A baguette is a long, thin loaf of French bread, made from basic lean dough. It is distinguishable by crisp crust. A baguette has a diameter of about 5 or 6 cm and a usual length of about 65 cm, although a baguette can be up to 1 m long. No academic study has been written on the history of the baguette as a type of bread. Thus, much of its history is speculative. Among these are the increased popularity of long, stick-like breads in France starting in the 18th century, the shift among French bakers to using "gruau", a refined Hungarian high-milled flour in the early 19th century, the introduction of Viennese steam oven baking to Paris in 1839 by August Zang, the subsequent introduction of the Austrian Adolf Ignaz Mautner von Markhof's compact yeast to Paris in 1867 at the Universal Exposition. There is the first use of the word "baguette" in print, to define a particular type of bread, in a set of laws enacted by the Prefecture of the Seine Department in August 1920: "The baguette, having a minimum weight of 80 g and a maximum length of 40 cm, may not be sold for a price higher than 0.35 francs apiece" While no one of these events is in itself definable as "the invention of the baguette", each of them, the shape, the flour, the fermentation, the steam baking, contribute to what is today recognized as a "baguette".

To summarize this history, the historian and author Jim Chevallier states that "it seems most accurate to say that the bread which became known as the baguette first appeared in its most primitive form in the eighteenth century experienced a number of refinements and variations before being given that name in 1920."Although the word "baguette" was not used to refer to a type of bread until 1920, the word itself means "wand", "baton" or "stick", as in baguette magique, baguettes chinoises, or baguette de direction. Though the baguette today is considered one of the symbols of French culture viewed from abroad, the association of France with long loaves predates any mention of it. Long, loaves had been made since the time of King Louis XIV, long thin ones since the mid-18th century, by the 19th century, some were far longer than what is today sold as a baguette: "... loaves of bread six feet long that look like crowbars!". A less direct link can be made, with deck ovens, or steam ovens. Deck/steam ovens are a combination of a gas-fired traditional oven and a brick oven, a thick "deck" of stone or firebrick heated by natural gas instead of wood.

The first steam oven was brought to Paris by the Austrian officer August Zang, who introduced Vienna bread and the croissant, whom some French sources thus credit with originating the baguette. Deck ovens use steam injection, through various methods; the oven is heated to well over 200 °C. The steam allows the crust to expand before setting, thus creating a lighter, airier loaf, it melts the dextrose on the bread's surface, giving a glazed effect. An unsourced article in The Economist states that in October 1920 a law prevented bakers from working before 4 am, making it impossible to make traditional round loaves in time for customers' breakfasts. Switching from the round loaf to the less-common, slender shape of the baguette, the article claims, solved the problem, because it could be prepared and baked much more quickly; the law in question appears to be one from March 1919, though some say it took effect in October 1920: It is forbidden to employ workers at bread and pastry making between ten in the evening and four in the morning.

The rest of the account remains to be verified, but the use of the word for a long thin bread does appear to be a 20th-century innovation. The "baguette de tradition française" is made from wheat flour, water and common salt, it may contain up to 2% broad bean flour, up to 0.5% soya flour, up to 0.3% wheat malt flour. While a regular baguette is made with a direct addition of baker's yeast, artisan-style loaves are made with a preferment to increase flavor complexity and other characteristics, as well as the addition of whole-wheat flour, or other grains such as rye. Baguettes are connected to France, though they are made around the world. In France, not all long loaves are baguettes. Another tubular shaped loaf is known as a flûte known in the United States as a parisienne. Flûtes resemble baguettes and weigh more or less than these, depending on the region. A thinner loaf is called a ficelle. A short baguette is sometimes known as a baton, or referred to using the English translation French stick.

None of these are defined, either or, for instance, in major dictionaries, any more than the baguette. French breads are made in forms such as a miche, a large pan loaf, a boule ball in French, a large round loaf. Sandwich-sized loaves are sometimes known as tiers. In France, a baguette weighs around 250 grams, a batard 500 grams and a ficelle 100 grams (No legal text establishes any of these weights, which

Jo Ivey Boufford

Jo Ivey Boufford BA, MD is an American physician and Dean of the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University, as well as a Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the NYU Medical School. Boufford attended Wellesley College for two years before transferring to earn her bachelor's degree magna cum laude from the University of Michigan in Psychology in 1967, she earned her medical degree from the University of Michigan Medical School with distinction in 1971. Boufford completed a residency in social medicine and between 1975 and 1982, she served as the director of the residency program at Montefiore Hospital in New York City. In 1985, Boufford was elected President of New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, the largest municipal system in the United States, was the first woman to hold the position, she served in the role until 1989. From May 1991 to September 1993, she served as Director of the King’s Fund College in London, England. Moving to the public sector, in 1993 Boufford began serving as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health in the US Department of Health and Human Services under Philip R. Lee and Donna Shalala.

In this role, she was the U. S. representative to the World Health Organization's Executive Board. From January to May 1997, she was acting assistant secretary for health. In 1997, she became the Dean of the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. In the new role, she began working as professor of public administration at Wagner and a clinical professor of pediatrics at NYU Medical School, she is the President of the International Society for Urban Health. With the Gates Foundation, Boufford developed a global health leadership initiative through teacher trainings while focusing on Africa. Boufford is a senior program advisor to The Commonwealth Fund, she is on the board of directors of the United Hospital Fund, the Primary Care Development Corporation, the Village Center for Care, the International Women's Health Coalition, as well as the executive board of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration. She joined the Board of Trustees of the Novartis Foundation in 2018.

Boufford has earned a number of Honorary Doctorates of Science from the University of Toledo in 2012, Pace University in 2011, New York Medical College in 2007, State University of New York, Brooklyn in 1992. In 2007, she was named one of the Top 100 most influential women by Crain's New York Business. In 1992, she became a member of the National Academy of Medicine. In 2005, Boufford became a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. Additionally, Boufford is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the New York Academy of Medicine, she was awarded a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellowship from the Institute of Medicine in 1980. Jo Ivey Boufford, Pat A. Shonubi. Community Oriented Primary Care: Training for Urban Practice. Praeger. ISBN 0275913074

Mr. Louie

Mr. Louie is a former self-elevating drilling barge converted into an oil platform, it was the first self-elevating drilling barge classed by the American Bureau of Shipping. As an oil platform, it operates at the Saltpond Oil Field, offshore Ghana. Mr. Louie weighs 6200 tons, its minimal operational water depth is 40 metres. It has five tugs which pulled her around, twelve legs for standing on the seabed, it has rings welded onto its cylindrical legs to provide a positive jack connection. Its footing equivalent diameter is 6.7 metres, approximate footing load is 10 meganewtons. Mr Louie was designed by Emile Brinkmann between 1956 and 1958; the drilling barge was built by Universal Drilling Co. It was launched in 1958 and delivered in 1959. In 1958, Mr. Louie became the first self-elevating drilling barge classed by the American Bureau of Shipping. In 1959, it was leased to Bates; the rig was valued by the leasing contract at US$4.75 million. This transaction was challenged by the United States tax authorities as a sale agreement.

In 1965, the barge was sold pursuant to contractual option to Bates. Mr. Louie first drilled at the Gulf of Mexico, it was transferred to the North Sea. In 1963, while drilling on the German Bight, a pocket of high pressure carbon dioxide struck the well, causing a blowout; the blowout created a 400-metre 31-metre deep crater called Figge-Maar. In May 1964, Mr. Louie drilled the first offshore hole in the North Sea, 30 miles off of Juist island. In June, it made the first North Sea gas discovery, it was used for natural gas exploration in the UK section of the North Sea. In 1967, Mr. Louie was a part of the unique action for that time when for the first time in the North Sea, it went to dock for reparations and maintenance and was replaced by another rig during the drilling. After the structural repairs and maintenance work at Bremerhaven, Mr. Louie continued drilling at the North Sea for the Gas CouncilAmoco group. After the North Sea, Mr. Louie was moved to West Africa. In 1969, it passed through Gibraltar.

Temporary moorings were needed and their setting into the rocky floor of Gibraltar Bay required the use of the Edwardian air lock diving-bell plant to work at depth. Between 1977 and 1978 it drilled six appraisal wells at the Saltpond Oil Field in offshore Ghana. After completing the drilling in 1978, Mr. Louie was converted into an oil platform at this field, it was renamed APG-1. Sea Gem Sea Quest