Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center of the Muslim world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as hosting a multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". Baghdad was the largest city in the world for much of the Abbasid era during the Islamic Golden Age, peaking at a population of more than a million; the city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1932, Baghdad regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arabic culture, with a population variously estimated at 6 or over 7 million.

In contemporary times, the city has faced severe infrastructural damage, most due to the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks; the war had resulted in a substantial loss of historical artifacts as well. As of 2018, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, ranked by Mercer as the worst major city for quality of life in the world; the name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, its origin is disputed. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name looked for its roots in Persian, they suggested various meanings, the most common of, "bestowed by God". Modern scholars tend to favor this etymology, which views the word as a compound of bagh "god" and dād "given", In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god".

A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra". There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan, Baghshan in Iran, Baghdati in Georgia, which share the same etymological origins. A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian, the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha"; some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations. When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace; this was the official name on coins and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule.

They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, where my descendants will reign afterward"; the city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, uncommon during this time. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, located some 30 km to the southeast. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad.

Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received; the residents are Hanbal. Baghdad is home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it; the Sultan of Baghdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tatar king. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise, it took four years to build. Mansur assembled engineers and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans. July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahvazi and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo. Leo is associated with fire and symbolises

Torture Squad

Torture Squad is a Brazilian death/thrash metal band, founded in 1990. Three years after being founded in 1990, the band entered a more professional phase, in a line-up with founder Cristiano Fusco on guitar, Wagner "Castor" on bass, Amilcar Christofaro on drums, Vitor Rodrigues as frontman and singer, they started touring in and around São Paulo and soon recorded a demo, released in 1993, A Soul in Hell. Their first CD was Shivering, their 2001 album, The Unholy Spell, came right after the band's first tour in Germany. In 2002, Cristiano Fusco left the band, the band hired Mauricio Nogueira, went on their first Brazilian tour. Pandemonium produced by Marcello Pompeu and Heros Trench was released in 2003; the CD was supported by a TV video clip for "Pandemonium" and "Horror and Torture." Again, the band played all over Brazil. In 2006 Torture Squad embarked on a European tour, headlining in 16 towns in Germany and 4 in Austria. Afterward they played in more cities in Brazil until they participated in the Brazilian pre-selection for the famed Wacken Open Air festival.

They won the final in São Paulo, they represented Brazil at Wacken Battle of the Bands 2007, which they won. This victory won them a contract with Armageddon Records. Hellbound, was released in May 2008 by Armageddon, not long after Mauricio Nogueira left the band for personal reasons and Augusto Lopes was announced as the new guitarist. In 2008, Torture Squad embarked on a 60-date European tour, which will include a show at Wacken Open Air; the year of 2009 started pretty well for Torture Squad. After the release of Hellbound and its excellent repercussion in Brazil and the United States, it was followed by a European tour with two of the world's major thrash metal bands and Exodus; the tour began in mid February in London, where the Brazilian group performed for the first time, included 12 more shows in countries like Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic. Their most recent studio album “AEquilibrium” was released in Europe in August 2010 by Wacken Records / H'art / Zebralution / SAOL.

They recorded a new version for the title track of their third album “The Unholy Spell”, included as bonus track with the title of “The Unholy Spell 2010”. The album was recorded in São Paulo/Brazil, at Norcal Studios with producers Brendan Duffey and Adriano Daga. In January 2011, guitarist Augusto Lopes is replaced by André Evaristo. With the line up changing, the band doesn't stop, remaining on the road until July of the same year. One month the band cross the ocean one more time, for the European part of the Æquilibrium Tour 2011, with more than 40 concerts in 12 countries until the end of October, including the third concert on the German festival Wacken Open Air, turning Torture Squad into the only Brazilian band to play three times in the festival. 2011 was a crucial year for the band's career. In March 2012, the frontman Vitor Rodrigues leaves the band. Soon after that, the band turned out to be a power trio with André Evaristo taking the lead vocals along the guitar. With this line up they played with important concerts and festivals in South America, held in Quito city, the capital city of Ecuador, for an approximate audience of 25,000 people.

In 2013, the band celebrates the 20th anniversary of the release of the demo-tape A Soul in Hell, their first studio record, celebrated in the Twenty Years Torturing People Tour 1993-2013, that started in May in Europe, alongside Artillery, Gama Bomb and Tantara, with 18 concerts in 20 days. From April to August, 2013, the band chooses, Norcal Studios to record their 7th studio album: Esquadrão de Tortura, reprising the association with Brendan Duffey and Adriano Daga as producers. Esquadrão de Torture is the first work recorded by the band as a trio and the first lyrical concept album, narrating, in chronological order, the period in which Brazil was governed by a military regime, being the first album to have a title in Portuguese; the official release date was the Brazilian Republic Day. In 2014 in July / August, the band do their second South American tour with thirteen shows in four countries. Finishing the year in their hometown São Paulo / SP on December, 20th, recording its show to be released on DVD and CD entitled “Coup d´État Live”, set to be launched in the middle of 2015.

In September 2015, vocalist / guitarist André Evaristo leaves Torture Squad to pursue other personal projects, the band back to its traditional line-up as a quartet bringing Mayara “Undead” Puertas on vocals and Rene Simionato on guitars, continuing the tour of “Coup D´État Live”. With their new line up, the band goes to studio to record the EP “Return of Evil”, with four songs: the new “Return of Evil”, “Swallow Your Reality” and “Iron Squad”, the new version of “Dreadful Lies” released in the 1998 first album “Shivering”; the EP will have a multimedia track with the video clip of “Return of the Evil” and a mini documentary of the EP recording sessions, the videos of “Dreadful Lies” and “Iron Squad” made for the EP, which will be released in March 2016. In September 2016, the band made a historic tour in Brazil playing 28 gigs in 32 days throughout the country from north to south. Soon after the Brazilian tour, the band goes to a European tour

Japanese profanity

Profanity in the Japanese language can pertain to scatological references or aim to put down the listener by negatively commenting on their skill levels, intellect, or appearance. Furthermore, there are different levels of Japanese speech that indicate politeness, social standing and respect, referred to as honorific form. Using the incorrect form of Japanese can, itself, be insulting to the listener. In Japanese culture, social hierarchy plays a significant role in the way one speaks to the various people they interact with on a day-to-day basis. Choice on level of speech, body language and appropriate content is assessed on a situational basis, intentional misuse of these social cues can be offensive to the listener in conversation. Pronouns are used in Japanese compared to English. Rather, a Japanese speaker would refer to another individual, whether it be in the second person or third person, by their family name. However, when referring to an individual, the use of suffixes on pronouns can be used to indicate levels of politeness.

For example, in English one could say "Excuse me, Ms Ishiyama. Could you please speak louder?", the following would be an incorrect translation: 石山先生、すみませんが私はあなたを聞こえません。あなたはもっと大きい声で話してくれませんか? Using pronouns is too direct in Japanese, considered offensive or strange. One would not use pronouns for oneself, 私, or for another, あなた, but instead would omit pronouns for oneself, call the other person by name: 石山先生、すみませんが、聞こえません。もっと大きい声で話してくれませんか? Use of'Ishiyama' in preference of'Sara', use of'sensei' as a suffix indicates recognition of Ms Ishiyama's superiority in the social hierarchy as one's teacher. In contrast, if one were to say: ごめん、聞こえない。もっと大きい声で言って。 to their teacher, it would be considered impolite. Ms Ishiyama's status is not mentioned, indicating that the speaker considers themself to be of equal or high social standing. Profanity can be accentuated through use of honorific language. Following on from pronouns and suffixes in the example above, the speaker has contracted the words for'excuse me/sorry','I cannot hear you' and'can you speak'.

Politeness can be conveyed to the listener by conjugating plain forms of Japanese verbs into what is called the polite form. Consider the original example; the plain form verb for'listen' is 聞く kiku. The potential form of this is 聞こえる kikoeru, the corresponding negative form is 聞こえない kikoenai; the polite conjugation of the negative potential plain form is 聞こえません kikoemasen, as seen in the example. In example the speaker has chosen to use the plain form 聞こえない kikoenai, this indicates a disregard for the social hierarchical status of Ms Ishiyama over the speaker. Bowing was introduced into Japanese culture c. 500–800 BCE alongside the introduction of Chinese Buddhism into the country. Bowing when greeting another person has become a large part of Japanese culture and there are specific customs that are followed to show humility and respect in situations including business meetings, formal occasions, day-to-day interactions and in business meetings; when performing a standing bow to another Japanese speaker, the individual's back should remain straight, with their hands by their side, eyes averted to the ground.

From sitting, the individual should be seated on their knees with their hands forming a triangle on the floor in front of them, head moving towards the hands. The bow does not need to be held for extended time, however the action should not be rushed either; the speed in which the bow is performed, as a result, can infer levels of rudeness. The depth of the bow performed by an individual changes the meaning of the bow. A bow of 15 degrees is considered greeting bow; this sort of bow can be used with someone of equal social hierarchical status such as a colleague or friend's friend. A bow of 30 degrees should be made from seiza, not from seiritsu; this sort of bow is used in semi-formal situations. A bow of 45 degrees can be done while seated or standing; the respectful bow is used when greeting a superior such as in-laws. A deep bow of greater than 45 degrees is called a reverent bow and this is reserved either for an audience with the emperor or to communicate a deep reverence or regret. With regards to profanity, using an overly polite or reverent form of bowing can display sarcasm and disdain, conversely, choosing an inappropriately familial bow can be offensive to the other party.

Similar to English, profanities that relate to the body tend to refer to the direct words for body parts and may not be negative words. Male profanities くそじじい kusojijii – old fart, old bag どインポ do'inpo – impotent ちんぽこ chinpoko – dick, prick ちんちん chinchin – pre-pubescent penis, willy ちんぽ chinpo – penis ぽこちん pokochin – penis 陰茎 inkei – penis ペニス penisu – penis, phallus 男根 dankon – penis, phallus 陽物 yōmono – penis, phallus まら mara – penis Female profanities あばずれ abazure – bitch ぶす busu – ugly woman, dog やりまん yariman – slut くそばばあ kusobabaa – old fart, old hag まんこ manko – vagina, cunt おまんこ omanko – vagina, vaginal intercourse 膣 chitsu – vagina われめ wareme – slit, cunt われめちゃん waremechan – slit