A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Dunstable Swan Jewel
The Dunstable Swan Jewel is a gold and enamel brooch in the form of a swan made in England or France in about 1400 and now in the British Museum, where it is on display in Room 40. It was excavated in 1965 on the site of Dunstable Friary, is presumed to have been intended as a livery badge given by an important figure to his supporters; the jewel is a rare medieval example of the recently developed and fashionable white opaque enamel used in en ronde bosse to totally encase an underlying gold form. It is invariably compared to the white hart badges worn by King Richard II and the angels surrounding the Virgin Mary in the painted Wilton Diptych of around the same date, where the chains hang down; the jewel is formed as a standing or walking mute swan "gorged" with a gold collar in the form of a royal crown with six fleur-de-lys tines. There is a gold chain terminating in a ring attached to the crown, the swan has a pin and catch on its right side for fastening the brooch to clothes or a hat.
The swan is 3.2 cm high and 2.5 cm wide, the length of the chain is 8.2 cm. The swan's body is in white enamel, its eyes are of black enamel, which once covered the legs and feet, where only traces now remain. Tiny fragments of pink or red enamel remain on the beak; the jewel is a unique survival of the most expensive form of livery badge, otherwise only known from inventories and representations in paintings. These were badges in various forms made for a leading figure bearing his personal device, given to others who would demonstrate by wearing them that they were in some way his employees, allies or supporters, they were common in England in the age of "bastard feudalism" from the mid-fourteenth century until about the end of the fifteenth century, a period of intense factional conflict which saw the deposition of Richard II and the Wars of the Roses. A lavish badge like the jewel would only have been worn by the person whose device was represented, members of his family or important supporters, servants who were in regular close contact with him.
However the jewel lacks the ultimate luxury of being set with gems, for example ruby eyes, like the gems on the lion pendants worn by Sir John Donne and his wife in their portraits by Hans Memling, now in the National Gallery and several examples listed on the 1397 treasure roll of Richard II. In the Wilton Diptych, Richard's own badge has pearls on the antler tips, which the angels' badges lack; the white hart in the badge on the Treasury Roll, which the painted one may have copied, had pearls and sat on a grass bed made of emeralds, a hart badge of Richard's inventoried in the possession of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1435 was set with 22 pearls, two spinels, two sapphires, a ruby and a huge diamond. Cheaper forms of badge were more distributed, sometimes freely indeed, rather as modern political campaign buttons and tee-shirts are, though as in some modern countries wearing the wrong badge in the wrong place could lead to personal danger. In 1483 King Richard III ordered 13,000 fustian badges with his emblem of a boar for the investiture of his son Edward as Prince of Wales, a huge number given the population at the time.
Other grades of boar badges that have survived are in lead and gilded copper high relief, the last found at Richard's home of Middleham Castle in Yorkshire, likely worn by one of his household when he was Duke of Gloucester. The British Museum has a flat lead swan badge with low relief, typical of the cheap metal badges which were similar to the pilgrim badges that were common in the period. In 1377, when the young Richard II's unpopular uncle, John of Gaunt, was Regent, one of his more than 200 retainers, Sir John Swinton, unwisely rode through London wearing Gaunt's badge on a livery collar; the mob attacked him, pulling him off his horse and the badge off him, he had to be rescued by the mayor from suffering serious harm. Over twenty years after Gaunt's son Henry IV had deposed Richard, one of Richard's servants was imprisoned by Henry for continuing to wear Richard's livery badge. Many of the large number of badges of various liveries recovered from the Thames in London were discarded hurriedly by retainers who found themselves impoliticly dressed at various times.
Beginning harmlessly under Edward III in a context of tournaments and courtly celebrations, by the reign of his grandson, Richard II, the badges had become seen as a social menace, were "one of the most protracted controversies of Richard's reign", as they were used to denote the small private armies of retainers kept by lords for the purpose of enforcing their lord's will on the less powerful in his area. Though they were a symptom rather than a cause of both local baronial bullying and the disputes between the king and his uncles and other lords, Parliament tried to curb the use of livery badges; the issuing of badges by lords was attacked in the Parliament of 1384, in 1388 they made the startling request that "all liveries called badges, as well of our lord the king as of other lords... shall be abolished", because "those who wear them are flown with such insolent arrogance that they do not shrink from practising with reckless effrontery various kinds of extortion in the surrounding countryside... and it is the boldness inspired by these badges that makes them unafraid to do these things".
Richard offered to give up his own badges, to the delight of the House of Commons of England, but the House of Lords refused to give up theirs, the matter was
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Blue Peter is a British children's television programme, first broadcast in 1958. The programme, which has had continuous seasons since it was first aired, is now the longest-running children's TV show in the world, it is shown live on the CBBC television channel. The show's content, which follows a magazine/entertainment format, features viewer and presenter challenges, celebrity interviews, popular culture and sections on making arts and crafts items from household items; the longevity of Blue Peter has established itself as a significant part of British culture. It was broadcast from BBC Television Centre in London until September 2011, when the programme moved North to MediaCityUK in Salford, Greater Manchester; the show has had a garden in both locations, known as the Blue Peter Garden, used during the summer and for outdoor activities. The programme has always featured a number of pets that became household names, such as dogs Petra and Goldie, as well as other animals such as tortoises and parrots.
The programme, which used a nautical title and theme, was developed by a BBC team led by Biddy Baxter. In 1965 she became the programme editor until relinquishing the role in 1988. Throughout the show's history there have been many presenters; these are Lindsey Russell and Radzi Chinyanganya. Blue Peter's content is wide-ranging. Most programmes are broadcast live, but include at least one filmed report. There will often be a demonstration of an activity in the studio, or a music or dance performance. Between the 1960s and 2011 the programme was made at BBC Television Centre, came from Studio 1, the fourth-largest TV studio in Britain and one of the largest in Europe; this enabled Blue Peter to include large-scale demonstrations and performances within the live programme. From the September 2007 series, the programme was broadcast from a small fixed set in Studio 2. However, from 2009 the series began to use the larger studios once more; the show is famous for its "makes", which are demonstrations of how to construct a useful object or prepare food.
These have given rise to the oft-used phrase "Here's one I made earlier", as presenters bring out a perfect and completed version of the object they are making – a phrase credited to Christopher Trace, though Marguerite Patten is another possibility. Trace used the line "And now for something different", taken up by Monty Python. Time is often given over to reading letters and showing pictures sent in by viewers. Over 5,000 editions have been produced since 1958, every episode from 1964 onwards still exists in the BBC archives; this is unusual for programmes of that era. Editor Biddy Baxter ensured that telerecordings and, from 1970, video recording were kept of each episode. Many items from Blue Peter's history have become embedded in British popular culture moments when things have gone wrong, such as the much-repeated clip of Lulu the elephant who urinated and defecated on the studio floor, appeared to tread on the foot of presenter John Noakes and proceeded to attempt an exit, dragging her keeper along behind her.
Although it is assumed to have been broadcast live, the edition featuring Lulu was one of the rare occasions when the programme was pre-recorded, as the presenters were en route to Ceylon for the summer expedition at the time of transmission. Other well-remembered and much-repeated items from this era include the Girl Guides' campfire that got out of hand on the 1970 Christmas edition, John Noakes's report on the cleaning of Nelson's Column, Simon Groom referring to a previous item on the production of a facsimile door knocker for Durham Cathedral, displayed alongside the original, with the words'what a beautiful pair of knockers'. Blue Peter was first aired on 16 October 1958, it had been commissioned to producer John Hunter Blair by Owen Reed, the head of children's programmes at the BBC, as there were no programmes for children aged between five and eight. Reed got his inspiration after watching Children's Television Club, the brainchild of former radio producer, Trevor Hill, who created the latter show as a successor to his programme Out of School, broadcast on BBC Radio's Children's Hour.
It was subsequently televised about once a month Hill relates how Reed came to stay with him and his wife, Margaret Potter, in Cheshire, was so taken with the "Blue Peter" flag on the side of the ship and the programme in general, that he asked to rename it and take it to London to be broadcast on a weekly basis. The "Blue Peter" is used as a maritime signal, indicating that the vessel flying it is about to leave, Reed chose the name to represent'a voyage of adventure' on which the programme would set out. Hunter Blair pointed out that blue was a child's favourite colour, Peter was the common name of a typical child's friend; the first two presenters were Christopher Trace, an actor, Leila Williams, winner of Miss Great Britain in 1957. The two presenters were responsible for activities; as broadcasting historian Asa Briggs expressed it in 1995: "Leila played with dolls. They were supported on occasion by Tony Hart, an artist who designed the ship logo, who told stories about an elephant called Packi.
It was broadcast every Thursday for fifteen minutes on BBC TV (which becam
A detective is an investigator a member of a law enforcement agency. They collect information to solve crime by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases; this leads them to enable them to be convicted in court. A detective may work for the police or privately. Informally, in fiction, a detective is a licensed or unlicensed person who solves crimes, including historical crimes, by examining and evaluating clues and personal records in order to uncover the identity and/or whereabouts of the criminal. In some police departments, a detective position is achieved by passing a written test after a person completes the requirements for being a police officer. In many other police systems, detectives are college graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers; some people argue that detectives do a different job and therefore require different training, qualifications and abilities than uniformed officers.
The opposing argument is that without previous service as a uniformed patrol officer, a detective cannot have a great enough command of standard police procedures and problems and will find it difficult to work with uniformed colleagues. Some are private persons, may be known as private investigators, or as "The Eye That Never Sleeps" – the motto of the Pinkerton Detective Agency or shortened to "private eyes"; the detective branch in most large police agencies is organized into several squads or departments, each of which specializes in investigation into a particular type of crime or a particular type of undercover operation, which may include: homicide, burglary, auto theft, organized crimes, missing persons, juvenile crime, narcotics, criminal intelligence, aggravated assault/battery, sexual assault, computer crime, domestic violence and arson, among others. In police departments of the United States, a regular detective holds the rank of "Detective"; the rank structure of the officers who supervise them varies by department.
In Commonwealth police forces, detectives have equivalent ranks to uniformed officers but with the word "Detective" prepended to it. In some countries, the practice of a detective is not yet recognized in courts and judicial processes. One of these countries is Portugal, where the proof presented loses all significance when collected by a private detective. Under this circumstance, the practice of this activity is in demand and ruled by a code of conduct. Before the 19th century, there were few municipal police departments, though the first had been created in Paris in 1667; as police activities moved from appointees helped by volunteers to professionals, the idea of dedicated detectives did not arise. The first private detective agency was founded by Eugène François Vidocq in Paris in the early 1800s, who had headed a police agency in addition to being a criminal himself. Police detective activities were pioneered in England by the Bow Street Runners and the Metropolitan Police Service in Greater London.
The first police detective unit in the United States was formed in 1846 in Boston. Detectives have a wide variety of techniques available in conducting investigations. However, the majority of cases are solved by the interrogation of suspects and the interviewing of witnesses, which takes time. Besides interrogations, detectives may rely on a network of informants they have cultivated over the years. Informants have connections with persons a detective would not be able to approach formally. Evidence collection and preservation can help in identifying a potential suspect. Criminal investigation: the investigation of criminal activity is conducted by the police. Criminal activity can relate to road use such as speeding, drunk driving, or to matters such as theft, drug distribution, fraud, etc; when the police have concluded their investigation, a decision on whether to charge somebody with a criminal offence will be made by prosecuting counsel having considered the evidence produced by the police.
In criminal investigations, once a detective has suspects in mind, the next step is to produce evidence that will stand up in a court of law. The best way is to obtain a confession from the suspect. In some countries Detectives may lie and psychologically pressure a suspect into an admission or confession as long as they do this within procedural boundaries and without the threat of violence or promises outside their control; this is not permitted in England and Wales where the interview of suspects and witnesses is governed by the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. Physical forensic evidence in an investigation may provide leads to closing a case. Forensic science is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system; this may be in relation to a civil action. Many major police stations in a city, county, or state, maintain their own forensic laboratories while others contract out the services. Detectives may use private records to provide background information on a subject.
Police detectives can search through files of fingerprint records. Police maintain records of people who have committed some misdemeanors. Detectives may search through records of criminal arrests and convictions, photographs or mug shots, of persons arrested, an
Silver-gilt or gilded/gilt silver, sometimes known in American English by the French term vermeil, is silver, gilded with gold. Most large objects made in goldsmithing that appear to be gold are silver-gilt. Apart from the raw materials being much less expensive to acquire than solid gold of any karat, large silver-gilt objects are noticeably lighter if lifted, as well as more durable. For objects that have intricate detail like monstrances, gilding reduces the need for cleaning and polishing, so reduces the risk of damage. Ungilded silver would need frequent polishing; the "gold" threads used in embroidered goldwork are also silver-gilt. Silver-gilt objects have been made since ancient times across Eurasia, using a variety of gilding techniques, a distinctive depletion gilding technique was developed by the Incas in Pre-Columbian South America. "Overlaying" or folding or hammering on gold foil or gold leaf is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey, fire-gilding with mercury dates to at least the 4th century BC, was the most common method until the Early Modern period at least, though dangerous for the workers and caused blindness among French artisans who refined the technique in the 18th century.
Today electroplating is the most used method: it involves no mercury and is therefore much safer. Keum-boo is a special Korean technique of silver-gilding. In China gilt-bronze known as ormolu, was more common. Vermeil is an alternative for the usual term silver-gilt, it is a French word which came into use in the English language in America, in the 19th century, is rare in British English. "Vermeil" can refer to gilt bronze, an less costly alternative construction material than silver. The US Code of Federal Regulations 16, Part 23.5 defines vermeil thus: "An industry product may be described or marked as'vermeil' if it consists of a base of sterling silver coated or plated on all significant surfaces with gold or gold alloy of not less than 10-karat fineness, of substantial thickness and a minimum thickness throughout equivalent to two and one half microns of fine gold." Silver objects could be gilded at any point, not just when first made, items handled, such as toilet service sets for dressing-tables or tableware needed regilding after a few years, as the gold began to wear off.
In 18th century London two different silversmiths charged 3 shillings per ounce of silver for an initial gilding, 1 shilling and 9 pence per ounce for regilding. Only the interior of cups was gilded from concern at the chemical compounds used to clean tarnish from silver; this is called parcel-gilt. Silver-gilt items are visually indistinguishable from gold, were no doubt thought to be solid gold; when the English Commonwealth sold the Crown Jewels of England after the execution of Charles I they were disappointed in the medieval "Queen Edith's Crowne thought to be of massy gold, but upon trial found to be of silver gilt", valued at only £16, compared to £1,110 for the "imperial crowne". The English Gothic Revival architect, Sir George Gilbert Scott was concerned by the morality of this. Gilding of the interior only he accepted, but with all-over gilding "we... reach the actual boundary of truth and falsehood. Why make our gift look more costly than it is? We increase its beauty, but it is at the sacrifice of truth."
Indeed, some Early Medieval silver-gilt Celtic brooches had compartments for small lead weights to aid such deception. Category:Silver-gilt objects Vermeil Room, in which the White House's extensive collection is displayed Glanville, Philippa. Silver in England, Taylor & Francis, 2006, ISBN 0-415-38215-7, ISBN 978-0-415-38215-1 Koopman Rare Art. Gilt-edged Splendour: Masterpieces in Silver Gilt, with photographs by Guy Hills, John Adamson, 2013, ISBN 1-898565-12-0, ISBN 978-1-898565-12-3 Scott, Sir George Gilbert, Remarks on secular & domestic architecture, present & future, John Murray, 1857. Google books Strong, Donald Emrys. Greek and Roman Gold and Silver Plate, Taylor & Francis, 1979, ISBN 0-416-72510-4, ISBN 978-0-416-72510-0 Inventory of the goods, etc. sold by order of the Council of State from the several places and palaces following:--The Tower Jewel-Houses, Somerset House, Greenwich, Oatlands, Hampton Court, Sion House, St. James's, several other places. British Library, Harleian Ms. Article
A blazer is a type of jacket resembling a suit jacket, but cut more casually. A blazer is distinguished from a sport coat as a more formal garment and tailored from solid colour fabrics. Blazers have naval-style metal buttons to reflect their origins as jackets worn by boating club members. A blazer's cloth is durable, as it is intended as outdoor wear. Blazers are part of a uniform that denotes, for example, an airline's employees, pupils of a particular school, members of sports clubs, or sportsmen and women on a particular team. Blazers are worn with a wide variety of other clothes, ranging from a dress shirt and necktie to an open-necked polo shirt, or just a plain T-shirt, they are seen with trousers of all colours and fabrics, from the classic white cotton or linen, to grey flannel, to brown or beige chinos, jeans. A fitted, classically cut, double-breasted navy blue blazer with navy-style buttons is a popular design and sometimes referred to as a "reefer" blazer. In North America and the United Kingdom, it is now used in business casual attire.
Blazers, in a wide range of colours, are worn as part of school uniforms by many schools across the Commonwealth, are still daily wear for most uniformed pupils in Britain and New Zealand. These are blazers in the traditional sense: single-breasted, of bright colours or with piping; this style is worn by some boat clubs, such as those in Cambridge or Oxford, with the piped version used only on special occasions such as a boat club dinner. In this case, the piping is in college colours, college buttons are worn; this traditional style can be seen in many films set in the Edwardian era, such as Kind Hearts and Coronets. Where the blazer is part of the dress of a school, sports club, or armed service regimental association, it is normal for a badge to be sewn to the breast pocket. In schools, this badge may vary according to the pupil's standing in the school: being a member of the junior or senior school, being a prefect, or having been awarded colours in recognition of particular achievement in some academic or sporting field.
In the British Commonwealth, many regimental associations wear "regimental blazers" which sport a similar badge on the breast pocket in the form of a wire badge, sometimes regimental blazer buttons. In the British army, officers do not wear badges on their blazers. Two regimental blazers will be the same, as they are sourced from different civilian suppliers and are not issued by any authority; this results from the fact that the members of the association are no longer serving personnel, but civilians, though still retaining the bond that the badge represents. The standard colour is navy blue, although in some associations different colours are worn, such as rifle green for the associations of rifle regiments. Blazers, once worn playing or attending traditional "gentlemen's sports", persist in only some games now, such as occasional use by tennis players, or in cricket, where in professional matches, such as international test matches, it is considered customary for the captain to wear a blazer with the team's logo or national coat of arms on the breast pocket – at least during the coin toss at the beginning of the match.
Two sporting events where blazers signify victory are the Congressional Cup Regatta at the Long Beach Yacht Club, the Masters golf tournament, held in Augusta, Georgia. The former event awards a crimson blazer to the winner of several flights of match race sailing of the highest international calibre, while the latter awards a green blazer to the top Masters golfer in the USA; the sartorial term blazer originated with the red "blazers" of the Lady Margaret Boat Club, the rowing club of St. John's College, Cambridge; the Lady Margaret club jackets were termed blazers because of the bright red cloth, the term survived the original red coat. A writer to the London Daily News commented that "In your article of to-day … you speak of'a striped red and black blazer','the blazer' of'the pale toned' ones … A blazer is the red flannel boating jacket worn by the Lady Margaret, St. John's College, Boat Club; when I was at Cambridge it meant nothing else. It seems from your article that a blazer now means a coloured flannel jacket, whether for cricket, boating, or seaside wear."
These early blazers were like sports jackets, but this term has never referred to blazers, instead describing jackets derived from the innovation of wearing odd jackets for land-based sports. Assertions that the name is derived from HMS Blazer are not borne out by contemporary sources, although it is reported that before the standardization of uniform in the Royal Navy, the crew of HMS Blazer wore "striped blue and white jackets" in response to the sailors of HMS Harlequin being turned out in harlequin suits; as late as 1837 the gig's crew of HMS Blazer were dressed by their Captain in jackets of blue and white stripes and it is from this that the word blazer, meaning a striped jacket, has entered the language. The reefer jacket was of naval origin, described the short double-breasted jacket worn by sailors in harsh weather, when they performed duties such as reefing the sails, it is descendants of this which are now described by the term blazer. With black horn buttons, these jackets evolved to the modern dark blazer, now single as well as double breasted, with metallic buttons.
Striped blazers became popular among British Mods in the early 1960s, again during the Mod revival of the late 1970s – in three-colour thick/thin stripe combinations, with three-button single-breasted front, five- or six-inch si