mechanical work.
In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, it was included with the other simple machines. The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche, he was the first to understand that simple machines do not create energy, they transform it. The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remained unpublished in his notebooks, they were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. James Watt patented his parallel motion linkage in 1782, which made the double acting steam engine practical; the Boulton and Watt steam engine and designs powered steam locomotives, steam ships, factories. The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, mining and technology had a profound effect on the social and cultural conditions of the times, it began in the United Kingdom subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America and the rest of the world.
Starting in the part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's manual labour and draft-animal-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal; the idea that a machine can be decomposed into simple movable elements led Archimedes to define the lever and screw as simple machines. By the time of the Renaissance this list increased to include the wheel and axle and inclined plane; the modern approach to characterizing machines focusses on the components that allow movement, known as joints. Wedge: Perhaps the first example of a device designed to manage power is the hand axe called biface and Olorgesailie. A hand axe is made by chipping stone flint, to form a bifacial edge, or wedge. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement o
Fossil collecting is the collection of fossils for scientific study, hobby, or profit. Fossil collecting, as practiced by amateurs, is the predecessor of modern paleontology and many still collect fossils and study fossils as amateurs. Professionals and amateurs alike collect fossils for their scientific value. A commercial trade in fossils has long existed, with some of this being practised illegally. Fossils are found in sedimentary rock with differentiated strata representing a succession of deposited material; the occurrence of fossil bearing material depends on environmental factors before and after the time of preservation. After death, the first preserving factor is a rapid burial in water bodies or terrestrial sediment which would help in preserving the specimen; these rocks types are termed clastic rock, are further subdivided into fine and coarse grained material. While fossils can be found in all grain types, more detailed specimens are found in the fine grained material. A second type of burial is the non-clastic rock, form where the rock is made up of the precipitation of compacted fossil material, types of rock include limestone and coal.
The third fossil bearing material is the evaporates, which precipitate out of concentrated dissolved salts to form nodular deposits, examples include rock salt and phosphate concentrations. The evaporates are associated with gastropod, algae and trace fossils. Fossils are not to be found in areas of igneous rock. In rocks which have undergone metamorphism, fossils are so distorted that they are difficult to recognize or have been destroyed completely. After burial various factors are at work to endanger the current fossil's preserved state. Chemical alteration would change the mineral composition of the fossil, but not its appearance, lithification would distort its appearance, the fossil itself may be or dissolved leaving only a fossil mold. Areas where sedimentary rocks are being eroded include exposed mountainous areas, river banks and beds, wave washed sea cliffs, engineering features like quarries and road cuts. Coal mining operations yield excellent fossil plants, but the best ones are to be found not in the coal itself but in the associated sedimentary rock deposits called coal measures.
Wave-washed sea cliffs and foreshore exposures are good places to search for fossils, but always be aware of the state of the tides in the area. Never take chances by climbing high cliffs of crumbling rock or clay. Dried up natural lake beds and caves in the form of pitfall traps also have high concentrations of fossils. In appearance, a fossil will be either a different colour to the surrounding rock, because of the different mineral content, will have a defining shape and texture or a combination of both. A fossil can be extracted from it's geological environment, having similar characteristics in colour embed from the sedimentary formation it was found within; the techniques used to collect fossils vary depending on the sediment or rock in which the fossils are to be found. For collecting in rock a geological hammer, a variety of cold chisels and a mallet are used to split and break rocks to reveal fossils. Since the rock is deposited in layers, these layers may be split apart to reveal fossils.
For soft sediments and unconsolidated deposits, such as sands and clays, a spade, flat-bladed trowel, stiff brushes are used. Sieves in a variety of mesh sizes are used to separate fossils from gravels. Sieving can destroy fragile ones. Sometimes, water is run through a sieve to help remove sand; this technique is called wet sieving Fossils tend to be fragile and are not extracted from the surrounding rock in the field. Cloth, small boxes and aluminum foil are used to protect fossils being transported. Large fragile specimens may need to be protected and supported using a jacket of plaster before their removal from the rock. If a fossil is to be left in situ, a cast may be produced. Whilst not preserving every detail, such a cast is inexpensive, easier to transport, causes less damage to the environment, leaves the fossil in place for others to enjoy. Fossilized tracks are documented with casts. Subtle fossils which are preserved as impressions in sandy layers, such as the Ediacaran fossils, are usually documented by means of a cast, which shows detail more than the rock itself.
Safety is emphasized while fossil collecting and hard hats, safety goggles, steel toe boots, protective gloves are used. Sometimes, for smaller fossils, a stiff brush may be used to dust off and clean the fossil. For larger fossils, a chisel can be used to remove large bits of dirt, you run the risk of damaging the fossil. Running water can cause some types of fossils to either dislodge from the rock, or crumble and break apart, for they are fragile. Dental tools are sometimes used to remove small amounts of rock from the fossil. A knowledge of the precise location a fossil is essential if the fossil is to have any scientific value. Details of the parent rock strata, the location of the find, other fossil material associated with the find help scientists to place the fossil in context, in terms of the time and situation in which the organism lived. Data logs and sketchs may accompany detailed field notes to assist in the locating of a fossiliferous outcrop. Individu
Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP. Since the 6th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley; the Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt, making it the most important regional centre for several centuries. Stuttgart's roots were laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, as a stud farm for his warhorses.
Overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew and was granted a charter in 1320. The fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg, they made it the capital of their county and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918. Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years' War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile production during World War II. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became the major economic, industrial and publishing centre it is today. Stuttgart is a transport junction, possesses the sixth-largest airport in Germany. Several major companies are headquartered in Stuttgart, including Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, Dinkelacker. Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities, it is spread across a variety of hills and parks. This surprises visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the "cradle of the automobile"; the city's tourism slogan is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, the city unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas".
For business, it describes itself as "Where business meets the future". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area. Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to Dorling Kindersley's Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, "In the city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of Stuttgart's residents, 64% of the population below the age of five, are of immigrant background. Stuttgart nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" in reference to its location in the centre of Swabia and the local dialect spoken by the native Swabians, has its etymological roots in the Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud farm", because the city was founded in 950 AD by Duke Liudolf of Swabia to breed warhorses; the most important location in the Neckar river valley was the hilly rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. Thus, the first settlement of Stuttgart was a massive Roman Castra stativa built c. 90 AD to protect the Villas and vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from Mogontiacum to Augusta Vindelicorum.
As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there after the Limes moved further east. When they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery; when the Romans were driven back past the Rhine and Danube rivers in the 3rd century by the Alamanni, the settlement temporarily vanished from history until the 7th century. In 700, Duke Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding property. Archaeological evidence shows that Merovingian era Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did. Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall's archives as "Canstat ad Neccarum" in 708; the etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is mentioned as condistat in the Annals of Metz, it is derived from the Latin word condita, suggesting that the name of the Roman settlement might have had the prefix "Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer suggested that the Roman site corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to in an inscription found near Öhringen.
There have been attempts at a derivation from a Gaulish *kondâti- "confluence". In 950 AD, Duke Liudolf of Swabia, son of the current Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry during the Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres south of the old Roman castrum; the land and title of Duke of Swabia remained in Liudolf's hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four years later. In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to the Old Castle. Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy Roman Empire in the year 1108 AD
Duke of Swabia
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages. Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany; the most notable family to rule Swabia was the Hohenstaufen family, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated, although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late-13th century. For Alamannic rulers prior to 900, see Alemanni#List_of_Alemannic_rulers. Burchard I Hunfriding, mentioned as marchio in 903 and dux in 909 Erchanger Ahalolfing, dominant count in Alemannia after the execution of Burchard I, declared duke in 915, exiled September 916, executed January 917. Burchard II, recognized Henry the Fowler as king of Germany in 919 and was recognized by Henry as Duke of Swabia in return.
Hermann I Liudolf Burchard III Otto I Conrad I Hermann II Hermann III Ernest I Ernest II Hermann IV Henry I, King of the Romans from 1039 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 Otto II Otto III Rudolf I Berthold I Berthold II Rudolf John In the 13th century, the Duchy of Swabia disintegrated into numerous smaller states. Some of the more important immediate successor states were: During the following century, several of these states were acquired by the County of Württemberg or the Duchy of Austria, as marked above. In 1803 Bavarian Swabia was annexed by Bavaria and shortly afterwards became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Duchess of Swabia
History of Stuttgart
The history of Stuttgart is long, having its origins in the mid 10th century. However, the history of the land upon which Stuttgart stands has a far longer history dating back several thousands years to prehistoric peoples who sought the fertile soil of the Neckar river valley. Prehistoric finds made in the area of Zuffenhausen and around the region at the Lemberg in the Swabian Jura and Burgholzhof and the Viesenhäuser Hof inside the city date back to the Paleolithic. Evidence of settlements of Neolithic peoples all the way up to the Alemanni tribes exists. Excavations and findings dated to the Paleolithic period suggest the usage of the hills of the Neckar valley near Stuttgart as rest stops as far back as 300,000 years ago. Further corroboration is found with the discovery of tools and processed bones discovered in the travertine quarries of Bad Cannstatt. In 1845, the first gasworks in the city began operation; the plant was located on the Seidenstrasse, near the Hoppenlaufriedhof, came into being after a demonstration at the royal court that so impressed King William I of Württemberg that he requested gas lighting in all of his buildings.
At 6 PM, 19 February 1865, a house near the Church of St. Leonhard was destroyed by the city's first gas explosion, an event that killed four, of whom two were children. In 1886, Robert Bosch opened his first workshop in Stuttgart; the automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in Stuttgart, earning the city the moniker "Cradle of the Automobile." After a fire in one of the manufacturing plants in 1903, the company moved to Untertürkheim and adopted the name Daimler AG. On 1 October 1920, Erwin Rommel was commissioned as a captain and assigned command of the 13th Infantry Regiment based in Stuttgart. In his nine years at this post, his regiment was involved in the quelling of civil disturbances across Germany. Stuttgart endured 53 air raids over the course of the Allied strategic bombing during World War II, the first of which occurred on 25 August 1940 and destroyed 17 buildings; when the French army entered Stuttgart in 1945, they are alleged to have been responsible for the rapes around 3,000 women and eight men.
English German Stuttgarter Zeitung
Duchy of Württemberg
The Duchy of Württemberg was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a member of the Holy Roman Empire from 1495 to 1806; the dukedom's long survival for nearly four centuries was due to its size, being larger than its immediate neighbors. During the Protestant Reformation, Württemberg faced great pressure from the Holy Roman Empire to remain a member. Württemberg resisted repeated French invasions in the 18th centuries. Württemberg was directly in the path of French and Austrian armies who were engaged in the long rivalry between the House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg. In 1803, Napoleon raised the duchy to be the Electorate of Württemberg of the Holy Roman Empire. On 1 January 1806, the last Elector assumed the title of King of Württemberg; this year, on 6 August 1806, the last Emperor, Francis II, abolished the Holy Roman Empire. Much of the territory of the Duchy of Württemberg lies in the valley of the Neckar river, from Tübingen to Heilbronn, with its capital and largest city, Stuttgart, in the center.
The northern part of Württemberg is open, with large rivers making for decent arable land. The southern part of Württemberg is mountainous and wooded, with the Black Forest to the west and the Swabian Alb to the east; the southeastern part of the Duchy, on the other side of the Swabian Alb, is Ulm and the Danube river basin. The Duchy of Württemberg was over 8,000 square kilometres of pastures and rivers. Politically, it was a patchwork of 350 smaller territories governed by many different secular and ecclesiastical landlords; as early as the 14th century, it had dissolved into many districts, which were called "Steuergemeinde," a "small, taxable community." By 1520, the number of these districts had rose to 45, from 38 in 1442, would number 58 by the end of the 16th century. These varied in size vastly, with Urach containing 76 outlying villages to Ebingen, which only contained its eponymous town. Württemberg was one of the most populous regions of the Holy Roman Empire, supporting 300,000-400,000 inhabitants in the 16th century, 70% of which lived in the countryside.
The largest town in the Duchy was Stuttgart, followed by Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall and Reutlingen Tübingen and Kirchheim-Teck, over 670 villages that contained the rest of the population. The Duchy of Württemberg was formed when, at the Diet of Worms, 21 July 1495, Maximilian I, King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, declared the Count of Württemberg, Eberhard V "the Bearded," Duke of Württemberg; this would be the last elevation to Dukedom of the Medieval era. The House of Württemberg had reigned over the territory since the 11th century, Duke Eberhard I himself ascended to the throne in 1450 at the age of 14, over a territory split in two states: the Württemberg ruled by the Württemberg-Stuttgart line, the Württemberg of the Württemberg-Urach line. In 1482, he united the two parts of the future Duchy, fusing the governments of both counties into what would be the basis of the Duchy's central government. After Eberhard's death in 1495, he was succeeded by his cousin, Eberhard II, he would make little change to the government's structure.
Despite having earlier been the Count from 1480 to 1482, he proved to be administratively incompetent, his attempt to begin a war against Bavaria prompted the Estates to request Maximilian I to call a diet in March 1498 to remove Eberhard II. The Emperor made the unprecedented decision to side with the Estates and thus deprived Duke Eberhard II of his principality in May 1498. While the Duke's advisers were arrested or fled, Eberhard II himself was banished to Lindenfels Castle and granted an annuity of 6000 florins until his death in 1504; the one accomplishment of Eberhard II's reign was the establishment of the Hofkapelle for the performance of religious music, this system of music patronage would remain uninterrupted until the Thirty Years' War. Ulrich, of the Urach line of the Württemberg family, succeeded Eberhard II in 1498, in his minority, his regency was controlled by four nobles: Counts Wolfgang von Fürstenberg and Andreas von Waldburg, Hans von Reischach, Diepolt Spät. Two other men, the abbots of Zwiefalten and Bebenhausen held advisory positions in the regency.
While the regency would hear the wishes of the people through the Estates, they became opposed to the wishes of the local burghers during the unpopular Swabian War, to which the Estates voted more soldiers and money. Maximilian I declared Ulrich I of age at 16, in the process violating the 1492 Treaty of Esslingen that stipulated that he could only succeed at 20, thus began one of the longest and most tumultuous periods in the history of the region. The young Duke at first made little change to the government, allowing his councilors to decide on policy while he made his greatest marks in the Duchy through the expansion of the realm through war. With the aid of Duke Albert IV of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Ulrich invaded the Rhine Palatinate with an army of 20,000 soldiers, obtaining Maulbronn Abbey, the County of Löwenstein and the districts of Weinsberg, Neuenstadt am Kocher, Möckmühl from the Palatinate as well as Heidenheim an der Brenz and the abbeys of Königsbronn and Herbrechtingen. Ulrich's ability to rule, on the other hand, was less reliable.
The first crisis he faced was financial: since the beginning of his reign to 1514, he had racked up a debt of more than 600,000 florins in addition to the debt
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in