Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on occurring sourdough microbes, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread contains additives to improve flavor, color, shelf life and ease of manufacturing. Bread plays essential roles in secular culture; the Old English word for bread was hlaf. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word, borrowed into Slavic and Finnic languages as well; the Middle and Modern English word bread appears in Germanic languages, such as West Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, Norwegian and Danish brød. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe and Australia revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.

It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found in a 14,500-year-old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer called barm to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples" such as barm cake. Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour, allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast.

The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter, as Pliny reported. The Chorleywood bread process was developed in 1961; the process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of grain with a lower protein content, is now used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value. Bread is the staple food of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, in European-derived cultures such as those in the Americas and Southern Africa, in contrast to parts of South and East Asia where rice or noodle is the staple. Bread is made from a wheat-flour dough, cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, baked in an oven; the addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets found in bread. Owing to its high levels of gluten, common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.

Bread is made from the flour of other wheat species. Non-wheat cereals including rye, maize, sorghum and rice have been used to make bread, with the exception of rye in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads are made using ground flours from a variety of ingredients such as almonds, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, tubers such as cassava, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration. Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten. In wheat, phenolic compounds are found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid, where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases. Rye bread contains ferulic acid dehydrodimers. Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed.

Glutenin and gliadin are functional proteins found in wheat bread that contribute to the structure of bread. Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. Gliadin binds weakly to the gluten network established by glutenin via intrachain disulfide bonds. Structurally, bread can be defined as an elastic-plastic foam; the glutenin protein contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force; because air pockets within this gluten network result from carbon dioxide production during leavening, bread can be defined as a foam, or a gas-in-solid solution. Acrylamide, like in other starchy foods that have been heated higher than 120 °C, has been found in recent years to occu

Preachers Son

Preachers Son is an Irish musical group based in Dublin. The group is led by Irish musician Brian Hogan, as of 2014 includes guitarist Mark Walsh and drummer Geoff French. Past collaborations include various notable musicians such as Gavin Friday, Liam Ó Maonlaí, Cait O'Riordan, Kenny Wollesen. Preachers Son was formed in 2010 by the son of a preacher, he grew up listening to groups like Black Sabbath, Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin, Neil Young. Hogan began playing bass at the age of 12 and traveled throughout Europe playing in his father's Christian band, he went on to play with various notable musicians, including Kíla. With Kila, Hogan shared a number-one-hit alongside U2 and The Dubliners and in 2010 an Oscar nomination for animated feature The Secret of Kells. Preachers Son's debut album was released independently in 2010. Titled Love Life and Limb, the album was mixed by Dave Bascombe in the Metropolis studios in London and includes a duet with Gavin Friday on the song Lipstick; the band has toured in Ireland as well as internationally in Europe, the United Kingdom and the United States.

In 2012, Preachers Son won the best music video at the Los Angeles Film and Script Festival for the song Come On, as well as being screened at the London International Film Festival. Preachers Son's latest release came in August 2014 with the studio album 10 Stories Tall recorded in Los Angeles and produced by Warren Huart with earlier production work on several tracks by Marc Urselli. Preacher's Son has collaborated with many musical artists since their inception, including Kenny Wollesen and Gavin Friday. 2014, 10 Stories Tall 2011, Love Life & Limb 2010, Love Life & Limb 2013, Jericho 2014, Jericho 2012, Come On 2011, This Time Of Life 2010, X For Sandra Preachers Son official website


Kunjalu Kochumoideen Padiyath, known by his stage name Bahadoor, was a Malayalam film actor and comedian who, along with Adoor Bhasi, redefined the way in which comedy and funny scenes were perceived in Malayalam cinema. They made a significant contribution toward establishing comedy as the predominant genre of Malayalam cinema. Bahadoor appeared in some serious roles and in professional plays, his last film was Joker, released, after his death. Bahadoor was born as P. K. Kunjalu in 1930 near Thrissur in Kingdom of Cochin; as one of the nine children of Padiyath Blangachalil Kochumoideen and Khadeeja. Out of his eight siblings, seven were sisters, his family was financially poor and the seven young women added to the burden as the Kerala social system supported dowry at that time. He had affinity towards plays from young age itself, he joined Farook College, Calicut for Intermediate. He had to start working for a living, he found his first job in a private bus as the bus conductor. He still wished to be an actor.

He met Thikkurussi Sukumaran Nair through a relative. Thikkurussi renamed him Bahadoor, he was married to Jameela. The couple have three children, Siddhiq and Rukiya. Bahadoor made his debut with a minor role in Avakasi. At that time he acted in Akashavani and amateur-professional plays and got established as a good actor. Bahadoor got his first break with his role as Chakkaravakkal in Neela Production's Padatha Painkili; the film, which went on to become a big hit, marked Bahadoor's presence in the industry. He along with Adoor Bhasi formed a box office ruling combination and the duo is being compared to Laurel and Hardy. Bahadoor became the hero in Mucheettu Kalikkarante Makal. Bahadoor found time for acting in plays as well, he partnered a play production theatre which made blockbuster plays like Manikyakkottaram and Ballatha Pahayan. These plays were made into feature films by him. In his entire career he appeared in a Tamil film Sathya starring Kamal Haasan, his only appearance in a non-Malayalam film to date, he played a supporting role as the father of Haasan's character.

Bahadoor started a black and white processing studio in Trivandrum named K. C. Lab, but the studio's establishment was ill-timed. This caused financial troubles for Bahadoor and the studio was taken over by people to whom Bahadoor was indebted. Bahdoor started a film distribution company only to face failures, he produced few films. With his commercial debacles from the industry, he could meet his family's monetary requirements and mark his presence in the field of acting. Bahadoor was last seen in Lohithadas's Joker, he did the role of a mentally ill veteran joker in a circus camp. In the film, he commits suicide by letting himself into the lion's cage in the circus den. Kerala State Film Awards: Second Best Actor – 1973 – Madhavikutty Second Best Actor – 1976 – Aalinganam, Thulavarsham Best Comedy Artist – 1970 – Various films Best Comedy Artist – 1972 – Various films During his final days, Bahadoor suffered various health ailments, like diabetes and high cholesterol. Failing health made. But, he returned through the film Joker.

On 22 May 2000 around 10 am, Bahadoor felt severe chest pain at his home in Chennai and was taken to Vijaya Hospital nearby. He died at the hospital by 3 pm due to internal bleeding in his brain caused by a heart attack. A short biography An article published in Janayugam Bahadoor on IMDb Bahadoor at MSI