Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa has been the monarch of Bahrain since 6 March 1999 as emir, from 14 February 2002, as the first King of Bahrain. He is the son of the previous and first emir; the country has been ruled by the Al Khalifa dynasty since 1783. Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa was born on 28 January 1951 in Bahrain, his parents were Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa Crown Prince, Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa. After attending Manama secondary school in Bahrain, Hamad was sent to England to attend Applegarth College in Godalming, Surrey before taking a place at The Leys School in Cambridge. Hamad underwent military training, first with the British Army at Mons Officer Cadet School at Aldershot in Hampshire, graduating in September 1968. Four years in June 1972, Hamad attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, graduating the following June with a degree in leadership. Hamad was designated as heir apparent by his father on 27 June 1964. In 1968, he was appointed as the chairman of Manama municipal council.
He was commissioned into the Bahrain National Guard on 16 February 1968 and appointed as its commander the same year, remaining in that post until 1969 when he was appointed as the commander-in-chief of the Bahrain Defence Force. In 1970, Hamad became the head of the Bahraini department of defence and the vice-chairman of the administrative council, remaining in both offices until 1971. From 1971 to 1988 he was the minister of state for defence. In October 1977, Hamad started learning to fly helicopters completing the training in January 1978, he worked to establish the Bahrain Amiri Air Force, which came into being in 1987 when the defence force air wing was reconstituted as an air force. On the death of his father Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Hamad became Emir of Bahrain on 6 March 1999; as Emir, Hamad brought several political reforms to Bahrain. These included the release of all political prisoners, the dissolution of the State Security Court and the abolition of the 1974 Decree on State Security Measures.
Additionally, many Bahraini citizens were permitted to return after several years in exile overseas. In 2002, he declared himself king, he enjoys wide executive authorities which include appointing the prime minister and his ministers, commanding the army, chairing the Higher Judicial Council, appointing the parliament's upper half and dissolving its elected lower half. After Hamad took power in 1999, he focused on attaining stability in a nation riddled with profound tensions after the 1990s uprising; the King succeeded in making Bahrain a financial hub. During the period 2003–2010 the majority Shi'ite community accused his government of corruption, discrimination in housing and jobs, recruiting foreigners to the military services and bringing Sunni tribes from Asia to change the demographic composition of the nation. Although King Hamad's reign has seen the admittance of Shi'ites into positions in the government, there have still been calls for a more equitable distribution of positions and jobs.
The Al Khalifa family lead a large number of ministerial and governmental posts including the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Bahrain Economic Development Board and the Supreme Council for Women. The vast majority of significant positions in the Bahrain Defence Force are filled with Sunnis, who account for around a third of the population. King Hamad claims. In October 2010, Hamad's government accused 24 Shi'ite Bahraini citizens of forming a terrorist cell linked to Iran and trained in Syria intending to overthrow the regime, for planning terrorist attacks. Opposition parties described it as propaganda. After a few weeks, tension rose again after the controversial Bahraini parliamentary election, 2010 when the main opposition bloc Al Wefaq National Islamic Society with secularist National Democratic Action Society complained that the election system was unfair and that there were aims to reduce the number of opposition chairs in the parliament, although the first party won nearly 40% of the available seats.
On 14 February 2011, the tenth anniversary of a referendum in favour of the National Action Charter, ninth anniversary of the writing of the Constitution of 2002, Bahrain was rocked by protests inspired by the Arab Spring and co-ordinated by a Facebook page named "Day of Rage in Bahrain", a page, liked by tens of thousands just one week after its creation. The Bahrain government responded with what has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on the protests, including violations of human rights that caused anger. On, demonstrators demanded that Hamad step down; as a result of this "massive" crackdown, Foreign Policy Magazine classified him as ranking 3rd out of 8 of "America's Unsavory Allies" calling him "one of the bad guys the U. S. still supports". On 11 February 2011, King Hamad ordered that 1,000 Bahraini Dinars be given to "each family" to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the National Action Charter referendum. Agence France-Presse linked the BD1,000 payments to 14 February demonstration plans.
On 15 February 2011, Hamad apologized for the deaths of two demonstrators in a rare TV speech and urged an investigation into the incident. Two days four protesters were killed and hundreds wounded when protesters were attacked in Pearl Roundabout at 3:00 am local time; the Pearl Roundabout was evacuated and encircled by
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries and was used in several more. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic empires, first issued in AH 77 by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; the word is derived from the silver denarius coin of ancient Rome, first minted about 211 BC. The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار, borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον, itself from the Latin dēnārius. A gold coin known as the dīnāra was introduced to India by the Kushan Empire in the 1st century AD, adopted by the Gupta Empire and its successors up to the 6th century; the modern gold dinar is a projected bullion gold coin, so far not issued as official currency by any state. The 8th century English king Offa of Mercia minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse; the moneyer visibly had no understanding of Arabic. Such coins may have been produced for trade with Islamic Spain.
Economy of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Kelantanese dinar List of circulating currencies Middle East economic integration
The Arabian or Arab horse is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most recognizable horse breeds in the world, it is one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses in the Middle East that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses have spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement and strong bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in every modern breed of riding horse; the Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection from theft. Selective breeding for traits including an ability to form a cooperative relationship with humans created a horse breed, good-natured, quick to learn, willing to please; the Arabian developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war.
This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect. The Arabian is a versatile breed. Arabians dominate the discipline of endurance riding, compete today in many other fields of equestrian sport, they are one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world. They are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, United Kingdom, continental Europe, South America, their land of origin, the Middle East. Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, small muzzles. Most display a distinctive concave, or "dished" profile. Many Arabians have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the jibbah by the Bedouin, that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate. Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a refined, clean throatlatch; this structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbeh by the Bedouin.
In the ideal Arabian it is long, allowing flexibility in the room for the windpipe. Other distinctive features are a long, level croup, or top of the hindquarters, high tail carriage; the USEF breed standard requires. Well-bred Arabians have a well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder. Within the breed, there are variations; some individuals have wider, more powerfully muscled hindquarters suitable for intense bursts of activity in events such as reining, while others have longer, leaner muscling better suited for long stretches of flat work such as endurance riding or horse racing. Most have a compact body with a short back. Arabians have dense, strong bone, good hoof walls, they are noted for their endurance, the superiority of the breed in Endurance riding competition demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with superior stamina. At international FEI-sponsored endurance events and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition; some Arabians, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, 17 pairs of ribs rather than 18.
A quality Arabian has both a horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis as well as good croup length and depth to the hip, that allows agility and impulsion. A misconception confuses the topline of the croup with the angle of the "hip", leading some to assert that Arabians have a flat pelvis angle and cannot use their hindquarters properly. However, the croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae; the hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, other aspects of hindquarter anatomy, not correlated to the topline of the sacrum. Thus, the Arabian has conformation typical of other horse breeds built for speed and distance, such as the Thoroughbred, where the angle of the ilium is more oblique than that of the croup. Thus, the hip angle is not correlated to the topline of the croup. Horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, so unlike angle, length of hip and croup do go together as a rule.
The breed standard stated by the United States Equestrian Federation, describes Arabians as standing between 14.1 to 15.1 hands tall, "with the occasional individual over or under." Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses" though 14.2 hands is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony. A common myth is that Arabians are not strong because they are small and refined. However, the Arabian horse is noted for a greater density of bone than other breeds, short cannons, sound feet, a broad, short back, all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals, thus a smaller Arabian can carry a heavy rider. For tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse, any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage. However, for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy light horse breed able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits. For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans.
For shelter and protection from theft, prized war mares were sometimes kept in their owner's tent, close to children and everyday family life. Only horses with a good disposition were allowed to reproduce, with
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are distinguished from boats based on their larger size and cargo or passenger capacity, their ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats. Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became pop
Gulf Cooperation Council
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf known as the Gulf Cooperation Council, is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq. Its member states are Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates; the Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 25 May 1981, formally establishing the institution. All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies, two absolute monarchies, one federal monarchy. There have been discussions regarding the future membership of Jordan and Yemen. A 2011 proposal to transform the GCC into a "Gulf Union" with tighter economic and military coordination has been advanced by Saudi Arabia, a move meant to counterbalance the Iranian influence in the region. Objections have been raised against the proposal by other countries. In 2014, Bahrain prime minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa said that current events in the region highlighted the importance of the proposal.
In order to reduce their future dependence on oil, the GCC states are pursuing unprecedented economic structural reform. The original 2,673,110-square-kilometre union comprised Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; the unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. These countries are referred to as "the GCC states" or "Gulf countries". In 2001, the GCC Supreme Council set the following goals: Customs union in January 2003 Common market by 2007 Common currency by 2010Oman announced in December 2006 that it would not be able to meet the 2010 target date for a common currency. Following the announcement that the central bank for the monetary union would be located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, not in the UAE, the UAE announced their withdrawal from the monetary union project in May 2009; the name Khaleeji has been proposed as a name for this currency. If realised, the GCC monetary union would be the second-largest supranational monetary union in the world, measured by GDP of the common-currency area.
Other stated objectives include: Formulating similar regulations in various fields such as religion, trade, tourism and administration. Fostering scientific and technical progress in industry, agriculture and animal resources. Establishing scientific research centers. Setting up joint ventures. Unified military Encouraging cooperation of the private sector. Strengthening ties between their people; this area has some of the fastest-growing economies in the world due to a boom in oil and natural gas revenues coupled with a building and investment boom backed by decades of saved petroleum revenues. In an effort to build a tax base and economic foundation before the reserves run out, the UAE's investment arms, including Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, retain over US$900 billion in assets. Other regional funds have several hundreds of billions of dollars of assets under management; the region is an emerging hotspot for events, including the 2006 Asian Games in Qatar. Doha submitted an unsuccessful application for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.
Qatar was chosen to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, but it is possible that Qatar might lose the right to host the game because of its poor human rights record. Recovery plans have been criticized for crowding out the private sector, failing to set clear priorities for growth, failing to restore weak consumer and investor confidence, undermining long-term stability; the logo of the GCC consists of two concentric circles. On the upper part of the larger circle, the Bismillah phrase is written in Arabic, which means "In the name of God", on the lower part the Council's full name, in Arabic; the inner circle contains an embossed hexagonal shape that represents the Council's six member countries. The inside of the hexagon is filled by a map encompassing the Arabian Peninsula, on which the areas of the member countries are borderless and colored in brown. On the edge of the hexagon are colors representing the flags of the six member countries. A common market was launched on 1 January 2008 with plans to realise a integrated single market.
It eased the movement of services. However, implementation lagged behind after the 2009 financial crisis; the creation of a customs union began in 2003 and was completed and operational on 1 January 2015. In January 2015, the common market was further integrated, allowing full equality among GCC citizens to work in the government and private sectors, social insurance and retirement coverage, real estate ownership, capital movement, access to education and other social services in all member states. However, some barriers remained in the free movement of services; the coordination of taxation systems, accounting standards and civil legislation is in progress. The interoperability of professional qualifications, insurance certificates and identity documents is underway. In 2014, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia took major steps to ensure the creation of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister said the four members are pushing ahead with the monetary union but said some "technical points" need to be cleared.
He added, "A common market and common central bank would position the GCC as one entity that would have great influence on the international financial syste
The fils is a subdivision of currency used in many Arab countries, such as Iraq and Bahrain. The term is a modern retranscription of an early medieval Arab coin. "Fils" is the singular form in Arabic, not plural. The plural form of fils is fulūs. 1 Bahraini dinar = 1000 fulūs 1 Emirati dirham = 100 fulus 1 Iraqi dinar = 1000 fulūs 1 Jordanian dinar = 1000 fulūs 1 Kuwaiti dinar = 1000 fulūs 1 Yemeni rial = 100 fulūs
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i