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Bahia

Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the 4th-largest Brazilian state by the 5th-largest by area. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador, located on a spit of land separating the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic. Once a monarchial stronghold dominated by agricultural and ranching interests, Bahia is now a major manufacturing center whose last four elections have been dominated by the Workers' Party; the name of the state derives from the earlier captaincy of Bahia de Todos os Santos, named for Bay of All Saints, a major feature of its coastline. The bay itself was named by the explorer Amerigo Vespucci during his second voyage, when he found it on All Saints' Day, 1502, he named it after his parish church in San Salvatore di Ognissanti. Over time, the bay became distinguished as the Bay of All Saints, the state as Bahia, its capital first as Bahia and finally as Salvador. Bahia is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, with its Bay of All Saints the largest in Brazil.

Under the Brazilian Empire, it was bounded on the north by the Rio Real and by the Jequitinhonha on the south, but Bahia now comprises an irregular shape bound by other states of Brazil, some of which were formed from it. In the north, it is now bordered by Sergipe, Alagoas and Piauí. In the northwest, it is bordered by Tocantins. In the southwest, it borders Goiás, in the south it is bordered by Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais; the state is crossed from west to east by many rivers, but the most important is the São Francisco, which starts in Minas Gerais and runs through western Bahia before emptying into the Atlantic between Sergipe and Alagoas. Plied by paddlewheel steamers, the river is only navigable to small modern craft but is still vital to the arid west since it continuously supplies water during seasons when many other smaller rivers dry out; the Sobradinho Dam created one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Bahia's geographical regions comprise the Atlantic Forest; the state is crossed from north to south by the Diamantina Tableland, which divides it into two distinct geographical zones.

To the east, the soil is fertile and the rain falls regularly. The western area is more arid and its predominate vegetation the cerrado; the natural aridity was worsened over the 19th century by the cowboys' habit of starting wildfires each year to improve the quality of the grass. The Chapada Diamantina National Park is home to picturesque chapadões, plateaus with steep edges which are visited for their natural environment, but for the most part the tough conditions of the interior cause it to be much less developed than the coast; the Coconut Coast, in the north of Bahia, corresponds to a total of 193 km of coastline, where coconut groves, rivers and fresh water lagoons are abundant as well as the presence of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The Green Road, a road that connects Mangue Seco in the far north to Praia do Forte, crosses this region maintaining a critical distance from the areas of environmental preservation. For this reason, the route is sometimes more than 10 km from the beach. At Praia do Forte, the road meets the Coconut Road leading to Salvador, passing through spots, which are now integrated in the urban development of the state capital.

In this region is located Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport. The largest bay on the Brazilian coast, the Bay of All Saints has a large number of islands with tropical beaches and vegetation. In its 1,052 square km, it contains 56 islands, receives fresh water from numerous rivers and creeks and bathes the first capital of Brazil and the largest in the Northeast and more than ten municipalities, it is the largest navigable bay in Brazil and one of the most favorite spots for nautical sports, due to its regular breezes, medium annual temperature of 26 °C and sheltered waters. The bay offers various leisure options, with hundreds of vessels of all different types saveiros, motor boats, jet ski that criss-cross its crystalline waters on maritime excursions to the islands, boat races. Events and sport activities occur throughout the year, beginning on 1 January, with the Procession of Bom Jesus dos Navegantes greeting the New Year. All Saints' has been traditionally the venue for rowing contests at the Enseada dos Tainheiros, in Salvador and now the bay is included in the routes of the great international regattas, such as the Ralley Les Iles du Soleil, regatta Hong Kong Challenge and the Expo 98 Round the World Rally, which consider the bay an important stop along the route.

The islands of the bay are a separate attraction. Some are owned, others were declared a state heritage and transformed into Environmental Protection Areas or ecological stations. Other islands are the patrimony of 12 municipalities located around the bay. Only a few are uninhabited and many have small communities where the natives live on fishing and tourism. All have comm

Louis Puissant

Louis Puissant was a French topographical engineer and mathematician. He was appointed an officer in the corps of topographical engineers of l'armée des Pyrénées occidentales in 1792 and a professor in l’école centrale d'Agen in 1796. From October 1802 to August 1803, he was in charge of geodesic triangulations on the island of Elba and in 1803–1804 in Lombardy, he was elected a member of l'Société Philomathique de Paris in 1810 and a member of l'Académie des sciences in 1828. In addition to numerous scientific memoirs, he was the author of several books on geodesy and mathematics, his marriage to Françoise Coutet produced a son, who graduated from l'École polytechnique. Recueil de diverses propositions de géométrie, résolues ou démontrées par l'analyse algébrique, suivant les principes de Monge et de Lacroix, à l'usage de ceux qui suivent le traité élémentaire d'application de l'algèbre à la géométrie de ce dernier Traité de géodésie ou exposition des méthodes astronomiques et trigonométriques, appliquées soit à la mesure de la terre, soit à la confection du canevas des cartes et des plans Traité de topographie, d'arpentage et de nivellement Cours de mathématiques à l'usage des écoles impériales militaires Supplément au second livre du Traité de topographie, contenant la théorie des projections des cartes Supplément au Traité de géodésie Nouvelle Description géométrique de la France O'Connor, John J..

Éloge historique de Louis Puissant par M. Élie de Beaument, 14 juin 1869 PUISSANT louis – from Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques LOUIS PUISSANT from Société d'histoire du Châtelet-en-Brie

Celestino Barcala

Celestino Barcala, the warrior son of Independence Colonel Lorenzo Barcala, was a key player on the Argentine civil wars in the north-west, reaching the rank of major national army. Barcala took part in the revolution of May 1866 in the province of Catamarca against Miguel Molina, the commanding officer of Governor Victor Maubecín. With the rank of lieutenant, he was responsible for executing Estanislao Pucheta, a captain of a company of the civic guard, shot by a firing squad inside the barracks. Barcala denied him the last rites. At the time of the second invasion of Felipe Varela, Barcala was in charge of the vanguard of national forces. Varela, in Jáchal, ordered his lieutenant Estanislao Medina to occupy the village of Chilecito, which took effect on 18 February 1867. On the march toward the village he joined the leader Severo Chumbita. On March 4, Medina's army reached the outskirts of Tinogasta. Barcala asked Lt. Col. Meliton Cordova to "march to the fields of San Jose to offer battle".

Cordova did not respond and stayed in the villa, but Barcala took charge of the troops and led his men to the battle. A popular song recalled that:Before coming to High lines were drawn, shot to the forefront Barcala commanded. With Barcala back to the village, Medina split his troops into columns and enter the village streets. After three hours of intense fighting, Tinogasta fell to the rebel army. Cordova died in combat while other officers fled to the disaster. On his way to Belén, Barcala was captured while crossing the river Abaucán. Luis Medina Quiroga shot the commander in sight but he kept Barcala alive. At the end of this month Medina met Varela at 60 km from Catamarca. Varela's forces amounted to about 5000 men with three guns. After a grueling forced march and, on April 9, the day after the battle of Pozo de Vargas after midnight Felipe Varela arrived Tables, without being harassed by the government forces. In the afternoon Medina ordered the execution of the prisoners. Along with Barcala were executed Balbino Arias Lieutenant and three civilians, militia commanders and Fermin Bazan septuagenarian Vicente Barros and Fernando Vega, an important neighbor of the town of Famatina.

After the failure of the movement, Colonel Severo Chumbita, like his son, Captain Ambrose Chumbita, was prosecuted criminally by the rebellion from 1861 to 1863 and 1867, for offenses committed during them. Regarding the latter, the sentence he was convicted of taking part as principal chief in the rebellion led by Felipe Varela but of events that qualify as common crimes and therefore excluded him from the general amnesty granted by Octavian Navarro and sentencing him to ten years of exile and 2000 piastres fine. Among these crimes he was accused of Barcala death and three civilians. On 4 November 1876 the court acquitted Chumbita crimes against him, except for charges relating to crimes committed during the rebellion of 1861 to 1863. One historian says that Barcala was "infantry battalion commander and reputed man of color, excellent education." Vicente Osvaldo Cutolo, Nuevo diccionario biográfico argentino, Editorial Elche, 1968. Olga Fernández Latour, Cantares históricos de la tradición argentina, 1960.

Marcelino Reyes, Bosquejo histórico de la provincia de La Rioja, 1543-1867, 1913. Campañas de pacificación del interior. Historia de las relaciones exteriores argentinas: Los desafíos al orden establecido en Pavón: la resurrección de las montoneras provinciales a partir de 1866. Sitio oficial del Ejército Argentino: Historia del Ejército Argentino